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Seminar abiotic stress

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molecular responses of plants to abiotic stresses and applied molecular biology for crop improvement under abiotic stresses.

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Seminar abiotic stress

  1. 1. Welcome 1
  2. 2. Molecular response of plants to Abiotic Stresses A.DINESH Jr. M.Sc(Agri) PG13AGR5055 Dept: Genetics and plant breeding 2 Seminar-I
  3. 3. Content 3 INTRODUCITON TERMINOLOGIES SIGNALING PATHWAYS GENE EXPRESSION TO STRESS CONDITION PROLINE SYNTHESIS CASE STUDIES CONCLUSIONS
  4. 4. Losses caused by the Abiotic stress • The progressive salinization of soil, estimated at around 20 % of irrigated land in world (Ghassemi et al.,1995) • High temperature coupled with drought during pollination period of maize plants can result in up to 100 % yield loss (Heiniger et al., 2001) • It was estimated that approximately 70 % of yield reduction was due to abiotic stress ( Acquaah, 2007) • The estimated potential yield losses are 17 % due to drought, 20 % due to salinity, 40 % due to high temperature, 15 % due to low temperature and 8 % due to other stress ( Ashraf et al., 2008) 4
  5. 5. STRESS ABIOTIC WATER DEFICIT EXCESS TEMPERATURE HIGH LOW SALT/ION TOXICITY DIFFICIENCY AIR POLLUTION OTHERS BIOTIC Plant stress 5
  6. 6. Heat stress 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. Water depletion : 8
  9. 9. 9 Water stress :
  10. 10. 10 Lobell et al., 2011
  11. 11. Terminology: • Heat stress : A transient elevation in temperature, usually 10- 15°C above ambient, is considered heat shock or heat stress (Wahid et al., 2007) • Low-temperature stress : Chilling (<20°C) or freezing (<0°C) temperatures can induce ice formation in plant tissues, leading to cellular dehydration (chinnusamy et al., 2007) • Water stress: The condition where a plant’s water potential and turgor are decreased enough to inhibit normal plant function (Hsiao et al., 1973) • Oxidative stress : It is an imbalance between the production of ROS and their scavenging 11
  12. 12. 12 Cramer et al., 2011
  13. 13. How plants respond to environmental stress ? 13
  14. 14. Stress resistance mechanisms 1. Avoidance mechanisms  prevents exposure to stress 2. Tolerance mechanisms  permit the plant to withstand stress 3. Acclimation  alter their physiology in response stress 14
  15. 15. Plants molecular mechanisms in response to stress involve:  Activation of signaling pathways  Production of ROS  Activation of transcription factors  Alter gene expression  Breakdown of macro molecules  Decrease in protein synthesis  Synthesis of osmolytes 15
  16. 16. General Stress Signal Transduction Pathway 16 (Xiong and Zhu, 2001)
  17. 17. Abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis : 17 1.Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP,) 2. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). 3.ABA-aldehyde oxidase (AAO) 4.Molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MCSU)
  18. 18. ABA Signal transduction : 18 Danquah et al., 2013
  19. 19. Stomatal closure under stress : 19Qin et al., 2011
  20. 20. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) : 20 Danquah et al., 2013 Fig. 2. A typical MAPK cascade.
  21. 21. ROS production 21
  22. 22. Oxidative stress 22
  23. 23. ROS signal transduction 23 Fig. 1.Three stages are proposed to exist in this signal transduction Miller et al., 2008
  24. 24. Cold stress : 24Qin et al., 2011
  25. 25. Osmotic stress 25
  26. 26. Gene expression to osmotic stress : 26
  27. 27. 27 Shinozak et al.,1997
  28. 28. Heat stress 28 Hasanuzzaman et al., 2013
  29. 29. Genes linked to more than one abiotic stresses 29 Ahuja et al., 2010
  30. 30. Osmolyte : Proline 30 Szabados and Savoure, 2009
  31. 31. Functions of Proline : 31
  32. 32. Glycinebetine: 32
  33. 33. Materials and Method : Wheat , Tobacco • PEG6000 • NaCl solutions • H2O2 • Total RNA : TRIzol reagent • Objective : To know whether WRKYs confer drought and salt stress tolerance 33 Wang et al., 2013
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40 Daun and Cai, 2012 Plant materials and methods : Rice cultivar ZH11 used in transformation, Arabidopsis thaliana Vectors : pYES2, pHB Objective : To identify the role of osLEA3-2 in salt and drought tolerance
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43 Figure 4. Growth of S. cerevisiae cells expressing OsLEA3-2 and the control cell in the medium containing 1.2 M NaCl (A), 1.2 M KCl,(B), and 2.0 M sorbitol (C).
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. Method and Treatments : Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) C312 1. ABA 2. Salinity stress : NaCl 3. Cold : 4°C 4. Drought stress : Mannitol. 5. Alkalinity stress : pH 11, Objectives: 1. Transcriptome profiling of cotton seedlings stressed with ABA, cold, drought, salinity and alkalinity . 2. Differentially expressed genes and related crosstalk network for stress perception, signal transduction 47Zhu et al., 2013
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. Cross talk among stress genes 50
  51. 51.  Among the 64 induced and 62 repressed genes. Only 29 induced and 30 repressed genes have characterized in cotton and shown homology with Rice  13 of 29 commonly induced and 11 from the 30 commonly repressed transcripts took roles in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression under abiotic stresses  ABA signal transduction components, PP2C 77 and PP2C 12, were up-regulated  The genes DELLA protein RGA,4-coumarate-- CoA ligase-like 7 and putative 12-oxophytodienoate reductase and HSP20, HSP70 were repressed 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53 Yamamoto and Momonoki, 2012 Objective : 1. Role of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) to heat stress 2. Tissue localization of maize acetylcholinesterase enzyme.
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