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  • Chap14

    1. 1. Chapter 14 <ul><li>The Virtual Office </li></ul>MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14-
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Automation began in the factory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical control (NC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct numerical control (DNC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAD/CAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office automation (OA) began with IBM in the 1960’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office automation systems are characterized by communication </li></ul>14-
    3. 3. Office Automation (OA) <ul><li>Formal and informal electronic systems </li></ul><ul><li>Communication of information </li></ul><ul><li>Persons inside and outside the firm are affected </li></ul><ul><li>Used by managers, professionals, secretaries, and clerical employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>managers and professionals are collectively known as knowledge workers </li></ul></ul>14-
    4. 4. The Virtual Office <ul><li>Office work can be done at virtually any geographic location </li></ul><ul><li>Must be linked by electronic communication </li></ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged with the appearance of low cost microprocessors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleprocessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul></ul>14-
    5. 5. Advantages of the Virtual Office <ul><li>Reduced facility costs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced equipment cost </li></ul><ul><li>Formal communications network </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced work stoppages </li></ul><ul><li>Social contributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those unable to leave their homes can now work in new ways </li></ul></ul>14-
    6. 6. Disadvantages of the Virtual Office <ul><li>Sense of not belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of job loss </li></ul><ul><li>Low morale </li></ul><ul><li>Family tension </li></ul>These are disadvantages to the employee! 14-
    7. 7. Recommended Virtual Office Strategy <ul><li>Provide computer resources </li></ul><ul><li>Provide access to information sources </li></ul><ul><li>Provide noncomputer supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange to forward phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize conference calls </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule regular meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Follow a work routine </li></ul>14-
    8. 8. Virtual Organization <ul><li>Extends idea of a virtual office to an entire organization </li></ul><ul><li>No ties to physical location </li></ul><ul><li>Three I Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul>14-
    9. 9. OA Model <ul><li>Information and communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer and noncomputer applications </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Other problem solvers&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul>14-
    10. 10. Environment Environment The firm Problem Solver Other Problem Solvers Database Transform Noncomputer Apps Computer- Apps Input physical resources Output physical resources An OA Model Communications Information Office Automation System 14-
    11. 11. Office Automation (OA) Applications <ul><li>Word processing </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic and voice mail </li></ul><ul><li>Computer calendaring </li></ul><ul><li>Audio conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Computer conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>FAX </li></ul><ul><li>Videotex </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul>14-
    12. 12. Word Processing <ul><li>Use of a computer to perform automatically many of the tasks necessary to prepare typed or printed documents </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to managers is the preparation of more effective communications </li></ul>14-
    13. 13. A Word Processing System Secretary or manager Document storage CPU Typed documents 14-
    14. 14. Electronic Mail (E-mail) <ul><li>Use of a computer network that allows users to send, store and retrieve messages using terminals and storage devices </li></ul><ul><li>Good when two-way conversation is not needed </li></ul><ul><li>Easy asynchronous communication </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates phone tag </li></ul>14-
    15. 15. An Electronic Mail System Mail storage CPU Mail display and entry Mail display and entry Mail display and entry User 1 User 2 User n 14-
    16. 16. Voice Mail <ul><li>Like e-mail except messages are sent and received over telephone systems in audio form </li></ul><ul><li>Requires computers with an ability to store audio messages digitally and convert them back upon retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Managers do not have to type </li></ul><ul><li>Less equipment and infrastructure than </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul>14-
    17. 17. Computer Message coding and decoding unit User 1 User 2 Secondary storage A Voice Mail System 14-
    18. 18. Electronic Calendaring <ul><li>Use of a networked computer to store and retrieve a manager’s appointment calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Allows other managers’ calendars to be accessed </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Does not communicate problem-solving information </li></ul>14-
    19. 19. An Electronic Calendaring System Calendar storage CPU Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Manager 1 Manager 2 Manager n 14-
    20. 20. Audio Conferencing <ul><li>Uses voice communications equipment to establish an audio link between geographically dispersed people </li></ul><ul><li>Conference call was first form of this system </li></ul>14-
    21. 21. Rules for Added Efficiency in Audio Conferencing <ul><li>Have a moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Keep participants to a manageable size </li></ul><ul><li>Send an agenda first </li></ul><ul><li>Identify yourself when speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a taped record </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute a hard copy transcript or meeting minutes </li></ul>14-
    22. 22. An Audio Conferencing System Audio Channel Location 1 Location n 14-
    23. 23. Video Conferencing <ul><li>Use of television equipment to link geographically dispersed conference participants </li></ul><ul><li>Three general configurations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-way video and audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-way video and two-way audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way video and audio </li></ul></ul>14-
    24. 24. Video channel Video channel Location 1 Location n A. One-way video transmission B. Two-way video transmission Video Conferencing 14-
    25. 25. Desktop Video Conferencing <ul><li>Video and audio equipment are attached to each workstation in the network enabling the two-way communication of picture and sound </li></ul><ul><li>Technical concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many desktop computers are powerful enough already </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires high-speed communications network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost is typically less that $1,000 for the additional equipment to make a standard PC a desktop video station </li></ul></ul>14-
    26. 26. Computer Conferencing <ul><li>Uses a networked computer that allows participants with some common characteristic to exchange information regarding a particular topic </li></ul><ul><li>One of the largest was an IBM PC computer conference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 4,000 topic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 40,000 members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers must be networked together </li></ul>14-
    27. 27. Teleconferencing <ul><li>Incorporates all other conferencing techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer conferencing </li></ul></ul>14-
    28. 28. FAX Original document Facsimile machine Analog channel Facsimile machine Uses special equipment that can read a document at one end of a communication channel and make a copy at the other end 14- Document copy
    29. 29. Videotex <ul><li>Uses a computer to store and display a stored narrative and graphic material on a CRT screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be created in the firm’s own computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be owned by a service and accessed by the firm (such as the Dow Jones News / Retrieval Service) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be owned by other firms </li></ul></ul>14-
    30. 30. Imaging <ul><li>Uses optical character recognition (OCR) to convert data on paper to a digital format for storage in a secondary storage device </li></ul><ul><li>Performed by a document management (DM) system </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves space since documents are not stored in paper form </li></ul>14-
    31. 31. A Document Management System OCR Reader Network server DBMS Workstation Workstation Workstation Workstation Laser printer Optical disk storage unit 14- Laser printer Documents to be read
    32. 32. Desktop Publishing <ul><li>Uses a computer to prepare output that is very close in quality to that produced by a typesetter </li></ul><ul><li>Requires high resolution monitor and printing devices </li></ul><ul><li>Three areas of applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corporate </li></ul></ul>14-
    33. 33. Desk-Top Publishing System High-resolution screen Keyboard Microcomputer Laser printer output Document storage 14-
    34. 34. OA and Virtual Office in Perspective <ul><li>Aimed at the heart of business problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplements interpersonal communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides opportunity for better communications </li></ul></ul>14-
    35. 35. Summary <ul><li>Early OA was directed at secretarial staff and clerks </li></ul><ul><li>Communication needs of managers and knowledge workers were recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual office concept emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of OA is increased productivity </li></ul>14-
    36. 36. Summary [cont.] <ul><li>Variety of applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic calendaring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videotex </li></ul></ul>14-