Chapter 18 <ul><li>Information Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems </li></ul>MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/...
Information Resources Include: <ul><li>Specialists  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysts, programmers, database administ...
Information Specialists <ul><li>Most located in the information services unit </li></ul><ul><li>There is a trend to locate...
A Functional Organization Structure for Information Services Network manager Manager of computer operations Manager of sys...
Information Resources <ul><li>Most are located in information services </li></ul><ul><li>Most that are centrally located a...
Model of an IRIS <ul><li>Input subsystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information resources resea...
A Model of an Information Resources Information System Database Accounting information system Information resources resear...
Information Resources  Research Subsystem <ul><li>Describes functions involved in special research projects within the fir...
Information Resources Intelligence Subsystem <ul><li>Describes functions involved in gathering information from elements i...
CIO Responsibilities <ul><li>Can be top-level executive who participates on executive and MIS steering committee </li></ul...
Achieving Quality Products and Services   <ul><li>1) Identify IS customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIS steering committee </...
IS Takes Six Basic Steps in Achieving Quality Management 1 2 3 4 5 6 Identify IS customers Define customer quality needs E...
Comparison of How IS and Middle-Level Manager-Users Perceive Product Quality Accurate 4.91 4.88 4.89 Trusts output 4.90 4....
Achieving Quality Products  and Services [cont.] <ul><li>3) Establish quality metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information  p...
See Table 18.2 Basic Competencies Expected of IS Job Applicants 1.  Concern for effectiveness  2.  Initiative 3.  Enthusia...
Special Attention to Human Factors Ensures That Users’ Needs are Incorporated into Systems Designs 1. Planning phase 2. An...
Achieving Quality Products  and Services [cont.] <ul><li>5) Implement IS quality programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementa...
Security Objectives <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul>Current a...
Integrity Availability Information Unauthorized use Unauthorized disclosure  and theft Unauthorized destruction and  denia...
Identification Authentication Authorization User Profiles Access control files Database Software library Audit log Report ...
Access Control <ul><li>Identification  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you know (password) or  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where...
Contingency Planning <ul><li>Emergency plan </li></ul><ul><li>Backup plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul></ul>...
Vital Records Plan <ul><li>Electronic vaulting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day end backup of files electronically </li></ul></ul...
Cost-Reduction Strategies <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces number of separate locations for information...
Cost-Reduction Strategies [cont.] <ul><li>Downsizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrating  to smaller platforms </li></ul></ul>...
Cost-Reduction Strategies [cont.] <ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry and simple processing (editing, for...
Objectives of Outsourcing <ul><li>Manage costs better </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce </li></ul><ul><li>Contain </li></ul><ul><li...
Information Management in Three Pacific Rim Countries <ul><li>Countries were U.S., Korea, and Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Cen...
Information Management  in Three Pacific  Rim Countries [cont.] <ul><li>Information systems planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Proactive CIO Strategy <ul><li>1) CIO must emphasize quality management of the IS resource </li></ul><ul><li>2) Achieve st...
The Future of the CIO <ul><li>Business computing is moving from centralized to decentralized computing in terms of: </li><...
Donovan’s Four Stages of Decentralized Computing Equipment Big brother A B  Helping hand D  Network Watchdog C Decentraliz...
Summary <ul><li>Information resources located in IS are the responsibility of the CIO </li></ul><ul><li>IRIS is used to ma...
Summary [cont.] <ul><li>IS cost cutting considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chap18

723 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
723
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
21
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 1
  • 9
  • 16
  • 17
  • 19
  • 20
  • 21
  • 22
  • 23
  • 24
  • 24
  • 26
  • 31
  • Chap18

