• Despite the modern advances in prevention of
dental caries and an increased understanding
of the importance of maintaining the natural
dentition, many teeth are still lost
• The primary objective of pulp treatment of an
affected tooth is to maintain the integrity
and health of oral tissues
• Additional reasons to preserve the integrity of the
primary dentition are to
1. Reduce the likelihood of mesial drift and the
2.Aid in mastication.
3.Preserve a pulpally involved primary tooth in the
absence of a succedaneous tooth.
4.Prevent possible speech problems.
6.Prevent aberrant tongue habits
7.Maintain normal eruption time of the succedaneous
8.Prevent the psychological effects associated with
early tooth loss.
Major function of pulp
• As a review, the pulp performs five major
• Pulp participates in the induction and development of
odontoblasts and dentin, which, when formed, induce
• Odontoblasts form dentin. Dentin is formed continuously
throughout the life of the tooth. Odontoblasts can also
form a unique type of dentin in response to injury, such as
occurs with caries, trauma, and restorative procedures.
Via dentinal tubules, pulp supplies nutrients that are
.essential for dentin formation and hydration
Odontoblasts form dentin in response to injury,
particularly when the original dentin thickness has
been compromised by caries, wear, trauma, or
restorative procedures. Pulp also has the ability to
elicit an inflammatory and immunologic response in an
attempt to neutralize or eliminate invasion of dentin
by caries-causing microorganisms and their
Through the nervous system, pulp transmits
sensations mediated through enamel or dentin to
.the higher nerve centers
DIAGNOSIS OF PULP
An accurate history must be obtained of the type of pain, duration, frequency,
location, spread, aggregating and relieving factors.
Mode: is the onset spontaneous or provoked?
Periodicity: do symptoms have temporal pattern or are they sporadic or
Early pulpitis- symptoms seen in evening or after meal.
Frequency: have the symptoms persisted since they began/ have they been
Duration: how long do symptoms last when they occur?
Quality of pain: Dull, aching - pain of bony origin.
Throbbing, pounding, pulsing - pain of vascular origin.
Sharp, recurrant, stabbing - pathosis of nerve root complexes, irreversible
Postural change: pain accentuates by bending over,
Time of day: pain in the mastigatory muscles on working may indicate occlusal
disharmony or TMJ dysfunction or possible acute pulpalgia.
•Hormonal: menstrual tooth ache due to increase in body fluid
retention. Teeth may ache and may become tender on
percussion, symptoms disappear when cycle ends
:-TYPES OF PAIN
Momentary pain: Immediate stresses to hot or cold that
disappear on the removal of the stimulus indicate that the
.pathosis is limited to the coronal pulp
Persistent pain: pain from thermal stimuli would indicate wide
spread inflammation of the pulp, extending into the radicular
Spontaneous pain: throbbing, constant pain that may keep the
patient awake at night. This type of pain indicates pulpal
(damage-irreversible pulpitis. (Ref B, pg 175
It suggests that pulpal disease has progressed too far and
treatment confined to pulp chamber would be inadequate.
((Ref F, pg 336
Provoked pain: stimulated by thermal, chemical or mechanical
irritant, and is eliminated when stimulus is removed. This sign
indicates dentin sensitivity due to deep carious lesion or faulty
restoration. The pulp is in the transition state and the condition is
(usually reversible. (Ref E, pg 344
VISUAL AND TACTILE EXAMINATION. 2
This is one of the simplest tests, but most often is done
casually during examination and as a result valid information
is lost. A thorough visual, tactile examination of hard and
soft tissue relies on checking of 3 C’s that is color, contour,
(consistency. (Ref B, pg 175
Mobility in the primary tooth may result from physiological
or pathological cause. Tooth mobility is directly proportional
to the integrity of the attachment apparatus. Clinician
should use two mouth mirror handles to apply alternating
lateral forces in the facial lingual direction to observe the
. degree of mobility of the tooth
:-A measure of mobility is
0-Horizntal_less than 0.2mm
3-horizntal and vertical_ more than 2mm
Pain from pressure on a tooth indicates that periodontal ligament is
inflamed. A useful clinical test is to apply finger pressure to the
tooth and check the child’s response by watching the eyes. (Ref B,
( pg 174-175
Simple test done with fingertips using light pressure to examine
tissue consistency and pain response. It determines presence,
intensity and location of pain and presence of bony crepitus. (Ref B,
Only a tooth which can be restored after endodontic therapy should
.be considered for pulp therapy
PRESENCE OF DISCHARGING SINUS. 7
Indicates a non vital pulp (or an irreversibly diseased pulp) and
(should be considered for non vital pulp therapy. (Ref A, pg 3
CHANGES IN COLOR. 8
(Discolored teeth may indicate a necrotic pulp. (Ref A, pg 03
Recent pre- operative radiographs are requisites to pulp therapy
in primary and young permanent teeth. It demonstrates
pathological conditions, position of succedaneous permanent
tooth. These will dictate the decision on performing pulp therapy
(for primary tooth. (Ref B, pg 174
One factor that must be remembered is that the lesion must be
of sufficient dimensions to appear radio graphically and must
.involve cortical bone
:- Pathological entities that are observed are
a. Pulp calcification: represents the pulp response to long
standing lesion and is associated with pulp degeneration. This
.contraindicates single visit pulpotomy
b. Internal resorption: it is associated with spontaneous pain at night
and inflammation extending into radicular pulp. This contraindicates
.single visit pulpotomy
c. External resorption: pathologic resorption is invariably associated
with no vital pulp and extensive inflammation in the supporting
.tissues. The only viable treatment is pulpectomy or extraction
d. Bone resorption: if minimum, pulpectomy is the choice but when
(the born loss is extensive, extraction is indicated. (Ref H, pg 223
Current radiographs are essential to examining for caries and
periapical changes. Interpretation of radiographs is complicated in
children by physiologic root resorption of primary teeth and by
.incompletely formed roots of permanent teeth
The radiograph does not always demonstrate periapical pathosis, nor
can the proximity of caries to the pulp always be accurately
determined. What may appear as the intact barrier of secondary
dentin overlying the pulp may always be a perforated mass of
irregularly calcified and carious dentin overlying a pulp with extensive
inflammation? The presence of calcified masses with in the pulp is
.important to making a diagnosis of pulpal status
Pathologic changes in the periapical tissues surrounding primary
molars are most often apparent in the bifurcation or trifurcation
areas, rather than at the apexes (such as in permanent teeth).
(Ref C, pg 803)
:-Several additional factors worthy of consideration are as follows
a. More than one view of the area of interest, each taken at
different angle, is helpful for locating subtle changes (e.g., root
b. Pathologic changes should not be confused with the normal
anatomy (e.g., mandibular canal, mental foramen, incisive fossa,
c. Internal resoption is possible in
permanent teeth but does not occur as
.often as in primary teeth
d. Treatment- induced calcification (i.e.,
bridging or apical closure) may be too
thin to visualize radio graphically. (pg Ref
PULPAL EXPOSURES AND HEMORRHAGE. 10
The size of the exposure, the appearance of the pulp, and the
amount of hemorrhage are important factors in diagnosing the
extent of inflammation in a cariously exposed pulp. A true carious
exposure is always accompanied by pulpal inflammation. The pin point
carious exposure may have pulpal inflammation varying from minimal
to extensive to complete necrosis. However the massive exposure
always has wide spread inflammation or necrosis and is not the
candidate for any form of vital pulp therapy except in young,
permanent teeth with incomplete root development. Excessive
hemorrhage at an exposure site or during pulp amputation is
evidence of extensive inflammation. These teeth should be
(considered candidates for pulpectomy or extraction. (Ref C, 804 pg
PULP TESTING. 11
Pulp testing is widely used to assess vitality of mature permanent
teeth but these are not reliable in deciduous teeth as fear of
unknown makes the child patient apprehensive of the electric
vitalometer and may give inaccurate results. Another reason is that
newly erupted teeth may have incomplete innervations and there fore
.may not give correct results
Thermal test: This was first reported by jack in 1899 and it(1 •
involved application of cold or heat to determine sensitivity to
Cold test: It can be applied in several different ways like stream of
cold air, cold- water bath, ethyl chloride, dry ice, pencil of ice. Agent
is kept on the middle third of the facial structure of crown for 5
.seconds and the response is determined
Heat test: These include warm sticks of temporary stopping, rotating
dry prophycup, heated water bath, hot burnisher, hot gutta - percha
.and hot compound
:-RESPONSE TO THERMAL TEST
.No response- non vital pulp. 1
.Mild-moderate pain subsides in 1-2sec - normal. 2
Strong-momentary pain subsides in 1-2sec revesible. 3
Moderate to strong painful response that lingers. 4
for several seconds or longer after the stimulus has
.(been removed-irreversible pulpitis
–2)Electrical Pulp Testing is NOT reliable in primary teeth (due to
the false patient’s response).
