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‫ﺑﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮﺣﺒ‬‫ﺑﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮﺣﺒ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌ‬::‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬
BiogeochemicalBiogeochemical
‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬٣٠–٤٠‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ...
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬
‫...
.١‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬.
.٢‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟ...
٥-‫ﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺃﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬:

 
٦-‫ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬:


...
١-‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Carbon cycle
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬
)‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬(‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬...
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬
..١١‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ‬
..٢٢‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻞ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻞ‬
.....
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬
••‫ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬...
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬
٢-‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Oxygen cycle
‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍ...
،‫ﻭﻟﺒـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻗﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬
‫ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﻠﻎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﺎﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ...
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
..١١‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺗﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﲢﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫...
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
٣-‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Nitrogen cycle
••‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬٧٨٧٨‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫...
••‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫...
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬
••‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﻔـﺔ‬...
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬
٥-‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Phosphorus cycle
••‫ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜـﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺧﻼﻓـ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺣـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜـﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭ...
..١١‫ﺗﻔﺘﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻬﻤـ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻄـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺗﻔﺘﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻬﻤـ‬ ‫ﹰ‬...
‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺘﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘ...
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬
٦-‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Sulfur cycle
••‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﳏﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﳜﺰﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﳏﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﳜﺰ...
••‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫...
‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬
••‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﳘﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫...
‫ﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺷﻜﺮ‬‫ﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺷﻜﺮ‬
ثالثاً دورات الغلاف الحيوي
ثالثاً دورات الغلاف الحيوي
ثالثاً دورات الغلاف الحيوي
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ثالثاً دورات الغلاف الحيوي

