ECOSYSTEMS• The living community of plants and animals in any area together with the non-living components of the environment such as soil, water, air constitute the ecosystem.• TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM : 1.NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS. 2.ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEMS.
• NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS : (a)Terrestrial (b) Aquatic includes freshwater and marine water.• 2.ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEMS. These include agriculture and aquaculture which are human engineered.
COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM 1.BIOTIC 2. ABIOTICBIOTIC COMPONENTS :(a) Producers/Autotrophs.(b) Consumers: primary,secondary,tertiary(c) Decomposers/saprophytes.ABIOTIC COMPONENTS : These include the non-living components of the environment such as light, temperature, humidity , water, soil.
FOOD CHAINS The transfer of food energy from producers, through series of consumers (herbivores and carnivores) to decomposers with repeated eating and being eaten is known as food chain.• FUNCTIONS : -flow of energy of the ecosystem. -flow of nutrients. -flow of biomass.
DEMERIT OF FOOD CHAINAlong with the nutrients, biomass and energy it also transports toxic substances from one organism to another which finally leads to the BIOMAGNIFICATION. DDT was banned due to its harmful effects on birds. It hindered the formation of egg shells.
FOOD WEBThe inter-linking of different food chains withone another forms a food web.
ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID The relationship between producers (autotrophs), herbivore and carnivores at successive trophic levels in terms of their number, biomass and energy present at any one time in the level. TYPES :(a) Pyramid of numbers(b) Pyramid of biomass(c) Pyramid of energy
HAWKS SNAKE, LIZARD RABBIT, GRASSHOPP ER GRASSLANDSPYRAMID OF NUMBERS FOR GRASSLANDS
LIONS, TIGERS SNAKES,BEERS, WOLF ALL ANIMALS DEPENDING UPON TREES TREESPYRAMID OF NUMBERS FOR FORESTECOSYSTEM
PARASITES ALL HERBIVORES PLANTSPYRAMID OF NUMBERS FOR PARASITIC FOODCHAIN
CARN IVOR ES HERBIVORES PRODUCERSPYRAMID OF BIOMASS FOR FORESTS/GRASSLANDS
LARGE FISH SMALL FISH PHYTO PLANKTONPYRAMID OF BIOMASS FOR AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
CARNIVORE S HERBIVORES PRODUCERSPYRAMID OF ENERGY