Kineseotherapy History

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Kinesiotherapy is defined as the application of scientifically based exercise principles adapted to enhance the strength, endurance, and mobility of individuals with functional limitations, or those requiring extended physical conditioning.

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Kineseotherapy History

  1. 1. Intro To KinesiotherapyKinesiotherapy Clinical Training
  2. 2. KINESIOTHERAPY Kinesiotherapy is defined as the application of scientifically based exercise principles adapted to enhance the strength, endurance, and mobility of individuals with functional limitations, or those requiring extended physical conditioning.-  Kinesiotherapy Scope of Practice, 2009       Kinesiotherapy 2
  3. 3. KINESIOTHERAPISTThe Kinesiotherapist is a health care professional competent in theadministration of musculoskeletal, neurological, ergonomic, biomechanical,psychosocial, and task specific functional tests and measures. TheKinesiotherapist determines the appropriate evaluation tools andinterventions necessary to establish, in collaboration with the client andphysician, a goal specific treatment plan. The intervention process includesthe development and implementation of a treatment plan, assessment ofprogress toward goals, modification as necessary to achieve goals andoutcomes, and client education. The foundation of clinician-client rapport isbased on education, instruction, demonstration and mentoring of therapeutictechniques and behaviors to restore, maintain and improve overall functionalabilities.Kinesiotherapy  Scope  of  Prac2ce,  2009 Kinesiotherapy 3
  4. 4. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  KT is an allied health profession that has been in existence since 1943•  Developed during the later stages of WWII by US Surgeon General, Major Norman T. Kirk to provide reconditioning and strengthening programs for convalescing soldiers that would allow them to return to active duty•  General Kirk modeled the program on a British Reconditioning Battalion that he observed in operation in Coventry, England•  The program would be called “Corrective Physical Rehabilitation (CPR)” Kinesiotherapy 4
  5. 5. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  The first training school to prepare personnel in CPR was organized at the 307th US Army Station in Coventry England on April 15, 1943•  Following WWII, this program would continue within the Veteran’s Administration•  Drs. Donald Covalt , Howard Rusk, and John E. Davis Sc. D. collaborated to form the new therapy section within the VA’s PM&R programs in response to the large number of veterans returning from war to VA hospitals•  This new section of “Corrective Physical Rehabilitation” was established on May 18, 1946         Kinesiotherapy 5
  6. 6. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  Influential leaders in the profession: •  John Eisele Davis Sc.D. – “Father of Corrective Therapy”; held the post of Chief, Corrective Therapy (CT) in VA Central Office (VACO) •  Dr. Howard Rusk – helped establish CT in the VA hospital system (later established the Rusk Institute for Rehabilitation in New York) •  Paul Roland – a major leader in establishing the first professional organization for CT •  Robert Shelton – a professor at the University of Illinois; he coined the term Kinesiotherapy; established a clinic at U of I to provide therapeutic exercise; the clinic served as a lab for CT students and a model for the internship program Kinesiotherapy 6  
  7. 7. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY  •  1946- Initial training courses for VA Corrective Physical Rehabilitation Therapists were initiated and held at the School of Social Rehabilitation at the Winter VA Hospital in Topeka, KS.•  1946- The National Association of Physical and Mental Rehabilitation (APMR) was instituted, and became the first professional CT organization•  1948- Corrective Physical Rehabilitation’s name was changed to Corrective Therapy and the National Organization’s name was changed to the American Corrective Therapy Association (ACTA)•  1954 - Thirteen colleges were training physical education majors in CT; a research study conducted by the Educational Committee of APMR, resulted in a seven page document that became the basis of the entire CT curriculum   Kinesiotherapy 7  
  8. 8. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  1954 - Initial VA qualification standards for CT were established: •  B.S. In physical education, with 240 hours of clinical internship •  Corrective Therapy had a strong initial link to: •  Adaptive Physical Education •  Neuro-psychiatry (exercise and physical activities were used to reduce patient anxiety and manage aggressive behavior)•  1974 – Expanded coursework requirements for the CT degree were put in place, including an increase from 240 to 400 clinical internship hours•  1978 - VA Corrective Therapy Qualification Standards were approved by VACO •  Minimum entry level standards for employment within the Federal System Kinesiotherapy 8