ANESTHETIC TESTING. 12
If the patient continues to have vague, diffuse, strong pain and prior
testing has been inconclusive, intra ligamentary anesthetic may be used
.to identify the source of pain
TEST CAVITY. 13
This test is performed when other methods have failed. The test
cavity is made by drilling the enamel dentin junction of an unanesthetized tooth using a slow speed hand piece without water
.coolant. If patient feels sensitivity it is indication of pulp vitality
PHYSIOMETRIC TEST. 14
It describes such tests that assess the state of the pulpal circulation,
rather than the integrity of the nervous tissue thus providing valuable
This method involves passing light on the tooth and measuring the
existing wavelength using a photocell and galvanometer. If a tooth
with an intact blood supply is warmed there should be vascular
.dilatation, and this would register as a current from the photo cell
A hot object emits infrared radiation in proportion to its
temperature. Measurement of this radiation may provide information
(on pulpal circulation. (Ref B, pg 175-176
PULP HAEMOGRAM. 17
It was suggested that taking the first drop of blood from an exposed
pulp and subjecting it to differential white cell count might be useful
.in diagnosis of pulpal conditions
DUAL WAVELENGTH SPECTROMETRY. 18
Measures blood oxygenation changes within the capillary bed of
.dental tissue and thus is not dependent on a pulsatile blood flow
HUGES PROBEYE CAMERA. 19
This is used in detecting temperature changes as small as 0.1◦c
.hence can be used to measure pulp vitality experimentally
LIQUID CRYSTAL TESTING. 20
Cholesteric fluid crystals have been used to show the difference in
tooth temperature with vital pulp being hotter and necrotic pulp
(being cooler. (Ref B, pg 176-177
LASER DOPPLER FLOWMETRY. 21
The laser doppler flowmeter, developed in 1970s to measure the
velocity of red blood cells in capillaries, is a non invasive, objective,
painless alternative to traditional neural- stimulation methods, and
(therefore is a promising test for young children. (Ref I, pg 332
A near infrared with a wavelength of
632.8 nm is produced by 1mw helium
neon laser with in the flowmeter and
this is transmitted along a flexible
fiber optical conductor inside a
specially designed round dental probe
with a diameter of 2 mm. Enamel prisms
and dentinal tubules guide the light to
the pulp, where it is scattered both by
static tissues by moving RBC’s. A
fraction of backscattered light from
the tooth is returned to the flowmeter
along the pair of afferent optical fibers
within the probe. The scattered light
beams from moving RBC’s will be
frequently shifted, while those from
static tissue are unshifted indicating
non vital pulp.
PULSE OXIMETRY. 22
It is proven atraumatic method of measuring
vascular health by evaluating oxygen saturation.
Pulse oximetry is based on placing arterial blood
between light source and detector. Light source
diode emits both infrared and red light, which
is received by a photo -detector diode. Blood
pulsating through the vessel changes the light
path, which modifies the amount of detected
. light. This determines the pulse rate
EVALUATION OF TREATMENT PROGNOSIS BEFORE PULP
The diagnostic process of selecting teeth that are good candidates
:-for vital pulp therapy has at least two dimensions
Dentist must decide that the tooth has a good chance of . 1
. responding favorably to the pulp therapy
The advisability of performing the pulp therapy and restoring the . 2
.tooth must be weighed against extraction and space management
The level of patient and parent cooperation and motivation in . 3
.receiving the treatment
The level of patients and parent desire and motivation in maintaining . 4
.oral health and hygiene
The caries activity of the patient and overall prognosis of oral . 5
The degree of difficulty anticipated in performing the pulp therapy . 6
.in particular case
Space management issues resulting from previous extractions, . 7
preexisting malocclusion, ankylosis, congenitally missing teeth, and
space loss caused by extensive carious destruction of teeth and
Excessive extrusion of pulpally involved tooth resulting from the . 8
(absence of opposing teeth (Ref D, pg 392
Pulp therapy in pediatric dentistry
can be divided into
• Vital pulp therapy
pulp capping pulpotomy
Non-Vital pulp therapy
INDIRECT PULP CAPPING
• The procedure involving a tooth with a deep carious lesion where
carious dentin removal is left incomplete, and the decay process
is treated with a biocompatible material for sometime in order
to avoid pulp tissue exposure is termed indirect pulp capping
The teeth when pulpaly inflammation has been judged to be . 1
minimal and complete removal of caries would cause pulp exposure.
((Ref I, pg336
.Mild pain associated with eating. 2
.Negative history of spontaneous, extreme pain. 3
.No mobility. 4
When pulp inflammation is seen as nominal and there is a definite . 5
.layer of affected dentin after removal of infected dentin
.Normal lamina dura and PDL space. 6
No radiolucency in the bone around the apices of the roots or in . 7
Deep carious lesion, which are close to, but not involving he pulp . 8
in vital primary or young permanent teeth
.Any signs of pulpal or periapical pathology. 1
Soft leathery dentin covering a very large area of the cavity, in a . 2
(non restorable tooth. (Ref I, pg 336
.Sharp, penetrating pulpalgia indicating acute pulpal inflammation . 3
.Prolonged night pain. 4
.Mobility of the tooth. 5
. Discoloration of the tooth. 6
.Negative reaction of electric pulp testing. 7
.Definite pulp exposure. 8
. Interrupted or broken lamina dura. 9
.Radiolucency about the apices of the roots. 10
The restorative material should seal completely the involved . 1
.dentin from the oral environment
.The vitality of the tooth should be preserved. 2
No prolonged post-treatment signs or symptoms of sensitivity, . 3
.pain or swelling should be evident
The pulp should respond favourably and tertiary dentin or. 4
reparative dentin should be formed, as evidenced by radiographic
There should be no evidence of internal resorption or other. 5
(pathologic changes. (Ref I, pg 336
.Arresting of carious process. 6
.Promoting dentin sclerosis. 7
.Stimulating formation of tertiary dentin. 8
. Remineralization of carious dentin. 9
Theory of indirect pulp capping
Indirect pulp therapy is a technique for avoiding pulp exposure in the
treatment of teeth with deep carious lesions in which there exists no
clinical evidence of pulpal degeneration or periapical disease.
The procedure allows the tooth to use the natural protective
mechanisms of the pulp against caries. It is based on the theory that a
zone of affected, demineralized dentin exist between the outer
infected layer of dentin and the pulp. When the infected dentin is
removed, the affected dentin can remineralize and the odontoblasts
form reparative dentin, thus avoiding pulp exposure
Kopel has identified three distinct layers in active caries:1. Necrotic, soft dentin not painful to stimulation and grossly infected
2. Firm but softened dentin, painful to stimulation but containing few
3. Slightly discolored, hard, sound dentin containing few bacteria and
painful to stimulation.
In indirect pulp therapy the outer layer of carious dentin are
removed. Thus most of the bacteria are eliminated from the lesion.
