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Module 2


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Reference Interview

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Module 2

  1. 1. Module 2<br />Reference Interview<br />
  2. 2. Part 1<br />The Reference Interview<br />General Overview<br />
  3. 3. Skills and Steps in the Reference Interview include:<br /><ul><li> Paraphrasing
  4. 4. Asking open questions
  5. 5. Clarifying
  6. 6. Verifying
  7. 7. Obtain the 6 pieces of evidence
  8. 8. Following up
  9. 9. Ending the interview </li></li></ul><li>The Reference Interview<br />What is the point of the Reference Interview?<br /><ul><li>Determine what information library users need.</li></ul>In other words:<br />What does the patron really want to know or want to read??? <br />Two important skills needed for a successful Reference Interview:<br /> 1. Listening ears. Listen to a patron without interrupting. <br /> 2. Asking the right questions to get the right answer. <br />
  10. 10. Step 1: Paraphrasing<br />Repeat back what the patron said in their words without adding any thoughts or questions of your own. <br />Mirror the patron&apos;s thoughts, showing the patron what the question &quot;looks like&quot; to you.<br />
  11. 11. Step 2: Ask Open Questions<br />An open (or neutral) question is one that can&apos;t be answered by &quot;yes&quot; or &quot;no.&quot; <br />Open ended question invite the patron to discuss their need in their own words while prompting them for the essentials you need to fill their information need.<br />Avoid closed questions that can be answered in one word or with a yes or no. Patrons may choose a choice that is not a match to their need.<br />
  12. 12. Step 3: Clarifying<br />Clarifying is a technique you can use when you are further along in the reference interview.<br />You may need to clarify a point by asking for a particular bit of information. <br />EXAMPLE:<br />Patron: I need books on potty training.<br />Staff: Do you want books to read to your child or do you want books written as <br /> a guide for parents to help their child?<br />
  13. 13. Step 4: Verifying(Be sure you have it right before starting the search)<br />This is a check…<br /><ul><li>Verify by restating the question and asking if you have the question </li></ul> correct. <br /><ul><li> Try not to jump to conclusions.
  14. 14. When you think you have the question clearly in mind, check one last </li></ul>time before searching to verify you have the patron&apos;s real question. <br />
  15. 15. Step: 5 The 6 Pieces of Evidence<br />(What information should you get from the reference interview?)<br />At the conclusion of a good reference interview, you should have the six pieces of evidence. You might need to ask for some information directly, but most of this information will come out naturally during a good reference interview. <br />1. Purpose <br />2. Deadline <br />3. Type and Amount <br />4. Who <br />5. Where <br />6. The Basic Question <br />
  16. 16. Step: 5 The 6 Pieces of Evidence<br />(continued)<br />Once you have your basic question, search in an accurate and thorough manner to find materials and communicate your findings to the patron. <br />Or, provide the patron with enough information so they can search for materials independently.<br />Once you have located items in the catalog, walk over to the shelves with the patron to pull the materials.<br />
  17. 17. Step 6: Following-Up<br />If you believe you answered a patron&apos;s question, always ask a follow-up question such as: <br />&quot;Does this completely answer your question?“<br /> &quot;Do you have everything you need?&quot; <br />&quot;Is there anything else I can help you find?“ <br />Follow-up questions insure that you have provided what the patron really wanted. <br />If the patron answers yes, pat yourself on the back for a job well done. <br />
  18. 18. Step 7: Ending the Interview<br />If you ask your follow-up question and the patron says no and you are going to continue working on answering their question,<br /> do these four things:<br />Let the patron know who you are in case they want to contact you, or follow your library guidelines. <br />Get the patron&apos;s name and phone number or email address, and verify the spelling and number if speaking to the patron. <br />Give the patron a realistic idea of when you might be calling or emailing back. Establish a definite time when the patron is available and expecting to hear from you. <br />If you are unable to find the answer with the sources available to you, you may refer them to an outside source if possible. <br />
  19. 19. Part 2<br />Reference Interviews with Youth<br />
  20. 20. Tips for Reference Interviewing Youth <br /><ul><li>Youth should be shown the same level of respect and </li></ul> courtesy as adults. <br /><ul><li>Try to be at the youth’s eye level.
  21. 21. Speak to the youth as a person, not as a student.
  22. 22. If a youth is accompanied by parents or friends, focus on the </li></ul> youth. <br /><ul><li>Don't assume all questions are school questions.
  23. 23. Be sensitive to matching the information you provide with </li></ul> the reading (not grade) level of the particular youth. <br /><ul><li>All youth should be treated equal.</li></ul>From the book: Fundamentals of Children&apos;s Services  by Michael Sullivan<br />
  24. 24. Interviewing Youth<br /><ul><li> The interview can be more complicated when the motivation behind the question is something beyond the youth’s interests, for example a school assignment.
  25. 25. The youth may not know what the expected outcome is or his or her interests may be in conflict with the assignment causing contradictory answers to simple questions such as, “is this enough information?”</li></ul>SO…<br />
  26. 26. 1st: Determine the question. <br />Youth are more likely to not ask for what they want but what he or she thinks will most likely produce the information needed. Of course the youth may not have determined the most effective search strategy. <br />
  27. 27. 2nd: Get the youth to talk<br />Again, youth are more likely to not ask for what they want but what he or she thinks will most likely produce the information needed. You must get them to talk as they are not likely to volunteer enough information on their own. <br />As covered in Part 1, Ask Open-Ended Questions. These types of questions allow the youth to elaborate rather than forcing him or her to choose between some narrow choices. It is hard when the youth’s first responses are single words, nods, or shrugs. It is tempting to revert to multiple choice questions with chosen options a staff thinks are the most likely choices. <br />
