Basic Life Support & First Aid

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This presentation is designed to cover some of the principles of Basic Life Support & First Aid This includes things such as;
- DRABCD
- Care for Bleeding
- Care for Shock
- First Aid for Sprains & Strains
- Care for dislocations and fractures
- Poisoning
- Burns

It is not comprehensive, but is particularly designed to refresh those who have had any previous experience in Basic Life Support. In saying that being able to apply some of these skills is useful for anyone.

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Basic Life Support & First Aid

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Purpose<br />The purpose of this presentation is to introduce and refresh some Basic Life Support (aka First Aid) principles.<br />This presentation was designed with health students in mind, as a refresher or in preparation for clinical placements. However, the topics covered here will be of use to anyone.<br />Your actions on the day of an emergency may be the difference between someone waking up or going away in a body bag.<br />
  3. 3. DR ABCD<br />
  4. 4. Danger<br />Check for Danger (Hazards/Risks/Safety?)<br />to you<br />to others<br />to casualty<br />Remove yourself and the casualty to an area of safety<br />Andy Field (Hubmedia) via flickr<br />
  5. 5. Response<br />Check the casualty for a response.<br />Use the COWS Method<br />C an you hear me?<br />O pen your eyes<br />W hat is your name?<br />S queeze my hand<br />Gently squeeze shoulders (i.e. the trapezoid muscle)<br />If casualty is unresponsive call for help.<br />Call 112to reach emergency services virtually anywhere in the world.<br />Call 911for USA, 000for Australia<br />
  6. 6. Airway<br />Check the airway is open and clear of obstructions.<br />Use a head tilt, chin lift to open the airway.<br />Use a jaw thrust for patients with suspected spinal cord, head, neck and facial trauma.<br />If breathing begins place in recovery position.<br />
  7. 7. Breathing<br />Look, listen and feel for breathing, up to 10 seconds.<br />is chest rising and falling?<br />can you hear or feel air from mouth or nose?<br />After the airway has been opened, if the casualty is not breathing give, <br />2 full breaths, approx1 second per inspiration (breath)<br />In clinical situations use a face mask to administer the breaths.<br />image: c0d3in3via Flickr<br />
  8. 8. CPR<br />If no signs of life – unconscious, not breathing and not moving, <br />start CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)<br />CPR involves giving;<br />30 compression and 2 breaths<br />100 compressions per minute<br />(useful tunes for compression rate are Staying Alive by the Bee Gees, Another one Bites the Dust to name a few)<br />The recommended point of compresions is the midline over the lower half of the sternum.<br />
  9. 9. CPR Continued….<br />You should check for vital signs every 2 minutes.<br />Doing CPR on Infants<br />use two fingers instead of using hands to deliver compressions.<br />Give 30 compression & 2 breaths<br />100 compressions per minute<br />when delivering breaths do not overdo the amount, as you may cause a lung to rupture.<br />CPR should continue until the return of spontaneous circulation or you are relieved by a qualified professional.<br />
  10. 10. CPR Continued….<br />
  11. 11. Apply a Defibrillator<br />If Defibrillator is available, apply and follow voice prompts.<br />Remember when shocking to get everyone to stand well back.<br />The Lifepak 500 is the standard product in Australia<br />Keep checking for signs of life.<br />
  12. 12. Airway Management<br />Note the next two slides are specific to allied health professionals and medical students. It is a reminder of some devices used for airway management.<br />Nasopharyngeal Airway<br />Endotracheal tube<br />Oropharyngeal Airway (guedels)<br />Laryngeal mask<br />
  13. 13. Airway Management<br />Once the Guedel or Nasopharyngeal airway is inplace,<br />Apply face mask<br />Use the resuscitator to provide ventilations<br />Attach 15L of oxygen to resuscitator<br />If performing ventilation manually ensure a tight sealbetween the mask and the face.<br />Where possible have one person firmly holding the face mask down and the other ventilating.<br />
  14. 14. BLS - what’s coming up…<br />We shall now cover the following aspects of Basic Life Support.<br />Care for Bleeding<br />Care for Shock<br />First Aid for Sprains & Strains<br />Care for dislocations and fractures<br />Poisoning<br />Burns<br />
  15. 15. Care for bleeding…<br />Apply Pressure to the Wound<br />Raise and Support injured part<br />Bandage Wound<br />Check Circulation below wound<br />If severe bleeding persists, give nothing by mouth & call emergency services<br />
  16. 16. Care for Shock…<br />Assess Casualty (DRABCD)<br />Call emergency<br />Position Casualty<br /><ul><li>Keep the casualty lying down if possible.
  17. 17. Elevate legs 10-12inches unless you suspect a spinal injury</li></ul>Treat any other injuries<br />Ensure Comfort<br /><ul><li>Cover casualty to maintain warmth
  18. 18. Provide casualty with fresh air</li></ul>Monitor & Record breathing and pulse<br />When the face is pale, raise the tail<br />
  19. 19. Signs & Symptoms of Shock…<br />Weak rapid pulse<br />Cold, clammy skin<br />Rapid breathing<br />Faintness/dizziness<br />Nausea<br />Pale face, fingernails, lips<br />
  20. 20. Sprains & Strains…<br />R – I – C – E <br />R est<br />Ice, apply a cold pack. Do not apply ice directly to skin.<br />Compress, use an elastic or comforting wrap – not to tight.<br />Elevate, above heart level to control internal bleeding.<br />
  21. 21. Dislocations & Fractures<br />Follow DRABCD. Then proceed with I A-C-T.<br />I mmobilise area. Use jackets, pillows, blankets and so on. Stop any movement by supporting injured area.<br />Activate emergency services. Call 112 or 000.<br />Care for shock. See care for shock slide.<br />Treat any additional secondary injuries.<br />
  22. 22. Poisoning<br />Follow DRABCD& Check Materials Safety Data Sheet if possible .<br />Signs & Symptoms<br />Abdominal pain<br />Drowsiness<br />Nausea/vomiting<br />Burning pains from mouth to stomach<br />Difficulty in breathing<br />Tight chest<br />Blurred vision<br />and so on…….<br />
  23. 23. Burns<br />Remove Casualty from Danger(follow DRABCD & remember STOP, DROP & ROLL)<br />Cool the burnt area(hold burnt area under cold running water for a minimum of 20 minutes.)<br />Remove any constrictions(e.g. clothing & jewellery)<br />Cover Burn(place sterile, non-stick dressing over burn)<br />Calm Casualty<br />isafmedia via flickr<br />
  24. 24. Standard Precautions<br />Standard Precautions are standard, safe work practices that are to be applied to all patients regardless of their known or presumed infectious status.<br />Standard Precautions are particularly important in cases with:<br /><ul><li>Blood (including dried blood)
  25. 25. All other body fluids, secretions and excretions (excluding sweat), regardless of whether they contain visible blood
  26. 26. Non-intact skin
  27. 27. Mucous membranes </li></ul>Standard Precautions include steps such as:<br /><ul><li>hand washing
  28. 28. use of appropriate personal protective equipment (eg. gloves)
  29. 29. management of sharps, and
  30. 30. immunisation of health care workers.</li></li></ul><li>
  31. 31. Notice/Disclosure<br />I’m not a Medical Professional or a Doctor. Anything that is mentioned in this presentation, I have learnt during my university studies or through certified training programs.<br />This presentation is not a substitute for professional training.<br />Hope you enjoyed this presentation.<br />Cheers,<br />Aaron<br />

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