When the lesion is sealed, the substrate on which the bacteria act to
produce acid is also removed. Exposure of the pulp occurs when the
carious process advances faster than the reparative mechanism of
the pulp. Care must also be taken in removing the caries to avoid
exposure of the pulp. With the arrest of caries process, the
reparative mechanism is able to lay down additional dentin and avoid a
If the preliminary caries removal is successful, the inflammation will
be resolved and deposition of reparative dentin beneath the caries
will allow subsequent eradication of the remaining caries without
The rate of reparative dentin deposition has been shown to average
1.4um/day after cavity preparation in dentin of human teeth. The
rate of reparative dentin formation decreases markedly after
48days. Dentin is laid down fastest during the first month after IPC
and the rate diminishes steadily with time.
If the initial treatment is successful, when the tooth reentered the
caries appears to be arrested. The color changes from deep red rose
to light grey to light brown. The texture changes from spongy and wet
to hard, and the caries appears dehydrated.
The goal is to promote pulpal healing by removing the majority of the
infected bacteria and sealing the lesion, which stimulates sclerosis of
dentin and reparative dentin formation. As the procedure was
originally practiced, after a minimum of 6 weeks the zinc oxide and
eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and remaining carious dentin are removed.
It was intended that the second instrumentation of the tooth would
confirm the intended goals and would be followed by placement of a
For the experienced clinician using good case selection, however it
may be preferable to avoid second instrumentation (and the potential
(.risk of pulpal exposure
Periodic follow up of the tooth’s history along with pulp vitality testing
and radiographic assessment is necessary. Indirect pulp capping is the
excellent and conservative treatment option for some deep carious
lesions in permanent teeth (especially if it avoids complete root canal
treatment). It should be emphasized that the indirect pulp cap
procedure is intended to avoid direct caries exposure.
TECHNIQUE OF INDIRECT PULP CAPPING
Use local anesthesia and isolation with rubber dam.
Establish cavity outline with high speed hand piece.
Remove the superficial debris and majority of the soft necrotic
dentin with slow speed hand piece using large round bur.
Stop the excavation as soon as the firm resistance of sound dentin is
Periapical carious dentin is removed with a sharp spoon excavator.
Cavity flushed with saline and dried with cotton pellet.
Site is covered with calcium hydroxide.
Remainder cavity is filled with reinforced ZOE cement.
Second appointment (6-8 weeks later)
Between the appointment history must be negative and temporary
restoration should be intact.
Take a bitewing radiograph and observe for sclerotic dentin.
Carefully remove all temporary filling material.
Previous remaining carious dentin will have become dried out, flaky and
The area around the potential exposure will appear whitish and may be
soft; which is predentin. Do not disturb this area.
The cavity preparation is washed out and dried gently.
Cover the entire floor with calcium hydroxide.
Base is built up with reinforced ZOE cement or GIC.
Final restoration is then placed
B) GROSS CARIES
C )MEDICAMENT PLACED
C )MEDICAMENT PLACED
D) EVALUATION AFTER
INFECTED VS AFFECTED DENTIN
▪Stained by 0.5% fuschin or
i.e. 1.0% acid red solution
demineralized, with irregular
Presence of deteriorated
collagen fibers that have only
distinct cross bands and no
▪Should be excavated
▪Does not stain
crystals bound like
fringes to the
Sound collagen fibers
Cross bands and
▪Should be left
1)In its classical application, the indirect pulp cap was covered with
zinc oxide-eugenol cement, and following several weeks' observation,
the cavity was re-entered to remove all remaining softened dentine.
More commonly, the calcium hydroxide pulp cap is simply covered with
a layer of hard setting cement and the tooth permanently restored at
the same visit. Periodic clinical and radiographic review is then
undertaken to monitor the pulp respons.
2)the presence of carious enamel and dentin at the margins of the
cavity will prevent the establishment of an adequate seal (extremely
important) during the period of repair.
DIRECT PULP CAPPING
The procedure in which the small exposure of the pulp, encountered
during cavity preparation or following a traumatic injury or due to
caries, with a sound surrounding dentin, is dressed with an
appropriate biocompatible radiopaque base in contact with the
exposed pup tissue prior to placing a restoration is termed as direct
1. Light red bleeding from the exposure site that can be controlled
by cotton pellet.
2. Traumatic exposures in a dry, clean field, which report to the
dental office within 24 hours. (Ref I, pg 336)
3. Mechanical exposures less than I sq mm, surrounded by clear
dentin in an asymptomatic vital deciduous tooth.
4. Mechanical or carious exposures less than 1 sq mm in an
asymptomatic vital young permanent tooth. (Ref H, pg 225)
5. Small pulp exposures produced during cavity preparation i.e. pin
point exposure surrounded by sound dentin.
6. When the tooth is not painful, with the exception of discomfort
caused by food intake.
7. Minimal or no bleeding from the exposure site.
1. Large pulp exposures.
2. Presence of caries surrounding the exposure site.
3. Excessive bleeding indicates hyperemia or pulpal inflammation.
4. Pain at night.
5. Spontaneous pain.
6. Tooth mobility.
7. Thickening of periodontal membrane.
8. Intraradicular radiolucency.
9. Purulent or serous exudates.
12. Root resorption.
13. Pulpal calcification.
1. The vitality of tooth should be maintained.
2. No prolonged post-treatment signs or symptoms of sensitivity,
pain or swelling should be evident.
3. Pulp healing and tertiary dentin formation should result.
4. There should be no pathologic change.
5. To create new dentin in the area of the exposure and subsequent
healing of pulp.
Necrotic and infected dentin chips have to be removed else they will
invariably be pushed into the exposed pulp during last stages of
caries removal and impede healing and increase pulpal inflammation.
Therefore it is prudent to remove all peripheral caries. If exposure
occurs, non irrigating solution of normal saline or anesthetic solution
is used to cleanse the area and keep he pulp moist.
TECHNIQUES OF DIRECT PULP CAPPINGRubber dam provides only means of working in a sterile environment,
so it has to be used.
Once an exposure is encountered, further manipulation of pulp is
Cavity should be irrigated with saline, chloramines T or distilled
Hemorrhage is arrested with light pressure from sterile cotton
Place the pulp capping material, on the exposed pulp with application
of minimal pressure so as to avoid forcing the material into pulp
Place temporary restoration.
Final restoration is done after determining the success pulp of
capping which is done by determination of dentinal bridge,
maintenance of pulp vitality, lack of pain and minimal inflammatory
HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES AFTER PULP CAPPING
These were illustrated by Glass and Zander in 1949.
After 24 hours: Necrotic zone adjacent to ca (oh) 2 pastes is
separated from healthy pulp tissue by a deep staining basophilic layer.
After 7 days: Increase in cellular and fibroblastic activity.
After 14 days: Partly calcified fibrous tissue lined by odontoblastic
cells is seen below the calcium protienate zone; disappearance of
After 28 days: Zone of new dentin
FEATURES OF SUCCESSFUL PULP CAPPING
1. Maintenance of pulp vitality.
2. Lack of undue sensitivity or pain
3. Minimal pulp inflammatory response.
4. Ability of the pulp to maintain itself without progressive
5. Lack of internal resorption and intaradicular pathosis.
MEDICATIONS AND MATERIAL
-The greatest benefit of Ca(OH)2 is the stimulation of reparative
dentin bridge, due to a high alkalinity, which leads to enzyme
phosphatase being activated and thus releasing of inorganic phosphate
from the blood (calcium phosphate) leading to formation or dentinal
bridge. It also has an antibacterial action.
-When calcium hydroxide is applied directly to pulp tissue, there is
necrosis of the adjacent pulp tissue and inflammation of the contiguous
tissue. Compounds of similar alkalinity cause liquefaction necrosis when
applied to pulp tissue.
