Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pentium

2,782 views

Published on

Published in: Technology

Pentium

  1. 1. Pentium Processor
  2. 2. 16-bit Processors and Segmentation (1978) <ul><ul><li>The IA-32 architecture family was preceded by 16-bit processors, the 8086 and 8088. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 8086 has 16-bit registers and a 16-bit external data bus, with 20-bit addressing giving a 1-MByte address space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 8088 is similar to the 8086 except it has an 8-bit external data bus. The 8086/8088 introduced segmentation to the IA-32 architecture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With segmentation, a 16-bit segment register contains a pointer to a memory segment of up to 64 KBytes. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Intel® 286 Processor (1982) <ul><li>The Intel 286 processor introduced protected mode operation into the IA-32 architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Protected mode uses the segment register content as selectors or pointers into descriptor tables. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptors provide 24-bit base addresses with a physical memory size of up to 16 Mbytes , support for virtual memory management on a segment swapping basis, and a number of protection mechanisms. These mechanisms include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Segment limit checking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Read-only and execute-only segment options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Four privilege levels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Intel386™ Processor (1985) <ul><li>The Intel386 processor was the first 32-bit processor in the IA-32 architecture family. It introduced 32-bit registers for use both to hold operands and for addressing. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower half of each 32-bit Intel386 register retains the properties of the 16-bit registers of earlier generations, permitting backward compatibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The processor also provides a virtual-8086 mode that allows for even greater efficiency when executing programs created for </li></ul><ul><li>8086/8088 processors. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the Intel386 processor has support for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 32-bit address bus that supports up to 4-GBytes of physical memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A segmented-memory model and a flat memory model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paging, with a fixed 4-KByte page size providing a method for virtual memory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for parallel stages </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Intel486™ Processor (1989) <ul><li>The Intel486™ processor added more parallel execution capability by expanding the Intel386 processor’s instruction decode and execution units into five pipelined stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage operates in parallel with the others on up to five instructions in different stages of execution. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the processor added: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An 8-KByte on-chip first-level cache that increased the percent of instructions that could execute at the scalar rate of one per clock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated x87 FPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power saving and system management capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Intel® Pentium® Processor (1993) <ul><li>The introduction of the Intel Pentium processor added a second execution pipeline to achieve superscalar performance (two pipelines, known as u and v, together can execute two instructions per clock). </li></ul><ul><li>The on-chip first-level cache doubled, with 8 KBytes devoted to code and another 8 KBytes devoted to data. </li></ul><ul><li>The data cache uses the MESI protocol to </li></ul><ul><li>support more efficient write-back cache in addition to the write-through cache previously used by the Intel486 processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Branch prediction with an on-chip branch table was added to increase performance in looping constructs </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROCESSOR FEATURES OVERVIEW <ul><li>The Pentium processor supports the features of previous Intel Architecture processors and </li></ul><ul><li>provides significant enhancements including the following: </li></ul><ul><li>· Superscalar Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>· Dynamic Branch Prediction </li></ul><ul><li>· Pipelined Floating-Point Unit </li></ul><ul><li>· Improved Instruction Execution Time </li></ul><ul><li>· Separate Code and Data Caches. </li></ul><ul><li>· Writeback MESI Protocol in the Data Cache </li></ul><ul><li>· 64-Bit Data Bus </li></ul><ul><li>· Bus Cycle Pipelining </li></ul>
  8. 8. PROCESSOR FEATURES OVERVIEW <ul><li>Address Parity </li></ul><ul><li>· Internal Parity Checking </li></ul><ul><li>· Functional Redundancy Checking2 and Lock Step operation2 </li></ul><ul><li>· Execution Tracing </li></ul><ul><li>· Performance Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>· IEEE 1149.1 Boundary Scan </li></ul>
  9. 9. PROCESSOR FEATURES OVERVIEW <ul><li>System Management Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Mode Extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Upgradable with a Pentium Over Drive processor2 </li></ul><ul><li>Dual processing support </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced SL Power Management Features </li></ul><ul><li>Fractional Bus Operation </li></ul><ul><li>On-Chip Local APIC Device </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Redundancy Checking and Lock Step operation </li></ul>
  10. 11. Pin Description
  11. 12. Pin Description
  12. 13. SUPER SCALAR <ul><li>A superscalar CPU architecture implements a form of parallelism called instruction level parallelism within a single processor. It therefore allows faster CPU throughput than would otherwise be possible at a given clock rate. </li></ul><ul><li>A superscalar processor executes more than one instruction during a clock cycle by simultaneously dispatching multiple instructions to redundant functional units on the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Each functional unit is not a separate CPU core but an execution resource within a single CPU such as an arithmetic logic unit, a bit shifter, or a multiplier.. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Integer Instruction Pairing Rules <ul><li>The Pentium processor can issue one or two instructions every clock. In order to issue two instructions simultaneously they must satisfy the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Both instructions in the pair must be “simple” as defined below Simple instructions are entirely hardwired; they do not require any microcode control and, in general, execute in one clock </li></ul><ul><li>There must be no read-after-write or write-after-write register dependencies between them. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither instruction may contain both a displacement and an immediate </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions with prefixes can only occur in the u-pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction prefixes are treated as separate 1-byte instructions. Sequencing hardware is used to allow them to function as simple instructions. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The following integer instructions are considered simple and may be paired: </li></ul><ul><li>1. mov reg, reg/mem/imm </li></ul><ul><li>2. mov mem, reg/imm </li></ul><ul><li>3. alu reg, reg/mem/imm </li></ul><ul><li>4. alu mem, reg/imm </li></ul><ul><li>5. inc reg/mem </li></ul><ul><li>6. dec reg/mem </li></ul><ul><li>7. push reg/mem </li></ul><ul><li>8. pop reg </li></ul><ul><li>9. lea reg,mem </li></ul><ul><li>10. jmp/call/jcc near </li></ul><ul><li>11. nop </li></ul><ul><li>12. test reg, reg/mem </li></ul><ul><li>13. test acc, imm </li></ul>

×