  9. 9. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  1980 – CT program accreditation standards were established: •  3.0 average in all required courses •  Specific CT courses designated in the curriculum •  Clinical internship requirements increased to 1000 hours•  1982 - The ACTA’s Council on Professional Standards (COPSCT) was developed to oversee certification, accreditation, and continuing education•  1986 - Mandatory continuing education requirements were set to maintain registration; Professional Examination Service (PES), a national testing service, was contracted to help standardize and administer the national certification examination Kinesiotherapy 9
  10. 10. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  1987- ACTA is renamed AKTA (the American Kinesiotherapy Association); COPSCT is renamed COPSKT (Council on Professional Standards for Kinesiotherapy)•  1993- Scope of Practice for Kinesiotherapy is established •  Delineates the competencies for Registered Kinesiotherapists, and identifies the job tasks RKTs are qualified to perform•  1993- Standards of Practice for Kinesiotherapy is established •  Serve as a guideline for RKT, and provides a basis for the assessment of Kinesiotherapy practice Kinesiotherapy 10
  11. 11. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  1995- The Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) formally recognizes Kinesiotherapy as an allied health profession•  1998 – The Standards and Guidelines for Accreditation of Educational Programs in Kinesiotherapy are developed jointly by COPSKT and CAAHEP •  Accreditation Standards constitute the minimum requirements to which an accredited program is held accountable•  1998 -” CAAHEP approved the “Standards and Guidelines for Accredited Education Programs for Kinesiotherapy•  1998 - Committee on Accreditation for Kinesiotherapy (CoA-KT) is established Kinesiotherapy 11
  12. 12. HISTORY OF KINESIOTHERAPY•  2004 - Kinesiotherapy was assigned a revenue code by the National Uniform Billing Committee (NUBC)•  2006 – Kinesiotherapy was assigned a unique provider identifier by The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) National Plan and Provider Enumeration System (NPPES). An individual Kinesiotherapist must now apply for their own unique provider number (NPI)•  2012 – Establishment of Center of Excellence (COE) Clinical Training Program for master’s prepared candidates Kinesiotherapy 12
  13. 13. THE ORGANIZATION•  The American Kinesiotherapy Association (AKTA) is the professional organization for Kinesiotherapists whose purpose is to: •  Promote KT and improve recognition of the profession through legislation and public relations •  Serve the interests of its members and work to enhance the standards of care provided by KTs through educational opportunities•  The mission statement of the American Kinesiotherapy Association, Inc. (AKTA) is as follows: •  “To serve the interest of its members, and will represent the profession to the public. The organization will work to enhance the standard of care provided by Kinesiotherapists through the promotion and provision of educational opportunities”. Kinesiotherapy 13
  14. 14. THE ORGANIZATION•  There are two the branches within the American Kinesiotherapy Association: the Executive Board and The Council on Professional Standards for Kinesiotherapy.•  The AKTA Executive Board carries out the mandates and policies of the Association as determined by its members•  Executive Board members include: •  President •  President-Elect •  Vice-President •  Treasurer •  Secretary •  Past-President •  Members at Large (Two - East & West) Kinesiotherapy 14
  15. 15. THE ORGANIZATION•  The Council on Professional Standards for Kinesiotherapy (COPSKT) is comprised of: •  Accreditation Board •  Certification Board (Registration) •  Continuing Competency •  Committee on Accreditation for Kinesiotherapy (CoA-KT)•  The purpose of COPS-KT is to: •  Establish and maintain the qualification standards for KT academic programs •  Provide the examination and testing of professional skills and knowledge unique to the Kinesiotherapist •  Provide opportunities for practicing RKTs to maintain his/her continuing competency through seminars, conferences, and other coursework   Kinesiotherapy 15
  16. 16. THE ORGANIZATION•  The mission of COPSKT is to: •  Assure that practicing RKTs achieve and maintain the essential standards for: •  Education •  Credentialing •  Professional Competence •  Establish and maintain the following documents: •  The Standards and Guidelines for Accreditation of Educational Programs in Kinesiotherapy •  Scope of Practice for Kinesiotherapy •  Standards of Practice for Kinesiotherapy Kinesiotherapy 16