-Internal resorption may occur after pulp exposure and capping with
-Calcium from Dentin Bridge comes from the blood stream. The action
of calcium hydroxide to form Dentin Bridge appears to be a result of
low grade irritation in the underlying pulpal tissue after application
It is an excellent pulp capping agent because of its haemostatic and
bacteriostatic properties; at the same time it causes less inflammation
than calcium hydroxide. But it can not be regarded as an adequate
therapeutic alternative to calcium hydroxide since it does not produce
a continuous barrier of a reparative dentin following application of the
exposed pulp tissue.
Disadvantage is that it is cytotoxic when freshly polymerized.
This protein has calcium binding properties. If a pulp exposure is
capped with a protein, the protein may become a matrix for
calcifation, thereby increasing the chances of biologic obliteration.
ANDREAS MERITZ 1n 1998 evaluated the effect of direct pulp
Bone morphogenic protein (BMP):
The demineralized bone matrix could stimulate new bone formation
when implanted to ectopic sites such as muscles.
The implications for pulp therapy are immense as it is capable of
inducing reparative dentin.
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA):
-TORABINEJAB described the physical and chemical properties of MTA
in 1995. it is ash colored powder made primarily of fine hydrophilic
particles of tricalcium aluminates, tricalcium silicate, silicate oxide,
tricalcium oxide and bismuth oxide is added for radio-opacity.
-When compared with calcium hydroxide, MTA produced significantly
more dentinal bridging in shorter period of time with significantly less
inflammation. Dentin deposition has began earlier with MTA.
-The disadvantage of this technique is that 3 to 4 hours is needed for
setting of MTA after placement.
-The procedure involves placing MTA directly over the exposure site and
sealing the tooth temporarily to allow the cement to harden. The tooth is
later reentered and permanently sealed over the set MTA with an
etched, dentin bonding agent and composite resin to prevent future
bacterial micro leakage.
It is biocompatible material and its sealing ability is better than . 1
.that of amalgam or ZOE
.Initial pH is 10.2and set pH is 12.5. 2
.The setting time of cement is 4 hours. 3
The compressive strength is 70 MPA, which is comparable to that of . 4
Low cytotoxity- it presents with minimal inflammation if extended . 5
.beyond the apex
Action: It has ability to stimulate cytokine and interleukins release
from blood cells, indicating that it actively promotes
Advantages over Ca(oH)2
Thicker dentinal bridge
Less pulpal necrosis
Dentin bridge formation at
LIMITATION OF DIRECT PULP CAPPING IN
Caries process or pulp capping material may stimulate the
undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that differentiate into
odontoblastic cells which lead to internal resorption. High cellular
content, abundant blood supply and consequently faster
inflammatory response and poor localization of infection are some
of the reasons that direct pulp capping is contraindicated in
Calcification, chronic inflammation, necrosis and intraradicular
POINTS TO BE KEPT IN MIND DURING PROCEDURE OF
IPC AND DPC
-Staining carious lesion was proposed many years ago by
FUSAYAMA to allow differentiation of remineralizable and non
remineralizable dentin. These harmless dyes demonstrate non
remineralizable dentin. Parts of the tooth that remain stain should
be removed. Any tooth structure that does not stain can remain,
since this soft dentin will remineralize. Examples of some brands of
caries dentin test; caries detector, caries funder and sable seek.
This method will limit the removal of decay to non - remineralizable
dentin during divert and indirect pulp capping
-Location of the pulp exposure is an important consideration in the
prognosis. If the exposure occurs on the axial wall of the pulp, with
the pulp tissue coronal to exposure site, this tissue may be deprived
of its blood supply and undergo necrosis, causing a failure. Then a
pulpotomy or pulpectomy should be performed rather than a pulp
-When pulp capping is done, care must be exercised while removing
the deep carious dentin over the exposure site to keep to a minimum
the pushing of dentin chips into the remaining pulp chamber. Studies
have shown decreased success when dentin fragments are forced
into the underlying pulp tissue. Inflammatory reaction and formation
of dentin matrix are stimulated around these dentin chips. In
addition, microorganisms may be forced into the tissue. The
resulting inflammatory reaction can be so severe as to cause a
-Marginal seal over the pulp capping procedure is of prime
importance since it prevents the ingress of bacteria and reinfection.
-After pulpal injury, reparative dentin is formed as part of repair
process. Although formation of Dentin Bridge has been used as one
of the criteria for judging successful pulp capping, bridge
formation can occur in teeth with irreversible inflammation.
Moreover, a successful pulp capping has been reported without the
presence of reparative dentin bridge over the exposure site.
Finn (1995) defined it as the complete removal of the
coronal portion of the dental pulp,followed by placement of a
suitable dressing or medicament that will promote healing and
.preserve vitality of the tooth
1)Carious or mechanical exposure of vital primary teeth and young
permanent teeth,where inflammation is restricted to coronal
2) History of only spontaneous pain.
3) Hemorrhage from exposure sites bright red and be controlled.
Absence of abscess or fistula.
No interradicular bone loss.
No interradicular radiolucency.
At least 2/3rd of root length still present to ensure reasonable
8) In young permanent tooth with vital exposed pulp and
incompletely formed apices
1. History of spontaneous pain
4. Tenderness to percussion
5. Pathological mobility
6. External/internal root resorption
7. Periapical or interradicular radiolucency
8. Pulp calcifications
9. Pus or exudate from exposures site
10. Uncontrolled bleeding from the amputated pulp stump
11. Root resorption more than 1/3rd of root length
12. Large carious lesion with non-restorable crown
13. Highly, viscous, sluggish hemorrhage from canal orifice, which is
14. Medical contraindications like heart disease,
Calssification Of Vital Pulpotomy
It is intended to
destroy or mummify
the vital tissue.
•Paraform devitalizing paste
This has formation of
•Bone morphogenic protein
It is done in •Beechwood cresol
Depending upon the size of exposure
1. Partial pulpotomy (shallow, low level or Cvek’s pulpotomy)
2. Cervical pulpotomy (deep, high level total or conventional pulpotomy)
Classified depending upon the number of visits
1. Single visit pulpotomy
2. Multiple visit pulpotomy
Amputate the infected coronal pulp,
Neutralize any residual infectious process,
Preserve the vitality of the rdicular pulp.
Avoid breakdown of periradicular area
Treat remaining pulp with medicament
Avoid dystrophic pulpal changes
(A.DEVITALIZATION (SINGLE SITTING
Formocresol was introduced by Buckley in 1904 and since then a lot
of modifications have been tried and advocated regarding the
techniques of formocresol pulpotomies
•Sweet (1930)- formulated the technique and was a multivisit
•Doyle (1962)- advocated 2 sitting procedure
•Spedding (1965)- Gave 5 minute protocol
•Venham (1967)- Proposed 15 seconds procedure.
•Current concept uses 4 minutes of application time.
Formocresol by its chemical nature is the combination of :
-Formaldehyde – 19%
-Cresol – 35%
- Glycerin – 19%
Success following formocresol pulpotomy:Clinical success = 90100%Histological success = 70-80%Success depends on accurate
.selection of the case
Mechanical of action : it prevents tissue autolysis by bonding to the
proteins. This bonding is of peptide groups of side chain amino acids
and is a reversible process accomplished without changing the basic
.structure of protein molecules
Histological changes : These were demonstrated by Mass and
.Zilbermann in 1933 and also by Massler and Mansokhani in 1959
.Immediately : Pulp becomes fibrous and acidophilic
:After some days : Three zones appear
•A broad eosinophilic zone of fixation
•A broad pale staining zone of atrophy with poor cellular definition
•Broad zone of inflammatory cells extending cells extending
apically from the border of the pale staining zone
year : Progressive apical movement of these zones with 1
only acidophillic zone left at the end of 1 year
Mechanism Of Action:
Formocresol prevents tissue autolysis by
bonding to protein. This is reversible process and is accomplished
without changing the basic overall structure of the protein molecules
Technique for Pulptomy of the
•Anesthetize the tooth and isolate with rubber dam.
•Remove all caries using high-speed straight fissure bur without
entering the pulp chamber.
