Forces and Frictions affecting MDE

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Empirical study on how engineers in the automotive industry work with model-driven engineering (MDE), presented at MODELS 2012 in Innsbruck.

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Forces and Frictions affecting MDE

  1. 1. Forces and Frictions affecting MDE An exploratory study by Adrian Kuhn, Gail Murphy and C. Albert Thompson University of British Columbia
  2. 2. Research partnership between General Motors, IBM and 8 Canadian universities. www.necsis.ca Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   2  
  3. 3. We  interviewed  20  People  at  GM.   Engineers and team leads.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   3  
  4. 4. So  here  is  what  we  learned…  Engineers seem to prefer the linearreading path of text over visual languages.Complex tool chain leads to update cyclesof days rather than minutes.Domain experts invent novel systems, butthe lack power to extend the language.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   4  
  5. 5. But  first,  what  is  a  model?  Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   5  
  6. 6. In-­‐silico  simulaKon  (physical  model)     Architecture  (high-­‐level  model)    — Class diagrams in IBM Rhapsody     Algorithm  logic  (low-­‐level  model)   — Diagrams in MathWorks Simulink      Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   6  
  7. 7. What  is  their  MDE  process?   Roles and artifacts.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   7  
  8. 8. Sketch of the modeling process, taken from our interview notes.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   8  
  9. 9. Domain experts invent novel algorithms, creating requirements documents and sketching software models.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   9  
  10. 10. Software modelers implement algorithms, creating, or refining, software models based on requirements documents.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   10  
  11. 11. Domain experts and modelers use ad-hoc model patches (i.e. Powerpoint slides with screenshots) to communicate changes!Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   11  
  12. 12. Code generation is automated, using code generation rules defined by a specialized team of code generation experts.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   12  
  13. 13. Test engineers work with all artifacts, i.e. requirements documents, software models, generated sources and tests.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   13  
  14. 14. ObservaKons   Forces and FrictionsKuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   14  
  15. 15. Force:  trigger  of  essen.al  complexity,  likely  independent  of  abstrac.on  chosen.    Fric.on:  trigger  of  accidental  complexity,  namely  complexity  introduced  by  tools  and  language.        Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   15  
  16. 16. Force:  Teams  are  typically  working  on  mul.ple  versions  of  the  same  so?ware  model.    Fric.on:  Yet  engineers  lack  proper  tooling  to  iden.fy  and  share  differences.    Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   16  
  17. 17. Force:  Domain  experts  use  a  rich  set  of  visual  languages  to  invent  novel  algorithms.    Fric.on:  Yet  they  lack  tool  support  to  define  their  own  liDle  languages.    Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   17  
  18. 18. Force:  Inven.ng  novel  algorithms  for  vehicle  control  is  an  exploratory  ac.vity.    Fric.on:  Yet  tes.ng  on  vehicles  suffers  from  lack  of  run.me  changeability.    Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   18  
  19. 19. Force:  Engineers  o?en  need  to  navigate  between  requirements  and  models.    Fric.on:  Yet  they  there  is  no  tool  support  for  point-­‐to-­‐point  traceability.    Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   19  
  20. 20. Findings   What we learned …Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   20  
  21. 21. Engineers prefer the linear readingpath of text over visual languages.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   21  
  22. 22. Complex tool chain leads to updatecycles of days rather than minutes.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   22  
  23. 23. Domain experts invent novel systems, but lack the power to extend the language. Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   23  
  24. 24. Related  work  on  user  studies  •  Hutchinson  etal,  ICSE  2011  •  Mohagheghi  and  Dehlen,  MODELS  2008  •  Forward  and  Lethbridge,  MISE  2008  •  Heijstek  and  Chaudron,  SEAA  2010  Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   24  
  25. 25. So  here  is  what  we  learned…  Engineers seem to prefer the linearreading path of text over visual languages.Complex tool chain leads to update cyclesof days rather than minutes.Domain experts invent novel systems, butthe lack power to extend the language.Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   25  
  26. 26. Download our papers" http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.0855 " http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.5800 Kuhn  etal,  MODELS  2012   26  

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