What is it?• Based on a behaviorist perspective and inter- related systems approach to learning• The goal is to improve instruction by improving the instructor• Can be thought of as 10 components that are part of 6 main phases.
Six Main Phases...•Design•Analysis•Development•Formative Assessment•Revision•Summative Evaluation
The ﬁrst 2 phases:Design & Analysis Amanda Duvall
Assess Needs to Identify Goal(s)• Decide what students will be able to do when they leave the course• This goal can be derived from – needs assessment – a list of smaller goals – practical experience with learning – analysis of job performance – new requirements imposed on workers
Learning Real World MathWhat would the instructional goal be if you wanted yourstudents to help determine the area of the classroom? a) students will measure the room b) students will share a ruler c) student will use real world problem solving to apply measurement and area d) students will teach others about area and measuring
Conduct Instructional Analysis• Identify what is required for a student to achieve the instructional goals• What step by step skills do students need to achieve instructional goal?• What is the least amount people must be able to do to be able to learn what is in the class?
What are some entry behaviors students will need?Please write your ideas on the next screen
Analyze Learners and Contexts• Simultaneously analyze – the instructional goals of the learners – the contexts in which they will learn the skills – where they will use the knowledge• Look for – learners’ current skills – current preferences – current attitudes – determine instructional setting
Write Performance Objectives• Based on the instructional analysis and the entry behaviors of learners• Describe what learners will be able to do• There are 3 components: • Describe the skill or behavior • Describe the conditions that prevail while carrying out task • Describe the criteria used to evaluate performance• Each will have subordinate skills that should be identiﬁed
Performance Objectives: Example• Terminal Objective: Given the appropriate tools, students will measure the area of a room to determine the amount of carpet necessary to cover the ﬂoor from wall to wall.• Subordinate objectives: (Skill or behavior from instructional analysis) • Accurately measure perimeter of the room • Diagram the ﬂoor plan proportionately from measurements • Calculate the area using appropriate geometric formulas
Performance Objectives (cont.)Conditions that prevail while carrying out task• students will use a measuring tape• students will translate measurements to a drawing• students will use equations for determining area based on the shape of the roomCriteria used to evaluate performance• linear measurements are accurate to within 2"• angles are accurately accounted for in the drawing• calculations have been made using the appropriate formulas• area calculated is within 1 square foot of the actual room size
Develop Assessment InstrumentsInstruments are based on the objectives and measure students’ ability to perform what is described in the objectives:• emphasis: relating the kind of behavior described to what the assessment requiresExample:• Student performance rubric for measuring the area of a room• Given any variety of room dimensions and conﬁgurations, students calculate area
Instructional Strategy• Plan for presenting the instruction to the learner to achieve terminal objective • Based on analysis of what is to be taught (previous 5 steps)• Decide best method for delivering the instruction • Teacher Led, Group Led, Student Paced • Analysis of learner and skills
Preparation of Instructional Materials• Design and selection of materials appropriate for learning activity. • Teaching guides, transparencies, tests, computer applications, student modules, supplemental video, web pages.• Decision based on the availability of existing materials and the learner.
The Final Phases:Formative Assessment, Revision, Martina Henke
Formative Evaluation• Goal is to collect data to identify how to improve instruction ✴one-to-one evaluation ✴small-group evaluation ✴ﬁeld evaluation• Not assessment of the learner, but of the instruction
Formative EvaluationThe methods mentioned can be difﬁcult in day to day instructional settings.What might be some ways an instructor can gather the formative data needed?
Revise Instruction• Data from formative evaluation is analyzed to: • identify difﬁculties learners had in achieving objectives • relate these difﬁculties to speciﬁc deﬁciencies in instruction • re-examine validity of instructional analysis and assumptions about learner characteristics
Summative Evaluation• Culminating evaluation of the effectiveness of instruction • generally outside the design process • evaluates absolute value or worth of the instruction after it mets the standards of the designer • usually an independent evaluator
Sources• http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Systematic_Design_of_Instruction• http://www.umich.edu/~ed626/Dick_Carey/dc.html• http://www.gse.pku.edu.cn/jxsj/materials2/Dick%20&%20Carey.htm• Dick, Walter O. ,Carey, Lou, and Carey, Jamoes O. The Systematic Design of Instruction. Boston:Allyn & Bacon, 2004.• uhaweb.hartford.edu/ACOX/edt666_assignments/assignments/ISD_Model_project_Dick_Carey_ﬁnal.doc