•Remove dentinal roof with a large diamond stone or slow speed round
bur for minimal trauma.
•Enlarge the exposed area and deroof the pulp chamber.
•Remove any ledges or overhanging enamel with slow speed round bur.
•Sharp spoon excavators are used to scoop out coronal pulp and pulpal
•Clean the pulp chamber with saline and remove all debris.
•Place a cotton pellet over the pulp stumps to achieve hemostasis.
•Place a cotton pellet over the pulp stumps to achieve hemostasis.
•Using a cotton pellet apply diluted formocresol to the pulp for 4 min.
•Place a small dry pellet over this to avoid contact of tissues with
•Remove cotton pellets and check for fixation,brownish discoloration
of the pellet as well as the pulp stump is an indicator of fixation.
•Place ZOE cement in the pulp chamber
•Recall after one week and restore with a permanent restoration if
patient is asymptomatic
•Place a stainless steel crown
(a) The figure shows a lower right second primary molar where after removing the roof
of the pulp chamber the coronal pulp is being completely removed using excavators. (b)
Cotton pledget with the medicament placed over the radicular pulp tissue to control the
bleeding. (c) On removal of the cotton pledget bleeding from the amputation sites has
stopped. (d) Kalzinol (or any other zinc oxide eugenol preparation) placed in the pulp
chamber prior to placing the coronal restoration. (e) Periapical radiograph of right
upper first primary molar showing a completed pulpotomy. Note excellent condensation
of cement in the pulp chamber and coronal restoration with stainless-steel crown.
•DISADVANTAGES OF FORMOCRESOL
•Local toxicity: There is no actual healing of the pulp and the tooth
•Systemic toxicity: studies have shown that full strength formocresol,
is absorbed in to the systemic circulation from the pulpotomy site.
Excretion is via the kidney and lungs. Some amount of formocresol
remains cell bound in the liver,kidney and lungs. Cytogenic and
mutagenic effect is observed due to its ability to denature nucleic
acids by forming methylol derivatives and methylene cross links.
Formocresol is also said to produce irreversible damage to the protein
portion of enzymes,genetic material,membranes, and connective
tissue. It affects directly the protein biosynthesis and cell
reproduction by interacting with DNA and RNA and destroys the lipid
component of the cell membrane.
•Damage to succedaneous: it is seen that 1ml of formocresol diffuses
through the apical foramen in 3 min.Thus there is high risk for the
formation of enamel defects in the permanent successor following the
use of formocresol in a primary teeth.
•Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity
•Occurrence of dermatitis and pharyngitis
If bleeding cannot be connot be controlled the health of
the pulp is questionable and extraction or intermediate
.sedative dressing will be considered
Application of an appropriate lining or base such zinc oxide
eugenol cement (IRM).
IRM is the same as ZOE but has a reinforcing material added
to make it more resistant to wear.
An intermediate dressing may be appropriate when the
pulpectomy cannot be completed in the following reasons:
Child compliance is a proplem.
Uncontrolled bleeding of pulp stumps- as an altranative to
Unable to extract tooth.
Non-vital that requrire further management
As an intermediate restorative material for both Class I and
As a base under non-resin restorations.
Restoration of deciduous teeth (when permanent teeth are
two years or less from eruption).
baby tooth root canals .
IRM powder and liquid should be mixed in less than one minute.
The resulting putty consistency is then inserted into the
cavity. If indicated, conventional methods of matrix application
High strength comparable to zinc phosphate
2. Excellent abrasion resistance
3. Good sealing properties
4. Low solubility
Because of its zinc-oxide eugenol composition, IRM will
interfere with subsequent placement of a resin filling
2. Use of cavity varnishes.
1. Complete removal of all coronal pulp.
2. Place ledermix paste over exposed pulp.
3. Cover with sterile cotton pellets.
4. Restore with reinforced zinc oxide eugenol(IRM)or glass
5. Plan follow up care.
If you have a rather large cavity, you can remove the bulk of the
. decay and place an "IRM" filling, also known as a sedative filling
This will often slow or stop the progression of decay and help the
patient feel better. It also may allow the tooth time to recover and
lay down secondary dentin (sort of a second layer of scar tissue),
sometimes eliminating the need for pulpal treatment like a root canal.
Once the tooth is recovered and less inflamed, any remaining decay
is removed and the final restoration (filling or crown) is placed. You
mix the powder and the liquid together to make a kind of play
ELECTROSURGICAL PULPOTOMY(MACK AND
It is a non-chemical devitalization,whereas mummification eliminates
pulp infection and vitality with chemical crosslinking and denaturation.
Electrocautery carbonizes and heat denatures the pulp and bacterial
Electrosurgery does little to improve on the formocresol pulpotomy but
does not use any chemicals.
After amputation of the coronal pulp,the pulp stumps are cauterized
through this method. After completion,the pulp chamber is filled with
zinc oxide and eugenol paste. The tooth is restored with a stainless
Rubber dam isolation and administration of local anesthesia
Caries removal with large round slow speed bur
Sterile cotton pellets are placed in contact with pulp and
pressure is applied to obtain hemostasis
•The hyfrecator plus 7-797 is set at 40% power and the 705A
dental electrode is used to deliever the electrical arc
• Cotton pellet is quickly removed and the electrode is placed 1-2mm
above the pulpal stump
• Electrical arc is allowed to bridge the gap to the pulpal stump for 1
second,followed by a cool-down period of 5 seconds
• When the procedure is properly performed,the pulpal stumps
appear dry and completely blackened
• Pulp chamber is filled with ZOE placed directly against the pulpal
• Final restoration is then placed
Jeng-fen-liuet al in 1999 studied the effect on Nd:YAG laser
pulpotomy in primary teeth and noted 100% success with no signs or
symptoms,and only one tooth had internal root resorption at the sixmonth follow up visit
TWO-VISIT DEVITALIZATION PULPOTOMY
This is two stage procedure involving the use of paraformaldehyde to
.fix the entire coronal and radicular pulp tissue
1. There is evidence of sluggish bleeding at the amputation site that
is difficult to control.
2. Pus in the chamber , but none at the amputation site.
3. There is thickening of pdl.
4. History of pain.
1. .Non restorable
3. .Soon to be exfoliated
:Formula of each agent used are as follows
:GYSI TRIOPASTE FORMULA.1
*tricresol 10 ml
*cresol 20 ml
*glyserine 4 ml
*paraformaldehyde 20 ml
*zinc oxide 60 gm
:EASLICK’S PARAFORMALDEHYDE FORMULA.2
paraformaldehyde 1 gm*
*procaine base 0.03 gm
*powdered asbestos 0.05 gm
*petroleum jelly 125 gm
*carimine to colour
3.PARAFORM DEVITALIZING PASTE:
*lignocaine 0.06 gm
*propylene glycol 0.05 ml
*carbowax 1500 1.30 gm
*carmine to colour
• Isolation with rubber dam
• Preparation of the cavity
• Deep caries excavated
• Enlarge the exposure with round bur
• Incorporate paraformaldehyde paste into the pellet and
Place over exposure.
• Seal the tooth for 1-2 weeks so that formaldehyde gas
liberated from paraformaldehyde enters coronal and radicular pulp,
thereby fixing the tissue.
• Pulpotomy is carried out under local anesthesia
• Remove the cotton pellet and deroof the pulp chamber
• Clean the cavity with saline and dry with cotton pellet
• Pulp chamber filled with antiseptic paste and tooth is
It has been widely tested,to replace formocresol. Studies have shown
that application of 2-4%produces rapid surface fixation of the
.underlying pulp tissue
:Mechanism of action
• Glutaraldehyde produces rapid surface fixation of the underlying
• A narrow zone of eosinophilic,stained and compressed fixed tissue is
found directly beneath the of application,which blends into vital
normal appearing tissue apically.
• With time,glutaraldehyde fixed zone is replaced by macrophagic
action with dense collagenous tissue,thus the entire root canal tissue
• local anesthesia and a rubber dam are applied.
