Android report


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Android report

  2. 2. CONTENTS: Introduction of android  Android versions  Android architecture  Security  Features of android  Advantages of android  Disadvantage of android  Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION:ABSTRACT:The android operating system is basically an operating system for mobiles. It is mobile operating system that uses a modified version of the Linux kernel 2.6. Google developed Android as part of the Open Handset Alliance, a group of more than 30 mobile and technology companies working to open up the mobile handset environment. In this, it will be described that how security can be improve of Android Operating System so that users can safely used the android smart phones. Keywords:-Android history, architecture and security HISTORY OF ANDROID: Android Inc.founded in Palo Alto,california ,united states in October 2003 by Andy Rubin[co-founder of danger ],rich miner[co-founder of wildfire communication Inc.],nick sears[once VP at T-mobile], and Chris white[headed design and interface development at web TV] to develop. WHAT IS ANDROID: It is a open source software platform and operating system for mobile devices  Based on the Linux kernel  Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)  Allows writing managed code in the Java language  Android has its own virtual machine i.e. DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine), which is used for executing the android application.  Android is a free downloadable open source software stack for mobile devices that include an Operating system.
  4. 4.  Android os is developed under a code name based on dessert items. OPEN HANDSET ALLIANCE: The open handset alliance (OHA) is a business alliance of firm to develop open standard for mobile devices.  Devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices  Develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile devices and services. ANDROID VERSION: Android 1.0 (Angel Cake)-The first version of the open source software was released back in 2008.  Android 1.1 (Battenberg)-In Feb 2009, version 1.1  Android 1.5 (Cupcake)-Launched in April 2009  Android 1.6 (Donut)-released in September 2009  Android 2.0 / 2.1 (Éclair)-released in 26 October 2009 and January 2010  Android 2.2 (Froyo) –frozen yogurt:-Released in the summer of 2010  Android 2.3 (Gingerbread):- Gingerbread landed by the end of 2010  Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) 
:- For the first time Google released a software that was totally focused on tablets. This version, released in July/august 2011  Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich 4.0) -released in October 2011  Android 4.1 (jelly bean4.1) -released in 26th June 2012
  5. 5. After so many desserts named version of android is going to offer something with even tastier dessert. The upcoming version of android 4.4 was KITKAT released on October 2013. ANDROID ARCHITECTURE:The software stack is split into Four Layers:• The application layer • The application framework • The libraries and runtime • The kernel
  6. 6. LINUX KERNEL:•The architecture is based on the Linux2.6 kernel. • This layer is core of android architecture. It provides service like power management, memory management, security etc.  It helps in software or hardware binding for better communication. NATIVE LIBRARIES: Android has its own libraries, which is written in C/C++. These libraries cannot be accessed directly. With the help of application framework, we can access these libraries. There are
  7. 7. many libraries like web libraries to access web browsers, libraries for android and video formats etc. Android Run Time: Dalvik virtual machine- The Android Runtime was designed specifically for Android to meet the needs of running in an embedded environment where you have limited battery, limited memory, limited CPU.  Dalvik is the process virtual machine in Google's android operating system. It is the software that runs the apps on android devices. Dalvik is thus an integral part of android, which is typically used on mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers.  Programs are commonly written in java and compiled to byte code.  Core libraries- This is in blue, meaning that it's written in the Java programming language. • The core library contains all of the collection classes, utilities, IO, all the utilities and tools that you’ve come to expected to use. Application Framework: This is all written in a Java programming language and the application framework is the toolkit that all applications use. •These applications include the ones that come with a phone like the home applications, or the phone application.
  8. 8. •It includes applications written by Google, and it includes apps that will be written by you. •So, all apps use the same framework and the same APIs. These are as follows:• Activity manager:-It manages the lifecycle of applications. It enables proper management of all the activities. All the activities are controlled by activity manager. • Resource manager:-It provides access to non-code resources such as graphics etc. • Notification manager:-It enables all applications to display custom alerts in status bar. • Location manager:- It fires alerts when user enters or leaves a specified geographical location. • Package manager:-It is use to retrieve the data about installed packages on device. • Window manager:-It is use to create views and layouts. • Telephony manager:-It is use to handle settings of network connection and all information about services on device. APPLICATION LAYER:-The final layer on top is Applications. • It includes the home application, the contacts application, the browser, and apps. • It is the most upper layer in android architecture.
  9. 9. • All the applications like camera, Google maps, browser, sms, calendars, contacts are native applications. These applications works with end user with the help of application framework to operate. SECURITY  Android is a multi-process system, in which each application (and parts of the system) runs in its own process. Most security between applications and the system is enforced at the process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user and group IDs that are assigned to applications.  Android is designed having multi layer security which provides flexibility for this platform. When attackers attempt attack on device, android platform help to reduce the portability of the attack. There are key components of android security which are described as follows: Design review:-when a security model is designed then it will be reviewed by the developers so that risk level will be very less while using the model.  Code review and penetrating testing:-the goal of this code review is that in which it will be checked that how the system will become strong?
  10. 10.  Open source and community review:-android uses open source technologies that have significant external review such as Linux kernel.  Incident response:-android team enables the rapid mitigation of vulnerabilities to ensure that potential risks to all android users are minimized. FEATURES OF ANDROID: Background Wi-Fi location still runs even when Wi-Fi is turned off  Developer logging and analyzing enhancements  It is optimized for mobile devices.  It enables reuse and replacement of components.  Java support ,media support, multi touch, video calling,multi tasking ,voice based features, screen capture, camera ,bluetooth,gps,compass and accelerometer,3G ADVANTAGE:• The ability for anyone to customize the Google Android platform • It gives you better notification. • It lets you choose your hardware. • It has better app market(1,80,000 application) • A more mature platform
  11. 11. • With the support of many applications, the user can change the screen display. • With Google chrome you can open many windows at once. • Supports all Google services: Android operating system supports all of Google services ranging from Gmail to Google reader. All Google services can you have with one operating system, namely Android. DISADVANTAGES: Android Market is less control of the manager, sometimes there are malware.  Wasteful Batteries, This is because the OS is a lot of "process" in the background causing the battery quickly drains.  Ssometimes slow device company issued an official version of Android your own .  Extremely inconsistence in design among apps.  Very unstable and often hang or crash. LIMITATIONS OF ANDROID:Development requirements in • Java • Android SDK • Bluetooth limitations:-
  12. 12. Android doesn't support:  Bluetooth stereo  Contacts exchange  Modem pairing  Wireless keyboards • Firefox mobile isn't coming to android because of android limitations Apps in Android Market need to be programmed with a custom form of Java There are no split or interval times available. • Small memory size. • Continuous Internet connection is required CONCLUSION We hope that the next versions of Android have overcome the actual limitations and that the future possibilities became a reality and may this software is also developed to use in PC’s also.
  13. 13. REFERENCES       “Android overview,”  Architecture overview,”