Biodiesel from waste cooking oil


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Biodiesel Next Generation fuel

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  • 100% biodiesel is referred to as B10020% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel is labeledB205% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel is labeledB52% biodiesel, 98% petrodiesel is labeledB2
  • Isopropyl alcohol----C3H8O
  • Ecofasa- Spanish developers working for a Company
  • Biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    1. 1. Biodiesel: Fuel For Next Generation By:-Akshay Patil Roll no.57
    2. 2. QUICK RECAP What is Biodiesel?  Properties  Advantages/Disadvantages  Uses 
    3. 3. Lubricating Properties  Higher cetane number  Calorific Value range 38-43 KJ/g  Immiscible with water  High Boiling point and Low vapor pressure 
    4. 4. METHODS There are three basic methods of biodiesel (methyl ester) production from oils and fats. They are: 1. Base(NaOH/KOH) catalyst transesterification of the oil with methanol. 2. Directed acid catalyzed esterification of the oil with methanol. 3. Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then to methyl esters with acid catalysis
    5. 5. ECONOMICS Quantity Rate/ Cost Revenue (Litre) litre (Rs) (Rs) Oil 1321 4.30 5680.3 Reagents 22.510 8.7243 196.38 Methanol 211.36 60 12681.6 Electricity 108.326 0.6711 72.69 Filtration 1321 2.0133 2659.57 Purification 1191.58 2.684 3198.69 Labour 1000 4.28 4280 Glycerine 471.614 4.69 and Water 2215.5
    6. 6. TRANSESTERFICATION Transesterification is the process of separating the fatty acids from their glycerol backbone to form fatty acid esters (FAE) and free glycerol.
    9. 9. PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL     For preparation of biodiesel in the lab alkali catalyzed “transesterification” is to be used. Free fatty acids will increase the time required for heating vegetable oil. Oil which has been used for cooking will required more of the reactive agents and methanol than fresh oil. The presence of too many free fatty acids will retard or stop the reaction, which produces biodiesel, so it is necessary to deduce the exact amount of alkali (sodium hydroxide) needed to neutralize the acids. Adding too much or too little NaOH will make excessive amounts of soap as a by-product.
    10. 10. RAW MATERIALS     Vegetable oil: Diesel has a chain of 11-13 carbons and new vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 but wasted vegetable oil which is heated has chains of up to 32 carbons. To burn in an engine, the chain needs to be broken down to be similar in length to diesel. NaOH : It is the catalyst for transesterification and works by cracking the vegetable oil molecules, splitting the triglyceride from the hydrocarbons and shortening the carbon chain Isopropyl alcohol: It is used to dissolve waste cooking oil during determination of extra amount of alkali (NaOH) in titration. Methanol: a little amount of methanol is necessary in order to get the highest yield. If 90% yield is obtain that means 90% fatty acids have been eliminated from the vegetable oil. Generally 15% to 20% methanol based upon the total weight of batch of oil is necessary.
    11. 11. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. Titration We plan to carry out titration to determine the amount of NaOH is required to neutralise the free fatty acid; the procedure is as follows:       Dissovle 1 gm NaOH in 1 litre of distilled water to make 0.1% (w/v) solution and fill this solution in pipette In a small beaker dissolve 1 ml of waste vegetable oil in 10 ml of isopropyl alcohol. Slowly increases the temperature by keeping this beaker in hot water bath for about 10 minutes on 300 C to dissolve the oil. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator into the beaker. Titrate against 0.1% (w/v) NaOH solution. At the end point the color of the solution will turn pink. Repeat the same procedure 3 times and obtain average titration reading. Using the average value for titrations determine the amount of NaOH required to neutralize free fatty acid.
    12. 12. CALCULATION Type of oil Average volume (ml) Weight of NaOH required (g) WCO unfiltered 4.1 1.025 WCO filtered 1.5 0.375 Soy Oil 1.8 0.450 Sunflower oil 0.8 0.200 Rice Bran oil 2.2 0.550 Sesame Oil 1.3 0.325 Palm oil 1.6 0.400
    13. 13. Preparation of Biodiesel      Heat 250ml of the oil at 60o C to remove moisture content, by using heating mantle. Add NaOH into 160 ml of methanol and heat separately. After 15 minutes mix both solutions in a beaker. Add a magnetic needle to the mixture and place the mixture on the magnetic stirrer + hotplate and the set the temperature to 60o. Start the stirring (800-1000 rpm) and continue for about 25-30 minutes. After 30 minutes transfer the mixture into a separating flask and shake thoroughly. Leave the mixture to settle for 24 hrs at room temperature to separate the glycerin and crude biodiesel. Collect the two fractions in two separate conical flasks. To improve the quality of biodiesel add equal amount of water into the conical flask and shake thoroughly and leave the conical flask to settle. Decant the water out. This can be done twice if required.
    14. 14. COMPARISON OF DENSITY OF BIODIESEL Density (kg/m3) 1 0.992 0.988 0.95 0.9 0.892 0.88 0.899 0.887 0.86 0.85 0.8 0.75 WCO (unfiltered) Sun flower oil Palm oil Types of Oils WCO (filtered) Rice Bran oil Soy oil Sesame
    15. 15. CURRENT RESEARCH • • • • • There is ongoing research into finding more suitable crops and improving oil yield Biodiesel from Human Fecal matter with Ghana building its first plant US(largest diesel fuel user) developing biodiesel technologies for navy and military Ecofasa announced a new biofuel made from trash. Urban waste is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make biodiesel. Another approach involves the use of genetically modified microbes.
    16. 16. Thank You