  17. 17. COPSKT DOCUMENTS•  The Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Educational Programs in Kinesiotherapy •  These accreditation Standards are the minimum standards of quality used in accrediting Programs that prepare individuals to enter the Kinesiotherapy profession•  The Scope of Practice for Kinesiotherapy delineates the competencies that Registered Kinesiotherapists are qualified to perform •  Reflects the evaluation procedures and comprehensive treatment interventions applied by RKTs •  An individual RKT may obtain additional training and credentials in areas beyond this Scope of Practice Kinesiotherapy 17
  18. 18. COPSKT DOCUMENTS•  The Standards of Practice for Kinesiotherapy serve as guidelines for RKTs and provide a basis for assessment of Kinesiotherapy practice, including: •  Academic and clinical training requirements •  Patient referral processes •  Patient program development/establishment of treatment goals •  Modes and documentation of treatment •  Professional conduct and quality assurance   Kinesiotherapy 18
  19. 19. EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS•  The Kinesiotherapy major is a baccalaureate program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) •  Currently 4 baccalaureate KT programs are CAAHEP accredited: •  California State University – Long Beach •  Shaw University •  Norfolk State University •  University of Southern Mississippi•  Individuals with a Master’ s Degree in Exercise Science or related field and a Center of Excellence (COE) Kinesiotherapy Clinical Training Certificate are also eligible to sit for the Registration Examination in KT•  Both programs require didactic preparation in 11 core courses and 1000 hours of clinical training at an approved site under the supervision of an RKT Kinesiotherapy 19
  20. 20. EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS•  Minimum Course Requirements: •  General Psychology •  Human Anatomy •  Human Physiology •  Neurological & Pathological Foundations of Rehabilitation •  Exercise Physiology (or equivalent) •  First Aid •  Kinesiology or Biomechanics or Applied Anatomy •  Tests & Measurements or Statistics or Research Methods •  Adapted PE or Therapeutic Exercise •  Motor Learning or Growth & Development •  Organization/Administration of KT/PE/Health Kinesiotherapy 20
  21. 21. PROFESSIONAL CREDENTIALING•  Students who graduate from a CAAHEP accredited or COE clinical training program are eligible to take the Kinesiotherapy Registration exam, and become RKTs•  Persons who pass the Registration exam must complete 12 hours of continuing education each year to maintain Registered status•  Entry level RKTs are fully qualified to provide services outlined in the Scope of Practice for Kinesiotherapy•  RKTs who obtain training and credentials in areas beyond those outlined in the Scope of Practice for Kinesiotherapy can provide therapeutic interventions commensurate with his/her credentials Kinesiotherapy 21
  22. 22. EMPLOYMENT•  Potential areas of RKT employment include, but are not limited to: •  Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers •  Private hospitals and rehabilitation facilities •  Medical Fitness facilities •  Post-rehabilitation conditioning programs •  Home based therapy programs •  Wellness centers •  Extended care facilities •  Private consultation Kinesiotherapy 22
  23. 23. TREATMENT•  Treatment interventions performed by RKTs include, but are not limited to: •  Therapeutic exercise •  Mobility training/proper use of mobility aids •  Geriatric rehabilitation •  Aquatic rehabilitation •  Psychiatric rehabilitation •  Handicapped driver training •  Evaluation of ADL (activities of daily living) and adaptive equipment needs •  Wheelchair/seating assessment •  Home evaluations/caregiver training •  Fall prevention and recovery techniques Kinesiotherapy 23
  24. 24. SPECIALTY AREAS•  Aquatic therapy•  Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation•  Functional capacity evaluation/work reconditioning•  Seating and positioning evaluation/prescription•  Driver training•  Spinal cord rehabilitation•  Prosthetic/orthotic rehabilitation Kinesiotherapy 24
  25. 25. KINESIOTHERAPY SCOPE OF PRACTICEA. Evaluation The Kinesiotherapist obtains detailed information from the client and the clinical record regarding the specific history that resulted in the referral for treatment. This is followed by an appropriate physical assessment pertaining to the reason for referral. The Kinesiotherapist then records and analyzes the data, develops an appropriate treatment plan in conjunction with the client, and communicates with the referring practitioner regarding the proposed treatment. In cases where an evaluation is performed without the expectation of treatment, a physician referral may not be necessary. Examples might be fitness testing, work fitness testing, physical ability testing, and functional capacity testing. Kinesiotherapy 25
