Kingdom Protista


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(c) Mrs. Jenie Martizano

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  • (good pics also)
  • Amoeba movie #
  • pg_07.htm
  • chapter/20/
  • courses/envr429-rm/ courses/envr429-rm/ Use for lab conjugation pictures
  • Kingdom Protista

    1. 1. KINGDOM PROTISTA•Conglomerate of organisms which do not fit intoother 4 Kingdoms •Moneran (bacteria), Animalia, Plantae, Fungi•Much more complicated than Monerans•They represent the intermediate step in theevolution of the other three kingdoms•Protozoan is the Greek word for “first animal”•Contains about 65,000 species 1
    2. 2. KINGDOM PROTISTA•Made up of a complex eukaryotic cell (unicellular)or cells (multicellular) •Eukaryotes have cellular organelles, and prokaryotes (bacteria) do not • Prefix uni One (single) • Prefixmulti More than one (many)•Kingdom has organisms that demonstrate bothanimal and plant-like characteristics•Some members make their own food (________) autotrophs heterotrophs•Some ingest food from outside (____________) 2
    3. 3. KINGDOM PROTISTA•Organisms separated based on feeding behaviors Autotrophs Heterotrophs green algae amoeboids brown algae ciliates red algae zooflagellates diatoms sporozoans dinoflagellates plasmodial slime molds euglenoids cellular slime molds water molds 3
    4. 4. •All Protozoa can reproduce asexually •One “parent” for reproduction •Called binary fission•During binary fission, oneprotozoan cell divides into twoidentical individuals. 4
    5. 5. KINGDOM PROTISTA•Inhabit aquatic (______) areas and terrestrial water(_____) areas land•Protists are classified into 13 Phyla which can beplaced into 3 main groups plant-like an ke im -li al- s gu lik nfu e 5
    6. 6. Kingdom Protista 6
    7. 7. Animal-like protists•All heterotrophs•classified by the structure used for movement:1) Cilia - tiny beating hair-like structures •Coordinated movement between individual cilia2) Flagellum(a) - whip-like tail(s) •Back and forth wave motion 7
    8. 8. Animal-like protists3) Pseudopodia - projection of cytoplasm that sticks out like a foot (“false foot”)4) Sessile - No locomotion (_________) movement 8
    9. 9. Animal-like protists - Examples1. Amoeba  comes from the Greek word amoibe which means “change”  unicellular moves by pseudopodia which give appearance of cell changing size and shape  aquatic - lives in ponds, ditches or slowly moving streams  can cause disease – amoebic dysentery  ingests small organisms like bacteria and 9 other protozoans
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    11. 11. Animal-like protists - Examples1. Amoeba  feeding sequence  psuedopodia surround and engulf food particle  process called phagocytosis 11
    12. 12. Animal-like protists - Examples2. Paramecium •Unicellular, slipper-shaped •move by coordinated beating of many cilia •aquatic - mostly found in ponds and streams •usually do not cause diseases in humans 12
    13. 13. Animal-like protists - Examples2. Paramecium - continued •Feeding occurs in the funnel-shaped gullet (buccal cavity) where food is drawn in by external and internal cilia to form food vacuole •ingests organic detritus and other small organisms like bacteria and other 13 protozoans
    14. 14. Animal-like protists - Examples2. Paramecium - continued •Food to waste pathway 14
    15. 15. Animal-like protists - Examples2. Paramecium - continued •Reproduction 1. Binary fission (________) asexual N = nucleus F = Fission plane 15
    16. 16. Animal-like protists - Examples2. Paramecium - continued •Reproduction 2. Conjugation (________) sexual •Form structure called conjugation tube to exchange genetic material 16
    17. 17. Animal-like protists: The SporozoanCharacteristics of Sporozoans (Animal-like)•Sporozoa do not move on their own•mostly common in tropical areas•protist that reproduce by forming spores•they are usually parasitic•sporozoans named Plasmodium causes malaria •its caused by female mosquitos •humans get malaria when bitten by an infected mosquito 17
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    21. 21. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST•Have chlorophyll•Make their own food•They can live in 4 main environments: •freshwater •soil •salt water •tree bark•they produce large amounts of oxygen which areused by other living organisms•they are grouped according to pigment & stucture•into 6 main groups: Green algae, red algae, brown algae, fire algae, golden algae, euglena 21
    22. 22. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d•they are grouped according to color & stuctureA) Euglena D) Red algae B) Diatom E) Green AlgaeC) Dinoflagellates 22
    23. 23. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’dA) Euglena-•one celled alga thatmoves with one flagellum•lives in fresh water•reproduces asexually•red eyespot near front end to find light…Why? •have chlorophyll and can make their own food ( autotroph) 23
    24. 24. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’dA) Euglena Continued- contains disk-shaped chloroplasts •organelle is the site of photosynthesis and gets its name from the presence of the green pigments (the chlorophylls) 24
    25. 25. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’dB) Diatom•beautiful one celled protists•come in many shapes •EX: boats, rods, disks, triangles•important food source for water dwelling animals•cell covering is made up of 2 overlapping parts •Think of a box with a lid•made of the same material as glass•cell coverings do not decay (when dead)•used for toothpaste, scouring powders, & filters 25
    26. 26. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’dC) Dinoflagellates•Algae that is usually found in oceans•Have hidden chlorophyll due to dark pigments•Move by two flagella 26
    27. 27. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d•produce large numbers which turns the ocean red •responsible for “red tides”•produce chemicals that kill thousands of fish•humans can become ill if they eat shell fishthat have absorbed these chemicals•common off the coast of Florida or other 27warmer areas
    28. 28.  Red Tide  28
    29. 29.  Red Tide Kills Fish  Absorbed red dinoflagellatesAfter encountering and absorbing a red tide..astingray becomes disoriented. They have theappearance of not being able to see or controlwhat they are doing. Eventually the ray willstay at the surface lying horizontally and die. 29
    30. 30. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d E) Green Algae•Come in many different forms •can be unicellular or multicellular spirogyra •they produce O2 in H2O •serve as food for fish, snails, and crayfish•usually found in “colonies”•Colony – a group of cells that live together chlorella desmids 30
    31. 31. PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’dAlgae Examples•EX: volvox colony •Arranged in a single layer with flagella facing outward •The flagella beat and the colony spins through the water •Brown Algae •EX: Kelp (brown algae) … aka….“sea weed” •used by humans for food •also used to thicken food such as ice cream and jelly 31
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    33. 33. FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTSlime Molds: •fungus-like protists that are consumers•live in cool, damp places EX: forest floor•feed on bacteria growing on rotting logs anddecaying leaves•some are parasites (very few) 33
    34. 34. FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTLife Cycle of Slime Molds:Step 1 –slimy mass that moves like an amoeba •beautiful colors of red, yellow, or violetStep 2 –stops growing and moving •produces spores inside a structure on a stalkStep 3 –spores develop into little cells w/ flagella •then each cell loses its flagella and grows into a slimy mass again 34
    35. 35. 3 1 2 35
    36. 36. Directions: Write out & highlight the following questions1) List the three main (groups) types of protists? 2) Give two examples of animal-like protists. 3) What are sporozoans? Give one example. 4) List the 3 structures protozoan use for locomotion.5) List 5 plant-like protists? 6) Why are algae important? 7) Explain why red tides occur and what causes them. 36