• The operative procedure is in principle the same as for FC pellets
•soaked in a 2% buffered freshly prepared glutaraldehyde solution
are placed on the wound surfaces and left in place for 3-5 min.
•The pellets are removed and a slow-setting zinc oxide-eugenol
cement covered with a fast-setting cement is placed and the cavity
ADVANTAGES OF GLUTARALDEHYDE OVER FORMOCRESOL:
1. it is bifunctional reagent,which allows it to form strong intra and
intermolecular protein bonds leading to superior fixation by cross
2. it is excellent antimicrobial.
3. causes less necrosis of the pulpal tissue.
4. 15-20 times less toxic than formacresol.
5. demonstrates less systemic distribution.
6. it is low tissue binding,readily metabolized,eliminated in urine and
expired in gases-90% of the drug is gone in 3 days.
7. mutagenicity-Glutaraldehyde does not reach the nucleus of the
.antigenicity-less as compared to formocresol. 8
.Less dystrophic calcification in pulp canals. 9
Diffusability is limited, thus reducing the apical extension of . 10
1. Neither the optimal concentration,nor the amount of time
period of application has been coclusively established.
2. Failure rate is more than formocresol
The ferric sulfate the most suitable alternative to formocresol in the
next few years.
• In light of recent evidence, ferric sulfate can be used as a suitable
alternative for those concerned about the toxicity of formocresol or
have difficulty obtaining it in the United Kingdom. However, it must be
remembered that ferric sulfate has no "fixative" effect.
• For this reason, an accurate diagnosis of the state of the pulp tissue
being left behind and on which ferric sulfate is being applied will need
to be made.
It is a non aldehyde haemostatic compound
(2)forms a ferric ion-protein complex that mechanically occludes
(3) less inflammation than formocresol
(4) 92.7% radiographic success rate.
(5)100% clinical success
(6)root resorption is not accelerated
(7)internal resorption similar to formocresol ,no systemic or local side
An ideal pulpotomy treatment should leave the radicular pulp
vital , healthy and completely enclosed within an odontoblast-lined
This is called as calcium hydroxide pulpotomy or young permanent
. partial pulpotomy. This was proposed by Mejare Cvek in 1993
•It is indicated in young permanent teeth with incomplete root
information and the radicular pulp is judged vital by the clinical
and radiographic criteria.
Application of rubber dam
All carious material is removed with excavators or slow speed round
Coronal pulp removed,to perform a pulpotomy.
After arrest of the hemorrhage,Ca(OH)2 is applied to the exposed
pulp,ensuring that there is no blood clot.
The cavity is then sealed with temporary restorative material.
A tooth should remain symptom free at recall and radiograph should
show formation of a secondary dentine bridge.
Then permanent restoration with amalgam is done.
Calcium hydroxide:advantages and disadvantages
Initially bacteriocidal then
Promotes healing and repair 2.
High pH stimulates
Does exclusively stimulate
Associated with primary tooth
May dissolve after one year with
Particles may obturate open 5.
May degrade during acid etching
Does not adhere to the dentin or
Neutralizes low pH of acids
Stops intrnal resorption
Inexpensive and easy to use
Does not exclusively stimulate
Degrades upon tooth flexure
Marginal failure with amalgam
BONE MORPHOGENIC PROTEINS(BMP)
Bone morphogenic proteins initiate endochondral bone formation.
The main action of BMP’s is to stimulate undifferentiated
pluripotent cells to differentiate in to cartilage and bone forming
cells. BMP’s are abundant in bone and dentin and promote
.osteogenesis and reparative dentin formation
MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE(MTA)
MTA is the new medicament with an alkaline pH. It has shown
significant improvement over the materials in promoting the healing
of pulp and periradicular tissue. It is biocompatible,prevents
bacterial leakage and is effective even in moist environment.
:Other uses of MTA are
•root end filling
•perforation repair in furcation,coronal,mild or apical portion of
•repair of resorptive perforation if not too extensive
Non vital pulpotomy
Non vital pulpotomy) Ideally,non-vital tooth should be treated by )
pulpectomy,but sometimes it is impracticable due to nonnegotiable root canals and limited patient cooperation
1. History of spontaneous pain
2. Swelling,redness or soreness of mucosa
3. Tooth mobility
4. Tenderness to percussion
5. Radiographic evidence of pathological root resorption or
periradicular bone destruction
6. Pulp at the exposed site does not bleed
Necrotic coronal pulp is removed
Pulp chamber is irrigated with saline and dried with cotton pellet
Infected radicular pulp is treated with strong antiseptic solution like
Seal cavity with temporary cement for 1-2 weeks
If the tooth is asymptomatic the pulp chamber is filled with an
The tooth then restored with stainless steel crown
Pulpectomy involves removal of the roof and contents of pulp
chamber in order to gain access to the root canals which are
.debrided,enlarged and disinfected
.Canals are filled with RESORBABLE MATERIALS
1. Infectious process should resolve
2. Radiographic evidence of successful filling
3. Treatment should allow reosrption of primary root structures
and filling materials at appropriate time
4. No post treatment pain,swelling or sensitivity
5. No radiographic evidence of further break down of
6. No internal or external resorption.
1. Cooperative patient.
2. Pt should be in good health with no serious disease.
3. Maximum cooperation of pt and parent
Young pt with systemic illness such as congenital ischemic . 1
.heart disease, leukemia
2.Children on long term corticosteriods therapy.
1. Atooth previously planned for apulpotomy that shows either a
dry pulp champer or uncontrolled pulpal hemorrage.
2. Indicated for any primary tooth in absence of its permenant
3. Any deciduous tooth with severe pulpal necrosis provided
there is no radiographic contraindication.
4. traumatized primary incisors with pulp exposures or acute or
.Pulpless tooth with stomas. 4
5. Pulpless primary teeth in hemophiliacs.
.Pulpless primary molars holding orthodontic appliance . 6
1. Excessive tooth mobility.
2. Communication between the oral cavity and area of
3. Communication between the roof of the pulp champer, and
the region of furcation.
4. Insufficient tooth structure to allow isolation by ruubber
dam and extra cronal restoration.
1. Adequate peridontal and bony support.
2. Incipient internal root resorpation in the occlusal portion of
the occlusal portion of the root canal.
1. External root resorption.
2. Internal root resorption in the apical 3rd of the root.
3. Rdicular cyst, dentigrous – follicular cyst in assocition with the
4. Interradicular radiolucency that communicatees with gingival
Achieve adequate anesthesia and rubber dam isolation.
Two phases-CORONAL phase,RADICULAR phase.
1. Remove all caries.
2.Remove the roof of the pulp chamber with a high-speed
3.Amputate the coronal aspect of the pulp tissue with a large
II. RADICULAR phase
1. The remaining pulp tissue occupying the root canals is removed
using endodontic files at a predetermined working length,
approximately 1 to 2 mm short of the root apices.
2.The canals should be enlarged several sizes beyond the size of the
first file that fits snugly into the canal to a minimum final size of
30 to 35.
3.Throughout root canal instrumentation, the canals should be
irrigated with sodium hypochlorite to aid in debridement.
4.Dry the canals with sterile paper points.
The canals are filled with a treatment paste (Zinc.5
.Oxide/Eugenol at UKCD) using a pressure syringe
.The tooth is restored with a stainless steel crown.6
Non-vital pulp therapy⎯primary tooth. (a) A carious, but restorable, non-vital primary molar.
(b) Caries is eliminated and access made to the pulp. Gentle canal debridement is undertaken
with smal files and irrigation. (c) Disinfection of the canal system. A pledget of cotton wool
barely moistened with ledermix is sealed into the pulp chamber for 7-10 days. (d) The tooth
is reopened at a second visit, and after irrigation and drying, a soft mixture of slow-setting
zinc oxideeugenol cement is gently packed into the canals with the cotton-wool
pledget. (e) The pulp chamber is packed with accelerated zinc oxideeugenol cement before
.definitive restoration of the tooth
a) Periapical radiograph)
showing files placed in the root
canals of left lower second primary
b) Root canals have been filled )
with pure zinc oxide eugenol
•Root canal filling in an upper
primary central incisor
•If iflammation is beyond the coronal pulp with only interradicular
but no periapical radiolucency-single visit pulpectomy is done.