  28. 28. 3rd: Learn the Purpose or Origin of the Question<br />Youth are more willing to tell you why they need the information than adults but you have to ask them. <br />Sometimes asking this question is necessary to know this in order to provide what is needed. It may be the motivation is coming from a parent, coach or teacher. <br />Knowing where the question comes from may help in deciphering exactly what is needed.<br />
  29. 29. 4th: Determine Form, Format, & Usability. <br />Once you have determined the question your work is not done. <br />You need to make sure that the material pulled is:<br /> an acceptable form, format, and is usable.<br /><ul><li>Can the child read them?
  30. 30. How many sources do they need?
  31. 31. What sources are acceptable: periodical, encyclopedia?
  32. 32. Do they just need the information out of the book?
  33. 33. What formats are acceptable: DVD, CD, PRINT, PDF?
  34. 34. Or, do they need to check out the material?</li></ul>You find the definitive book but the child needs 3 sources. Make sure you know which formats as sources are acceptable by their teacher. Can they site the Internet, use a DVD, database, encyclopedia or a book? Does one of the sources need to be a book?<br />
  35. 35. 5th: Follow Up <br />Ask Follow-Up questions before turning the youth loose!<br />“Does this completely answer your question?”<br />“Do you have everything you need?”<br />“Is there anything else I can help you find?” <br />
  36. 36. Tips for When Parents and Youth Are Together<br /><ul><li>Talk to the Patron. Always address the youth as much as possible and try to get the </li></ul> youth to talk.<br /><ul><li>Pander the Parent. If the parent insists on answering all of the questions, remain </li></ul> gracious and try to address both the needs of the parent and youth.<br /><ul><li>Prying Parent . When the youth is answering your questions, keep in mind that </li></ul> they may be colored by the presence of the parent. They may not wish to divulge <br /> everything they need in front of their parent. <br /><ul><li>Rebel with a Question. The youth may choose to answer in a way to either please or </li></ul> displease the parent. Watch the body language and tone when he or she responds.<br /><ul><li>Offer variety. Knowing that the parent and youth may not come to the same </li></ul> decision, offer a wide range of titles. Booktalking as you pull books can be very <br /> helpful when making choices. <br /><ul><li>Don’t take sides. You are guiding them by showing them the collection and giving </li></ul> them information about some of the title within the collection. <br />
  37. 37. Actual Reference Interviews<br />Boy about 8 years old: Do you have the movie Rock-a-bye Boa?<br />Staff 1:<br />Staff 1: Tell me about this Rock-a-bye Boa?<br />Boy about 8 years old: He is a wrestler.<br />Staff 2: Oh, are you looking for the movie Rocky?<br />Boy about 8 years old: YES!<br />This is an example of how sometimes it takes four ears and two heads to fill a patron’s request. Work together if necessary to get the job done! <br />?<br />
  38. 38. Part 3<br />Confidentiality<br />
  39. 39. Confidentiality<br />For individuals to feel comfortable seeking information, they must be confident that their queries and the answers given to their queries are confidential… <br />If library users feel that they could be subjected to public exposure, embarrassment, or sanction, they are not likely to pursue the information they need. There are significant First Amendment issues if these confidences are broken. Reference librarians are therefore ethically obligated to conduct their reference interviews in a manner that is minimally intrusive, and their queries should be directed only toward those factors that would help satisfy information needs. <br />Source: Reference and Information Services: An Introduction 3rd Edition<br />
  40. 40. Confidentiality<br />(continued)<br />One cannot exercise the right to read if the possible consequences include damage to one’s reputation, ostracism from the community or workplace, or criminal penalties. Choice requires both a varied selection and the assurance that one’s choice is not monitored. <br />In the case of criminal investigations or other government inquiries, it is especially critical that a librarian preserve the patron’s confidentiality because the consequences of releasing information about the individual(s) under investigation may be dire and the potential for abuse of information about a person’s reading habits great.<br />Privacy is essential to the exercise of free speech, free thought, and free association. In this library the right to privacy is the right to open inquiry without having the subject of one&apos;s interest examined or scrutinized by others. Confidentiality exists when a library is in possession of personally identifiable information about users and keeps that information private on their behalf.<br />Excerpted from Privacy and Confidentiality document, American Library Association<br />
  41. 41. VI. LIBRARY RESPONSIBILITY <br />To The Customer <br />1. CONFIDENTIALITY OF RECORDS <br />As mandated by state law, with exceptions noted herein (including the appendices): <br />a. The Library will protect, as far as possible, the privacy of any customer who uses the Library. <br />1) Under no circumstances will the staff of the Library provide information to a third party about what a customer of the Library is reading, viewing, or calling from the library’s collection. <br />2) The Library will not yield any information about its customers or their reading to any agency of government, whether local, state, or federal, without an order from a court of competent jurisdiction. <br />b. The Library will not inquire into the purposes for which a customer requests information or books. <br />c. The Library may keep records required for loaning books or answering reference questions. The sole purpose of such records is to protect public property or to provide better service.<br />Excerpted from Service Policy, Frisco Public Library, page 5.<br />