  26. 26. KT SCOPE OF PRACTICE (cont)The Kinesiotherapist is advised to obtain a written or oral screening surveyfrom the client to determine whether any possible medical conditions existthat may be affected by the testing conditions or tasks. Additionally theKinesiotherapist should obtain from the client a signed written consent formthat describes the test conditions and possible risks of the evaluation. 1. Physical Components: •  Muscular strength and endurance •  Functional stability and mobility •  Neuromuscular coordination •  Kinesthesis, proprioception, and sensory deficits •  Flexibility/joint range of motion •  Aerobic fitness •  Reaction time Kinesiotherapy 26
  27. 27. KT SCOPE OF PRACTICE (cont)2. Psychosocial Components: •  Appropriateness of behavior •  Enhancers/barriers to learning •  Capability of task planning and goal-directed behavior •  Orientation •  Affect •  Social interaction •  Motivation Kinesiotherapy 27
  28. 28. KT SCOPE OF PRACTICE (cont)B. Interventions: •  The kinesiotherapist administers scientifically based exercise principles and activities to accomplish the stated goals of the treatment plan, such as those outlined in the Kinesiotherapy Scope of Practice and the Kinesiotherapy Standards of Practice. The treatment plan may include strategies to educate the client and caregiver on techniques to enhance neuromusculoskeletal, psychomotor and psychosocial well being. 1. Therapeutic Exercise: a. Strengthening exercise: •  Isometric •  Isotonic •  Isokinetic b. Endurance exercise •  Aerobic exercise •  Muscular endurance Kinesiotherapy 28
  29. 29. KT SCOPE OF PRACTICE (cont)1. Therapeutic Exercise (cont.) c. Functional mobility training and ambulation training d. Flexibility and range of motion exercise •  Passive •  Active-assistive •  Active e. Aquatic exercise f. Balance and coordination activities g. Neuromuscular re-education h. Work conditioning exercise Kinesiotherapy 29
  30. 30. KT SCOPE OF PRACTICE (cont) 2. Education: a. Implications of disease/disability process, progression, and expectations for client and family b. Home exercise programs c. Body mechanics and functional mobility d. Home and/or worksite modificationRevised: 2-19-2009 Kinesiotherapy 30
  31. 31. KINESIOTHERAPY STANDARDS OF PRACTICEStandard 1: Only individuals who qualify by virtue of their education and clinical experience can practice Kinesiotherapy. 1.1 An RKT must have a minimum of a baccalaureate degree with didactic preparation in the following areas: 1.101 Human physiology 1.102 Exercise physiology 1.103 Kinesiology/biomechanics 1.104 Therapeutic exercise/adapted physical education 1.105 Growth and development 1.106 Motor learning/control/performance 1.107 General psychology 1.108 Organization and administration 1.109 Test, measurement, research methods and/or statistics 1.110 First aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation Kinesiotherapy 31
  32. 32. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont)1.2 An RKT must have completed a minimum of 1,000 hours of clinical practice in approved training sites to qualify for certification and subsequent registration.1.3 An RKT must not perform any treatment beyond the Kinesiotherapy Scope of Practice unless credentialed or otherwise qualified to do so.1.4 An RKT can administer treatment only upon receipt of a prescription from qualified physicians, nurse practitioners and/or physician’s assistants who have been privileged to make such referrals.1.5 An RKT will adhere to all policies and protocols established by the profession and the work setting.1.6 An RKT will comply with local, state and federal requirements for administering health care.1.7 An RKT must demonstrate competency to maintain a safe treatment environment. Kinesiotherapy 32
  33. 33. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont)Standard 2: Referrals shall contain appropriate information before treatment can be administered by an RKT. 2.1 Prescriptions for kinesiotherapy should contain descriptive information to include the following: 2.11 Client’s name and/or identification number 2.12 Diagnosis and problem to be addressed 2.13 Indications/contraindication for treatment 2.14 Client’s assigned medical setting or addressStandard 3: An RKT shall develop an individual treatment plan for each client. 3.1 An RKT is responsible for documentation of the treatment plan in the client’s permanent medical record as dictated by the work setting. Kinesiotherapy 33
  34. 34. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont) 3.2 The client and family should actively participate as appropriate in the formulation of the treatment plan. 3.3 Client/family education shall be addressed as appropriate in the treatment plan. 3.4 The treatment plan should be updated on a regular basis or as required by national accrediting bodies and/or the treatment facility.Standard 4: An RKT shall perform assessments on the first visit and on subsequent visits as change in status dictates. 4.1 An RKT will evaluate the physical capabilities and capacities of the patient, including: 4.11 Muscular strength and endurance 4.12 Functional stability and mobility Kinesiotherapy 34