•If pulp is necrotic with periapical involvement,filling is done at
:Follow-up and review
Though the pulpectomy technique carries a good prognosis, the
. outcome is not as good as a vital pulpotomy
Clinical follow-up augmented by one periapical radiograph on a yearly
basis is required (391HFig. 8.27 (a)-(b)). The following clinical and
:radiographic parameters can be taken as indications of success
;alleviation of acute symptoms•
.tooth free from pain and mobility•
improvement or no further deterioration of bone condition in the •
Criteria for an ideal pulpectomy obturant (treatment paste)
3. Harmless to the adjacent tooth germ
5. Non-impinging on erupting permanent tooth
6. Easily inserted
7. Easily removed
Should not shrink.8
Insoluble in water.9
10.not discolour teeth.
Most commonly used.
Camp in 1984 introduced endodontic pressure syringe.
Overfilling causes Foreign body reaction
Difference in rate of resorption from that of tooth root.
Success rate 65%
II. IODOFORM PASTE
.Derivative of iodine
•Extruded paste in periapical tissue is replaced with normal tissue
•Can be removed if
retreatment is required
•Success rate 84%
Iodoform 80.8%,camphor 4.86%,parachlorophenol
IV. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE
• Calcium hydroxide and iodoform mixture-Vitapex,Neo Dental
Chemical Products Co;Tokyo,has been published by Fuchino and
Nishino in 1980.
• Non toxic
• Easy to apply
• Resorbs at slightly faster rate than root
• Radio opaque
• 100% success rate.
•Zno-56.5%,Barium sulphate 1.63%,Iodoform 40.6%,Calcium
hydroxide 1.07%,Eugenol Pentachlorophenol.
•Microleakage is prevented.
•70% success rate.
1.Endodontic pressure syringe
-These apparatus consist of syringe barrel, threaded needle.
Needle is withdrawn 3 mm with each quarter turn of the screw
until the canal is visibly filled at the orfice.
-The endodotic pressure syringe is also effective for placing the
ZEO into the canals.
-The Vitapex system also uses a syringe with the material in it.
-The syringe is introduced up to 1/5th the distance from the apex
of the canal and the material is slowly injected as the syringe is
withdrawn from the canal.
2. Mechanical syringe
Cement is loaded into the syringe with 30 gauge needle as per per
the manifactures is recommendation and expressed into the canal.
Press using continous pressure while withdrawing the needle.
Lentulo spiral technique. 3
•Pastes can also be filled by means of a Lentulo spiral mounted
on the micro motor hand piece.
•The direction of rotation needs to be checked for the material
to properly flow into the canal.
Incremental filling technique.4
•Endodontic plugger corresponding to the size of the canal with
rubber stopper is used to place thick mix of cement into the
•Thick mix was prepared into a flame shape corresponding to
size and shape of the canal and then tapped genently into the
apical area with the help of plugger.
•The primary teeth with their larger canals may be filled with a thin
mix coating on the walls of the root canal with the help of a reamer in
a anti-clock wise direction while taking it out slowly followed by the
placement of the thicker mix which is then pushed manually.
.c)Plugging action with wet cotton pellet
Apexogenesis & Apexification
-At the time of tooth eruption root development is only 62-80% i.e.,
2/3rd of the root is formed.
-If due to trauma or caries exposure the pulp undergoes necrosis,
dentin formation ceases and root growth is arrested.
-The resultant immature root will have an open apex which is also
called as blunder buss canal.
Problems faced with open apex
-Due to large apical diameter and smaller coronal canal diameter
debridement is difficult.
-Lack of apical stop makes obturation difficult.
-The thin root canal walls become prone to fracture.
-Earlier open apices have been treated by periapical surgery with a
retrograde filling but surgery has its drawbacks.
•Relative to the already shortened root, further root reduction
(apicectomy) could result in an inadequate crown root ratio.
•The apical walls are thin and could shatter when touched with a
•The thin walls would make condensation of a retrograde filling
•The periapical tissue may not adapt to the wide and irregular surface
of the amalgam.
•Surgery would remove the root sheath and prevent for further root
•Surgery would be both physically and psychologically traumatic to the
Thus It is best to treat immature teeth with a non surgical approach.
Based on the vitality of the pulp if the immature tooth has vital pulp
exhibiting reversible pulpitis physiological root end development or
apexogenesis is attempted.
If irreversible pulpitis is present there is when pulp is necrotic then
apexification root end closure is done by
.Maturation of permanent incisors
a) Immature incisors showing short )
roots with incomplete, wide-open
apices. The lateral walls of the roots
. are thin and structurally weak
b) The same teeth 2 years later,)
the roots are now almost complete
following continued dentine
.deposition by healthy pulp
Apexogenesis involves removal of the inflamed pulp and the
placement of calcium hydroxide on the remaining healthy pulp
tissue. Traditionally this has implied removal of the coronal
portion of the pulp to permit continued dentin formation and
apical closure in an immature tooth .
• Bone morphogenic protein
-No clinical symptoms
-No radiogarphic changes in pulp or periapex
-Continued root development
-Radiographically observed hard tissue barrier at the site of procedure
-Sensitivity to vitality testing
:Goals of apexogenesis
1 Sustaining a viable Hertwig’s sheath, thus allowing continued
development of root length for a more favorable crown-to-root ratio.
2 Maintaining pulpal vitality, thus allowing the remaining odontoblasts to
lay down dentine producing a thicker root and decreasing the chance of
Promoting root end closure, thus creating a natural apical constriction 3
for root canal filling
Generating a dentinal bridge at the site of the pulpotomy. While the 4
bridging is not essential for the success of the procedure, it does
.suggest that the pulp has maintained its vitality
Failures of Apexogenesis
-Cessation of root growth
-Development of signs and symptoms or periapical lesions
Under local anaesthesia and rubber dam, pulp tissue is excised •
with a diamond bur running at high speed under constant water
cooling. This causes least injury to the underlying pulp and is
.preferred to hand excavation or the use of slow-speed steel burs
Microbial invasion of an exposed, vital pulp is usually superficial and •
generally only 2-3 mm of pulp tissue should be removed (partial
Excessive bleeding from the residual pulp which cannot be •
,controlled with moist cotton wool, or indeed no bleeding at all
indicates that further excision is required to reach healthy tissue
Removal of tissue may occasionally extend more deeply into the •
tooth (full coronal pulpotomy) in an effort to preserve the apical
.portion of the pulp and safeguard apical Closure
Gently rinse the wound with sterile saline or sodium hypochlorite (1- •
2%)and remove any shredded tissue. All remaining tags of tissue in
the coronal portion must be removed as they may act as a nidus for
re-infection, and a pathway for coronal leakage
Apply a calcium hydroxide dressing to the pulp to destroy any •
remaining microorganism and to promote calcific repair. In superficial
wounds, a setting calcium hydroxide cement may be gently flowed onto
the pulp surface, but if the excision was deep, it is often easier to
prepare a stiff mixture of calcium hydroxide powder (analytical grade)
in sterile saline or local anaesthetic solution, which is carried to the
.canal in an amalgam carrier and gently packed into place with pluggers
Overlay the calcium hydroxide dressing with a hard cement to •
prevent its forceful injection into the pulp by chewing forces and a
final adhesive restoration which will seal the preparation against the
.re-entry of micro-organisms
The total time for achievement of the goals of the apexogenesis
ranges between 1 and 2 years depending on the degree of tooth
development at the time of the procedure
,after a month•
,monthly intervals for up to 4 years in order to assess pulp vitality 6•
periodic radiographic review should also be arranged to monitor•
dentine bridge formation, root growth, and to exclude the
development of necrosis and resorption. If vitality is lost, non-vital
pulp therapy should be undertaken whether or not there is a
(,calcific bridge (see below
success rates for partial (Cvek) pulpotomies are quoted at 97%. •
.Those for coronal pulpotomies at 75%
•Elective pulpectomy and root canal treatment of a vital pulp may be
considered at a later date only if the root canal is required for
Pulp amputation (apexogenesis procedure)
.of a permanent incisor
a)Complicated fracture of an immature )
incisor with microbial invasion of the
coronal pulp. The pulp has been exposed to
.the mouth for more than 24 h
b) Access to the coronal pulp and )
amputation of coronal pulp tissue with a
diamond bur running at high speed with
.constant water cooling
c) Dressing the pulpal wound to promote )
calcific repair. Non-setting calcium
hydroxide cement is flowed on to the pulp,
then overlaid with a hard cement, and the
.tooth restored with composite resin
d) The same tooth after 12 months )
showing calcific barrier formation. The
calcific barrier was directly inspected in
this case, (not always required), and a new
layer of setting calcium hydroxide cement
placed on the barrier before definitive
restoration. The remaining pulp has stayed
healthy and deposited dentine to complete
is a method of inducing apical closure through the Apexification
formation mineralized tissue in apical pulp region of a non vital tooth
with an incompletely formed root.