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ثالثاً دورات الغلاف الحيوي

  1. 1. ‫ﺑﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮﺣﺒ‬‫ﺑﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮﺣﺒ‬
  2. 2. ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬
  3. 3. ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬
  4. 4. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌ‬::‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬
  5. 5. ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
  6. 6. ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬
  7. 7. ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
  8. 8. ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
  9. 9. ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
  10. 10. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ BiogeochemicalBiogeochemical
  11. 11. ‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬٣٠–٤٠‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﳕﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬:،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴـﻔﻮﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﲔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻮﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺻـﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬.
  12. 12. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬
  13. 13. .١‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬. .٢‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﲣﺰﻳﻦ‬. .٣‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬. .٤‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬. ‫ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼﻒ‬:
  14. 14. ٥-‫ﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺃﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬:   
  15. 15. ٦-‫ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬:    
  16. 16. ١-‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Carbon cycle
  17. 17. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ )‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬(‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ، ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬٠.٠٣٢‫ﻭﳜﺰﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ٪ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀـﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻛﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠـﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉـﲑﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠـﺮ‬ ‫ﺻـﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳـﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﺷﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻮﻣﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬.‫ﻛﺜـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺫﺍﺋﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺻـﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻜﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬.
  18. 18. ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬
  19. 19. ..١١‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ‬ ..٢٢‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻞ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻞ‬ ..٣٣‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻕ‬ ..٤٤‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺳﺐ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﱢﻠﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬‫ﻭﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﱢﻠﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛـﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻃﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬‫ﻛﻮﻛـﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻃﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬..
  20. 20. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
  21. 21. ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
  22. 22. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ••‫ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺷﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺷﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬٣٠٣٠‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،٪‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،٪٦٥٦٥‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﳊﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﳊﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬::‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬٣٥٣٥‫ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺸﺎﺋﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺄﰐ‬ ٪‫ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺸﺎﺋﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺄﰐ‬ ٪ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﰲ‬.. ••‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺣﻮﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺷﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﲰﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺣﻮﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺷﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﲰﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﺑـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺒﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﻓﺌ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﺫﻭﺑـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺒﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﻓﺌ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻬﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻠﻴﺪ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻬﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻠﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‬..
  23. 23. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬
  24. 24. ٢-‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Oxygen cycle
  25. 25. ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰ‬:: ..١١‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬))‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ‬.(.( ..٢٢‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬))‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ‬.(.( ..٣٣‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬))‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬.(.( ..٤٤‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺫﺍﺋﺒ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺫﺍﺋﺒ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬..
  26. 26. ،‫ﻭﻟﺒـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻗﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﻠﻎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﺎﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬٩٩.٥‫ﻛﻮﻛـﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴـﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﲨﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﰎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬٠.٠١‫ﻭﳓﻮ‬ ، ٪٠.٣٦‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﻼﻑ‬ ٪ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬٢٠.٩‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪.
  27. 27. ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
  28. 28. ..١١‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺗﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﲢﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺗﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﲢﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺋﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﳑﻠﻜﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳑﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬ ،‫ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺋﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﳑﻠﻜﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳑﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬ ،‫ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﲤـﺘﺺ‬ ‫ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ،‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬‫ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﲤـﺘﺺ‬ ‫ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ،‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴـﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻠﻖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻤﺎﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴـﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻠﻖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﺭ‬‫ﺑﻨﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﺭ‬٥٠٥٠‫ﻛﻮﻛـﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻠﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪‫ﻛﻮﻛـﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻠﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬.. ..٢٢‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻌـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬‫ﻗﻴﻌـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺿـﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﲑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺿـﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﲑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬..‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺿـﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺳـﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺿـﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺳـﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬‫ﺃﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬.. ..٣٣‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻔﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻔﻘﺪ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻠﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻠﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬..
  29. 29. ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
  30. 30. ٣-‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Nitrogen cycle
  31. 31. ••‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬٧٨٧٨‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪‫ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ‫ﳐﺎﺯﻧﻪ‬‫ﳐﺎﺯﻧﻪ‬..‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀـﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﺯﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀـﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﺯﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬.. ••‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬٤٤‫ﻭﳓﻮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪‫ﻭﳓﻮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ٣٣‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻗﺴﻤ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻗﺴﻤ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬.. ••‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬::‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺢ‬ ))‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬((‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻠﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻠﺢ‬ ،))‫ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬((‫ﻭﻣﻠـﺢ‬ ،‫ﻭﻣﻠـﺢ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﺩﺭ‬))‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪ‬‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪ‬.(.(‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗـﺬﻭﺏ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗـﺬﻭﺏ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬..
  32. 32. ••‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻃـﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ،‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬‫ﻃـﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ،‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬:: ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬--‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺏ‬‫ﺏ‬--‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺝ‬‫ﺝ‬--‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
  33. 33. ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
  34. 34. ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
  35. 35. ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ••‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﻉ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﻧﺰﻉ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬))‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬((،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔﺎﺫﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔﺎﺫﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬.. ••‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬.. ••‫ﻧﺘـﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﲰـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬‫ﻧﺘـﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﲰـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣـﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎﺫﻳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ‬‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣـﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎﺫﻳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻠﻮﺛﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻛﻤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻠﻮﺛﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻛﻤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬..
  36. 36. ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬
  37. 37. ٥-‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Phosphorus cycle
  38. 38. ••‫ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜـﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺧﻼﻓـ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺣـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜـﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺧﻼﻓـ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺣـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻬﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻬﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺟﻴﻮﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﻏﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬..‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﻮﺭﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﺾ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﻮﺭﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﺾ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬.. ••‫ﻋـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻋـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ‬ ‫ﳜﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ‬ ‫ﳜﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺈﺭﺳﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺈﺭﺳﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬..‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻈﺎﻡ‬‫ﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺰﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻤﺎﺩ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺰﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻤﺎﺩ‬..‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺫﺍﺋﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺫﺍﺋﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻤﺎﺩ‬‫ﻛﻴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻤﺎﺩ‬..
  39. 39. ..١١‫ﺗﻔﺘﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻬﻤـ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻄـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺗﻔﺘﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻬﻤـ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻄـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘـﻞ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ،‫ﲤﺘﺼـﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘـﻞ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ،‫ﲤﺘﺼـﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬..‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌـﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳـﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﳌـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌـﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳـﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺧﻼﻳﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻪ‬‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺧﻼﻳﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻪ‬.. ..٢٢،‫ﺍﶈﻠـﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺗـﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬،‫ﺍﶈﻠـﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺗـﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨـﺪﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﻮﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺃﺟﺴﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬‫ﻭﻳﻨـﺪﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﻮﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺃﺟﺴﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳـﻴﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺗﺮﺳـﻴﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻘـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ‬‫ﺗﻘـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳـﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻔﺘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺑﻮﺳـﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻔﺘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬..
  40. 40. ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬
  41. 41. ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
  42. 42. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺘﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺘﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻔـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﲰﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻔـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﲰﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺣﻴﻖ‬،‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺣﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ،ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ،ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺜـﺮ‬ ‫ﻇـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺜـﺮ‬ ‫ﻇـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬EutrophicationEutrophication‫ﺑﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮ‬‫ﺑﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺘﺎﺕ‬‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻹﲤﺎﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﳋﻠﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻹﲤﺎﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﳋﻠﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺔ‬..
  43. 43. ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﲝﲑﺓ‬
  44. 44. ٦-‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬Sulfur cycle
  45. 45. ••‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﳏﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﳜﺰﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﳏﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﳜﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺄﻣﻼﺡ‬ ،‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺄﻣﻼﺡ‬ ،‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬.. ••‫ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻭﺗﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﺎﻣﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻛـﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻀﻢ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻭﺗﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﺎﻣﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻛـﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻀﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈـﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳍﺮﻣﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈـﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳍﺮﻣﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬..
  46. 46. ••‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﰐ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬‫ﻳﺄﰐ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬:: ..١١‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ،‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﺃ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ،‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻳﺮﻩ‬‫ﻛﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻳﺮﻩ‬.. ،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﻘﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻠﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬،‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﻘﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻠﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﺨﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺥ‬‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﺨﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺥ‬.. ..٢٢‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲤﺘﺺ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲤﺘﺺ‬))‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬((‫ﻣـﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻮﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬‫ﻣـﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻮﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ،‫ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻛﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﰒ‬ ،‫ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬.. ..٣٣‫ﻳﺘﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬‫ﻳﺘﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺄﻛﺴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻳﺘﻴﺪ‬‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺄﻛﺴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻳﺘﻴﺪ‬.. ..٤٤،‫ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﹾﻘﺪ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲤﺘﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﹾﻘﺪ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲤﺘﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺩﻳﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺩﻳﺔ‬..
  47. 47. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
  48. 48. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ••‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﳘﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﳘﺖ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬‫ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ١١//٣٣‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬٩٠٩٠‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺼـﻞ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨـﻪ‬ ٪‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺼـﻞ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨـﻪ‬ ٪ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬.. ••‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻠﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻠﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮ‬.. ••‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛـﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻄﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹﺛـﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻄﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬..
  49. 49. ‫ﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺷﻜﺮ‬‫ﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺷﻜﺮ‬

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