100% biodiesel is referred to as B10020% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel is labeledB205% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel is labeledB52% biodiesel, 98% petrodiesel is labeledB2
Ecofasa- Spanish developers working for a Company
Biodiesel from waste cooking oil
Biodiesel: Fuel For Next
What is Biodiesel?
Higher cetane number
Calorific Value range 38-43 KJ/g
Immiscible with water
High Boiling point and Low vapor pressure
There are three basic methods of biodiesel (methyl
ester) production from oils and fats. They are:
transesterification of the oil with methanol.
2. Directed acid catalyzed esterification of the
oil with methanol.
3. Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then
to methyl esters with acid catalysis
PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL
For preparation of biodiesel in the lab alkali catalyzed
“transesterification” is to be used.
Free fatty acids will increase the time required for heating vegetable
oil. Oil which has been used for cooking will required more of the
reactive agents and methanol than fresh oil.
The presence of too many free fatty acids will retard or stop the
reaction, which produces biodiesel, so it is necessary to deduce the
exact amount of alkali (sodium hydroxide) needed to neutralize the
Adding too much or too little NaOH will make excessive amounts of
soap as a by-product.
Vegetable oil: Diesel has a chain of 11-13 carbons and new
vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 but wasted vegetable oil which
is heated has chains of up to 32 carbons. To burn in an engine, the
chain needs to be broken down to be similar in length to diesel.
NaOH : It is the catalyst for transesterification and works by cracking
the vegetable oil molecules, splitting the triglyceride from the
hydrocarbons and shortening the carbon chain
Isopropyl alcohol: It is used to dissolve waste cooking oil during
determination of extra amount of alkali (NaOH) in titration.
Methanol: a little amount of methanol is necessary in order to get
the highest yield. If 90% yield is obtain that means 90% fatty acids
have been eliminated from the vegetable oil. Generally 15% to 20%
methanol based upon the total weight of batch of oil is necessary.
We plan to carry out titration to determine the amount of NaOH is required to
neutralise the free fatty acid; the procedure is as follows:
Dissovle 1 gm NaOH in 1 litre of distilled water to make 0.1% (w/v) solution
and fill this solution in pipette
In a small beaker dissolve 1 ml of waste vegetable oil in 10 ml of isopropyl
Slowly increases the temperature by keeping this beaker in hot water bath
for about 10 minutes on 300 C to dissolve the oil. Add 2 drops of
phenolphthalein indicator into the beaker.
Titrate against 0.1% (w/v) NaOH solution. At the end point the color of the
solution will turn pink.
Repeat the same procedure 3 times and obtain average titration reading.
Using the average value for titrations determine the amount of NaOH
required to neutralize free fatty acid.
Preparation of Biodiesel
Heat 250ml of the oil at 60o C to remove moisture
content, by using heating mantle.
Add NaOH into 160 ml of methanol and heat
separately. After 15 minutes mix both solutions in a
Add a magnetic needle to the mixture and place the
mixture on the magnetic stirrer + hotplate and the set
the temperature to 60o. Start the stirring (800-1000
rpm) and continue for about 25-30 minutes.
After 30 minutes transfer the mixture into a separating
flask and shake thoroughly. Leave the mixture to settle
for 24 hrs at room temperature to separate the glycerin
and crude biodiesel. Collect the two fractions in two
separate conical flasks.
To improve the quality of biodiesel add equal amount
of water into the conical flask and shake thoroughly
and leave the conical flask to settle. Decant the water
out. This can be done twice if required.
COMPARISON OF DENSITY OF BIODIESEL
Sun flower oil
Types of Oils
Rice Bran oil
There is ongoing research into finding more suitable
crops and improving oil yield
Biodiesel from Human Fecal matter with Ghana building
its first plant
US(largest diesel fuel user) developing biodiesel
technologies for navy and military
Ecofasa announced a new biofuel made from trash.
Urban waste is treated by bacteria to produce fatty
acids, which can be used to make biodiesel.
Another approach involves the use of genetically