  35. 35. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont) 4.13 Neuromuscular coordination 4.14 Kinesthesis, propioception, and sensory deficits 4.15 Flexibility/joint range of motion 4.16 Aerobic fitness 4.17 Reaction time4.2 An RKT will assess various psychosocial components, which include: 4.21 Appropriateness of behavior 4.22 Enhancers/barriers to learning 4.23 Capability of task planning and goal-directed behavior 4.24 Orientation 4.25 Affect 4.26 Social interaction 4.27 Motivation Kinesiotherapy 35
  36. 36. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont) 4.3 Only an RKT with specific academic and professional training will be qualified to assess prosthetic and orthotic devices with regard to fit and appropriateness of prescription. 4.4 An RKT will assess clients for ambulation and mobility aids. 4.5 Client/family involvement will be encouraged as a part of the assessment process.Standard 5: An RKT shall administer therapeutic exercise or activity to accomplish the stated goals of the treatment plan. 5.1 An RKT shall instruct clients in the following interventions: 5.11 Strengthening exercise 5.111 Isometric 5.112 Isotonic 5.113 Isokinetic Kinesiotherapy 36
  37. 37. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont) 5.114 Endurance exercise 5.115 Aerobic exercise 5.116 Muscular endurance5.12 Functional mobility training and ambulation training5.13 Flexibility and range of motion exercise 5.131 Passive 5.132 Active-assistive 5.133 Active5.14 Aquatic exercise5.15 Balance and coordination exercise/activity5.16 Neuromuscular re-education5.17 Work conditioning exercise Kinesiotherapy 37
  38. 38. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont) 5.2 An RKT will monitor client treatment and intervene regularly to facilitate progress toward stated goals. 5.3 An RKT shall be responsible for the treatment process and will provide a safe environment that is conducive to achievement of the treatment objectives. 5.4 An RKT will be trained in the safe use of equipment employed in the treatment processStandard 6: An RKT shall educate the client and family/caregiver as appropriate to accomplish the stated goals of the treatment plan. 6.1 An RKT shall provide instruction in the following areas: 6.11 Implications of disease/disability process, progression, and expectations for client and family 6.12 Home exercise programs 6.13 Body mechanics/functional mobility 6.14 Home and/or worksite modification Kinesiotherapy 38
  39. 39. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont)Standard 7: An RKT shall document patient treatment information. 7.1 An RKT shall document progress toward established goals. 7.11 An RKT will be responsible for entering progress notes into the permanent patient record. 7.12 Time frames of completion of notes will conform to those as specified in Standard 3. 7.13 An RKT will provide a written summary of treatment, which includes recommendations for follow-up care. 7.14 All notes will be signed either in writing or electronically. 7.15 Documentation shall be subject to peer review on a regular basis so as to insure conformity to stated standards and as part of the facility’s total quality management system. Kinesiotherapy 39
  40. 40. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont)Standard 8: An RKT shall actively participate in the activities congruent with health care delivery. 8.1 An RKT shall attend client-planning functions and provide input as deemed appropriate. 8.2 An RKT shall at all times conduct themselves as professionals and accord client, family, medical staff and visitors respect and dignity. 8.3 An RKT shall work as a member of the health care team by participation in total quality management programs. 8.4 An RKT shall notify the Council on Professional Standards as to improprieties of another RKT. 8.5 An RKT shall inform appropriate individuals or agencies of any improprieties in the delivery of health care to the client. 8.6 An RKT shall participate in continuing education as required to insure quality client care. Kinesiotherapy 40
  41. 41. KT STANDARDS OF PRACTICE (cont)Standard 9: An RKT shall follow established quality assurance guidelines to assure quality and appropriateness of treatment provided. 9.1 A written plan shall exist that describes program objectives, organization and scope. 9.2 There will be a planned, systematic and ongoing process for monitoring and evaluating client care. Solutions will be developed when problems are identified. 9.3 Records are maintained to document all quality improvement activity. Revised: 07-23-2003 Kinesiotherapy 41