The mineralized tissue can be osteodentin, osteocementum, or bone or
.combination of all
-Restorable immature tooth with pulp necrosis
1-All vertical and unfavourable horizontal root fractures,
4-Periodontally broken down tooth
The aim of apexification is to induce either closure of the open apical
third of the root canal or the formation of an apical “calcific barrier”
against which obturation can be achieved
The technique of treatment is the usual cleaning and irrigation of the
root canal, followed by sealing with a paste composed of camphorated
chlorophenol and calcium hydroxide.
Radiographic examination is made 3 and 6 months after the
procedure, and when evidence of a root apex cap or barrier appears,
the root canals are obturated. Actual root growth does not occur as a
result of apexification, but radiographic evidence of a calcified mass
at the root apex gives that impression.
Factors Affecting Apexification
1-Age of the patient
3-Location of apex
5-Thorough cleaning & debridement
Materials used are :
3-Bone growth factors
Access with a high-speed, medium tapered fissure bur. In the pulp •
chamber use safe-ended burs to remove the entire roof without the
.danger of overcutting or Perforation
Remove loose debris from the pulp chamber with hand instruments, •
accompanied by copious, gentle irrigation with sodium hypochlorite
Gates Glidden drills may be used to improve access to canals for •
instruments and irrigant. They should not be used deep in the canals of
.immature teeth where they may overcut and create a strip perforation
Canal preparation involves two processes: cleaning with irrigants to•
free the root canal system of organic debris, micro-organisms and their
toxins; and shaping with enlarging instruments, to modify the form of
the existing canal to allow the placement of a well-condensed root
In canals which are often as wide as this, little dentine removal and
shaping is needed. Sodium hypochlorite solution (1-2%) as an irrigant
will continue dissolving organic debris and killing micro-organisms deep
Working apically, files are directed around the canal walls with a light •
rasping action to remove adherent debris. Instrumentation is
frequently punctuated by highvolume, low-pressure irrigation to flush
Irrigant is delivered either by pre-measured, 27 gauge needle and •
syringe or with the aid of sonic/ultrasonic energy. The latter involves
flooding the canal with irrigant before inserting a small (size 16-20)
file attached to a sonic/ultrasonic unit to stir the irrigant in the canal.
Wall contact with the file should be avoided, as the action is liable to
.cause turbulence in the irrigant which scrubs the walls of debris
Provisional working length should be 2-3 mm from the radiographic •
apex, estimated from an undistorted pre-operative periapical film. A
working length radiograph is then taken to establish a definitive
working length 1 mm short of the radiographic root apex. Further
gentle filing and irrigation is then continued to the definitive working
Dry canal with pre-measured paper points to avoid inadvertent over- •
extension and damage to the periapical tissues
Fill canal with a relatively fluid proprietary calcium hydroxide paste •
such as Ultracal (Optident, UK. This may be syringed into the canal via
a disposable flexible tip or alternatively spun into the canal with a
spiral paste filler. The antimicrobial and mild tissue solvent activity of
non-setting calcium hydroxide will continue to cleanse the canal, and
.its high pH is believed to encourage calcific root end closure
A radiograph may be taken to ensure a dense fill to each root •
Seal access cavity tightly between appointments to prevent the •
leaching of calcium hydroxide, and critically, to prevent the re-entry
of micro-organisms from the mouth which would disturb the process
of root end closure. A 3 mm thickness of glass ionomer cement or
.composite resin is adequate to provide a bacteria-tight seal
Cotton-wool fibres should not be allowed to remain at the cavo.surface of the cavity
monthly to monitor root end closure. At each appointment the 3•
calcium hydroxide dressing is carefully washed from the canal and
the presence of a calcified barrier assessed by gently tapping a pre.measured paper point at the working length
Radiographs should be taken to assess the progress of barrier•
If the canal is closed, obturation may proceed. If calcific barrier •
formation is not complete, the canal should be redressed for a
further 3 months. Calcific barrier formation is usually complete
.within 9-18 months, but could take up to 2 years
(. Root-end closure (apexification
(a) Immature, permanent central incisor devitalized by trauma.
(b) The same tooth 18 months later. Canal debridement and calcium
hydroxide therapy has allowed the development of an apical calcific
The canal has been densely obturated with thermoplastic gutta percha
Filling canal with calcium hydroxide paste such as Ultracal
a) Following irrigation and gentle debridement in a crown-to-apex )
. direction, the working length is determined
b) Non-setting calcium hydroxide paste is syringed into the canal via )
. a flexible tip
c) The same tooth 18 months later. A calcific barrier is apparent, )
. and the tooth is ready for definitive obturation and restoration
(.d) The flexible tip system (Ultracal)
Manual obturation in apically divergent canal
Obturation following root-end closure in an apically diverging canal.
(a)The widest gutta percha point that will reach the apical terminus of the
canal is warmed by passage of its tip through a and may be inverted in the
(b) Without delay, the point is introduced to the canal (the canal is already
lightly coated with sealer), and advanced to adapt against the apical barrier.
(c) Additional points are now packed around the master point with cold or warm
condensation until the canal is densely filled.
Alternatives to the root-end closure procedure
Recently the potential has arisen to seal open apices with mineral •
trioxide aggregate (MTA). Based on Portland building cement it is
packed into the canal with premeasured pluggers and sets to form a
.hard, sealing, biocompatible barrier within 4 h
•Moist cotton wool is placed into the canal to promote setting and the
material is checked after at least 24 h before filling the remainder
of the canal with gutta percha and sealer, or with composite and a
Clinical studies are ongoing, but this material seems likely to allow
root end closure in 1 or 2 visits which will demand less patient
When pulp vitality is lost in an almost fully formed tooth, it may be •
possible to avoid lengthy root-end closure procedures by creating an
apical stop against which a root filling may be packed. Following crown
to apex preparation as described above, endodontic hand files may be
used in gentle watch-winding or balanced-force motion at working
length to shave an apical seat for canal obturation. Alternatively,
MTA can be packed into the apical 1-2 mm of the canal with pluggers
.to provide an immediate apical seal
(a) Immature apex tooth .
(b) Apical 'plug' of MTA and backfill
with thermoplastic GP
:has described four successful results of apexification treatment's
continued closure of the canal and apex to a normal appearance, ( 1 )
(2) a domeshaped apical closure with the canal retaining a blunderbuss
no apparent radiographic change but a positive stop in the apical ( 3)
A positive stop and radiographic evidence of a barrier coronal to ( 4)
.the anatomic apex of the tooth