    1. 1. Chapter 18 <ul><li>Information Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems </li></ul>MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 18-
    2. 2. Information Resources Include: <ul><li>Specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysts, programmers, database administrators, network specialists, operations personnel, and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>Represents a large organizational investment! 18-
    3. 3. Information Specialists <ul><li>Most located in the information services unit </li></ul><ul><li>There is a trend to locate specialists throughout the firm </li></ul><ul><li>Actual organization chart depends on the needs of the firm </li></ul>18-
    4. 4. A Functional Organization Structure for Information Services Network manager Manager of computer operations Manager of systems maintenance Manager of systems administration CIO Manager of systems development Systems analyst Systems analyst Operations personnel Database administrators Network specialists Programmers Programmers 18-
    5. 5. Information Resources <ul><li>Most are located in information services </li></ul><ul><li>Most that are centrally located are CIO’s responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Those located in functional areas are the responsibility of the area manager </li></ul>18-
    6. 6. Model of an IRIS <ul><li>Input subsystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information resources research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information resources intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Output subsystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated resource </li></ul></ul>18-
    7. 7. A Model of an Information Resources Information System Database Accounting information system Information resources research subsystem Information resources intelligence subsystem Hardware subsystem Software subsystem Human resources subsystem Data and information subsystem Integrated resource subsystem Internal sources Environmental sources Users 18-
    8. 8. Information Resources Research Subsystem <ul><li>Describes functions involved in special research projects within the firm </li></ul><ul><li>Performed by systems analysts interacting with users </li></ul>18-
    9. 9. Information Resources Intelligence Subsystem <ul><li>Describes functions involved in gathering information from elements in the firm’s environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul></ul>18-
    10. 10. CIO Responsibilities <ul><li>Can be top-level executive who participates on executive and MIS steering committee </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to strategic planning for firm and IS functions </li></ul><ul><li>Primary source of leadership for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving and maintaining information quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping information resources secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning for contingencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping information costs under control </li></ul></ul>18-
    11. 11. Achieving Quality Products and Services <ul><li>1) Identify IS customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIS steering committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a formal system works best </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Define customer quality needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product quality needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service quality needs </li></ul></ul>18-
    12. 12. IS Takes Six Basic Steps in Achieving Quality Management 1 2 3 4 5 6 Identify IS customers Define customer quality needs Establish quality metrics Define quality strategy Implement IS quality programs Monitor IS quality performance 18-
    13. 13. Comparison of How IS and Middle-Level Manager-Users Perceive Product Quality Accurate 4.91 4.88 4.89 Trusts output 4.90 4.86 4.87 Works as specified 4.75 4.73 4.73 User friendly 4.50 4.75 4.68 Relevant 4.59 4.53 4.53 Fast response time 4.12 4.55 4.42 Meets all user needs 4.22 4.48 4.41 No downtime 3.96 4.25 4.16 Delivered on time 3.80 4.16 4.05 Has user documentation 4.21 3.93 4.01 Can be changed quickly 3.84 4.04 3.98 Delivered on budget 3.45 3.67 3.61 Low cost of operation 3.19 3.49 3.40 Has programmer documentation 3.74 3.23 3.39 Uses new technology 3.04 3.28 3.21 Dimension IS User Aggregate Perceived Value 18-
    14. 14. Achieving Quality Products and Services [cont.] <ul><li>3) Establish quality metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information product quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information service quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Define the IS quality strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-oriented systems development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product acceptance analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Systems tests </li></ul></ul></ul>18-
    15. 15. See Table 18.2 Basic Competencies Expected of IS Job Applicants 1. Concern for effectiveness 2. Initiative 3. Enthusiasm for work 4. Self-confidence 5. Concern with impact 6. Interpersonal astuteness 7. Conceptual thinking 8. Analytical thinking 9. Effective communication 10. Flexibility 18-
    16. 16. Special Attention to Human Factors Ensures That Users’ Needs are Incorporated into Systems Designs 1. Planning phase 2. Analysis phase 3. Design phase 4. Implementation phase 5. Use phase Conduct a market analysis Conduct a product acceptance analysis Conduct a task analysis Conduct prototype tests Conduct operational system tests 18-
    17. 17. Achieving Quality Products and Services [cont.] <ul><li>5) Implement IS quality programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation varies with firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6) Monitor IS quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of IS specialists and the unit </li></ul></ul>18-
    18. 18. Security Objectives <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul>Current attention is focused on malicious software such as computer viruses. 18-
    19. 19. Integrity Availability Information Unauthorized use Unauthorized disclosure and theft Unauthorized destruction and denial of service Unauthorized modification Security Confidentiality Unauthorized Acts Threaten System Security Objectives 18-
    20. 20. Identification Authentication Authorization User Profiles Access control files Database Software library Audit log Report writer Security reports Users Access Control Functions 18-
    21. 21. Access Control <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you know (password) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you are (terminal location) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you have (badge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of use </li></ul></ul>High-grade threats are from sophisticated computer criminals 18-
    22. 22. Contingency Planning <ul><li>Emergency plan </li></ul><ul><li>Backup plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empty shell </li></ul></ul></ul>18-
    23. 23. Vital Records Plan <ul><li>Electronic vaulting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day end backup of files electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote journaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of transaction data as the transactions occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to update remote database in batch form later </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database shadowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves updating of duplicate database at remote site as transaction occur </li></ul></ul>18-
    24. 24. Cost-Reduction Strategies <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces number of separate locations for information resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easiest to achieve in terms of information resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult by end-user computing needs </li></ul></ul>18-
    25. 25. Cost-Reduction Strategies [cont.] <ul><li>Downsizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrating to smaller platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage of cost reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage of increased productivity with PCs located in user areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of lost security </li></ul></ul>18-
    26. 26. Cost-Reduction Strategies [cont.] <ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry and simple processing (editing, formatting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities management (FM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems integration (SI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for maintenance, service, or disaster recovery </li></ul></ul>18-
    27. 27. Objectives of Outsourcing <ul><li>Manage costs better </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce </li></ul><ul><li>Contain </li></ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain relief from systems maintenance so as to concentrate on new system development </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire needed expertise </li></ul>18-
    28. 28. Information Management in Three Pacific Rim Countries <ul><li>Countries were U.S., Korea, and Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Centralization versus decentralization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most firms were centralized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIO participation in strategic business planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CIO has a long way to go before achieving status as a top-level executive </li></ul></ul>18-
    29. 29. Information Management in Three Pacific Rim Countries [cont.] <ul><li>Information systems planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most firms have IS plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIO is primarily responsible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sharing information resources with users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, CIOs support end-user computing trends </li></ul></ul>18-
    30. 30. Proactive CIO Strategy <ul><li>1) CIO must emphasize quality management of the IS resource </li></ul><ul><li>2) Achieve strong user ties </li></ul><ul><li>3) Strengthen executive ties </li></ul><ul><li>4) Assemble an IS management team </li></ul><ul><li>5) Assemble staff competent in leading-edge technologies and methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>6) Build an IRIS </li></ul>18-
    31. 31. The Future of the CIO <ul><li>Business computing is moving from centralized to decentralized computing in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIO Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big brother </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watchdog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networker </li></ul></ul>18-
    32. 32. Donovan’s Four Stages of Decentralized Computing Equipment Big brother A B Helping hand D Network Watchdog C Decentralized Centralized Decentralized Development Decentralized Decision making Centralized 18-
    33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Information resources located in IS are the responsibility of the CIO </li></ul><ul><li>IRIS is used to manage information resources within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>CIO must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote quality information products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure security of IS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for disasters </li></ul></ul>18-
    34. 34. Summary [cont.] <ul><li>IS cost cutting considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downsizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIO can be proactive </li></ul>18-

    ×