  42. 42. KT PROFESSIONAL CODE OF ETHICSA. All members of the Association shall be required to observe the Code of Ethics adopted by the Association, which are as follows: 1. A Member shall comply with the Rules of the By-Laws of the Association for the time being in force. 2. A Member shall not at any time, either in professional capacity or otherwise, undertake or give or accept responsibility for any treatment unless upon receipt of a prescription from qualified physicians, nurse practitioners and/or physicians assistants who have been privileged to make such referrals. 3. A Member shall not, at any time, either in a professional capacity or otherwise, undertake to give, or accept responsibility for a form of treatment in which he/she does not hold a recognized qualification. Kinesiotherapy 42
  43. 43. KT PROFESSIONAL CODE OF ETHICS (cont)4. A Member shall not, at any time, either in a professional capacity or otherwise, discuss with a patient, or within a patients hearing, any treatment or other professional matter in such a way as may be calculated to bring doubt or discredit on the professional skills, knowledge, services, or qualifications of any other registered medical auxiliary or professional colleague or any other person in the medical field.5. A Member shall not, for the purpose of obtaining patients or work, or of promoting his own professional prestige, directly advertise him/ herself in any manner not consistent with the ruling of the Association.6. A Member shall, at all times, in his/her professional capacity or otherwise, respect the status of, and show courtesy to his/her medical seniors, his/her own departmental superiors or staff, and his/her professional colleagues. Kinesiotherapy 43
  44. 44. KT PROFESSIONAL CODE OF ETHICS (cont)7. A Member shall, at all times, in his/her professional capacity or otherwise, give the best of his/her skill and knowledge when treating any patient, without prejudice and irrespective of financial remuneration.8. A Member shall report to the physician, nurse practitioner and/or physician’s assistant accurately, and with frequency, the patients progress and response to treatment. He/she shall report to the physician, nurse practitioner and/or physician’s assistant immediately, if or when, the patient exhibits responses that are not normally expected and shall report any accident that may occur in the course of treatment.9. A Member shall, in his/her professional capacity, maintain a clean and tidy appearance, shall maintain identification with his/her profession, and shall wear a uniform, which is acceptable to the institution in which he/she works. Kinesiotherapy 44
  45. 45. KT PROFESSIONAL CODE OF ETHICS (cont)10. A Member shall faithfully observe the conditions of his/her appointment with an employer, whether these conditions have been agreed upon verbally or in writing.11. A Member shall hold any information coming to his/her attention regarding a patient as confidential and consider it "privileged communications". Such information will not be made available to anyone except those responsible for the patients medical care.12. A Member shall not, at any time, either in a professional capacity or otherwise, act in such a manner as to bring discredit upon his/her colleagues or the Association. He/she shall maintain integrity and discipline in personal behavior so as to sustain and enhance public confidence in his/her profession. Kinesiotherapy 45
  46. 46. KT PROFESSIONAL CODE OF ETHICS (cont) 13. A Member shall publish only information and opinions that can be reasonably expected to be a scientific contribution to the field of rehabilitation. 14. A Member shall strive at all times to improve his/her professional knowledge, skill and efficiency and thereby increase the value of his/ her contribution to the field of rehabilitation.B. In the event that charges are brought against a member of the Association for violation of this Code, the case shall be remanded to the Council on Professional Standards for Kinesiotherapy (COPS-KT) for adjudication.Revised 12/2007 Kinesiotherapy 46
  47. 47. CONTACT INFORMATION    •  The Executive Offices of the American Kinesiotherapy Association and the Council on Professional Standards for Kinesiotherapy are located on the campus of the University of Southern Mississippi. •  Address: 118 College Drive # 5142; Hattiesburg, MS 39406 •  Phone: 800-296-2582 •  Website: www.akta.org•  Executive Officer: Melissa Ziegler •  Email: www.info@akta.org Kinesiotherapy 47
  48. 48. RESOURCESFigoni, S.F.; Edwards, B.G.; Smith, Warren C. (2003). Introduction to theProfession of Kinesiotherapy: definitions, history and philosophy. ClinicalKinesiology: Journal of the American Kinesiotherapy Association, 43, 1-10.Smith, W. C. (1989). History of the American Kinesiotherapy Association.(unpublished manuscript).Smith, W. C. (1994). Kinesiotherapy- Then and Now. (unpublishedmanuscript).The Standards and Guidelines for Accreditation of Educational Programs inKinesiotherapy (adopted 1998; revised 2011)AKTA By-Laws (revised 2007)     Kinesiotherapy 48

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