The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a
Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300
BCE,The Bronze Age is a time period
characterised by the use of bronze, proto-
writing, and other early features of urban
civilisation)in northwest Indian subcontinent
(including present day Pakistan, northwest
India) and also in some regions in northeast
Afghanistan. It was one of three early
civilisations of the Old World followed by
Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and the
most widespread among them,covering an
area of 1.25 million km2.
1. The Indus basin was rich in timber
for building and fuel ,but there
was no local building stone , and
baked or kiln-ﬁred brick was the
standard building material.
2. They had many resources - fresh
water , materials like gold,
silver,semi precious stone and
marine resources Entrance gate
The Indus is a very large, complex river in Pakistan. The source of the Indus
river is Singikabab (5165 m altitude), near the Mansarover Lake in Tibet.
This lake is also the source for the other major tributary of the Indus, the
River Sutlej. It is 2900 km. long and ﬂows through the Himalayas and the
Punjab before entering Pakistan. The Indus has ﬁve main tributaries, the
Jhelum, the Sutlej, the Beas, the Ravi and the Chenab.
1. Good source of water.
2. Used for drinking and cooking
3. They ate fishes from the river.
4. Used for sanitary purposes.
5. Crops were grown included wheat,
barley peas,melons and sesame.
6. Used in great bath.
7. Clay was obtained from the river which
was used for making clay.
Uses of Indus river
1. Used for making moulds for
bricks , henceforth bricks
were used for building
houses and to lay the
2. It was used to make utensils
3. Clay was used to plaster the
walls.A common size was 7 cm
high x 14 cm wide x 28 cm
BRICKFirst the brick-makers mixed soil, clay and water
to make squishy mud. Next they squashed the
mud into a wooden mould which was the shape
of a brick.
Mud-bricks could dry in the hot sun. But it was
better to put them inside a kiln. The ﬁre in the
kiln heated or 'ﬁred' the bricks at a high
temperature to make them very hard.
All Indus Valley bricks were the same ratio of 1 :
2 : 4 but came in different sizes. A common size
was 7 cm high x 14 cm wide x 28 cm long. Bricks
were laid in rows or 'courses', end to end and
crossways, using wet mud as cement to stick the
1. Used for construction
2. They use to burn sticks and
logs for household purpose.
3. Used to make tools for
hunting and fishing.
4. Wood was used to make
5. People at that time used it to
make floating base on river.
lady of spiked throne
1. Small pieces of timbers
were tied together to form
2. Wheels were made of
3. Timber was used to make
4. Cedar, Rosewood ,
Deodar etc were the
timbers available at that
Indus Valley cities lived by trade. Farmers
brought food into the cities. City workers made
such things as pots, beads and cotton cloth.
Traders brought the materials workers needed,
and took away ﬁnished goods to trade in other
Trade goods included terracotta pots, beads,
gold and silver, coloured gem stones such as
turquoise and lapis lazuli, metals, ﬂints (for
making stone tools), seashells and pearls.
Minerals came from Iran and
Afghanistan. Lead and
copper came from India. Jade
came from China and cedar
tree wood was ﬂoated down
the rivers from Kashmir and
• Sea trade was probably
heaviest with Oman since
numerous Indus artefacts
have been found in Oman.
Carnelian: Baluchistan and Gujarat
Jade: Central Asia
Turquoise: Baluchistan and Iran
Shell: Gujarat, Karachi and Oman
Ivory: Gujarat and Punjab
Mother of Pearl: Oman
Carved chlorite containers: Baluchistan and Iran
Green schist containers: Baluchistan and Iran
Fuchsite containers: Baluchistan and Afghanistan
Gold: Afghanistan and Karnataka
Silver: Afghanistan and Iran
Copper: Oman, Baluchistan and
Lead: East or south India
Lapis lazuli: Baluchistan and
Fuchsite: Northern Karnataka
Agate: Baluchistan and Gujarat
Carnelian beads: Mesopotamia
Shell inlays: Mesopotamia
Shell bangles: Mesopotamia
Lapis lazuli: Mesopotamia
Clariﬁed Butter: Oman
Pickled vegetables: Oman
Pickled fruits: Oman
Chert weights: Oman
1. Gold: Mesopotamia
2. Silver: Mesopotamia
3. Bronze: Mesopotamia
5. Ivory: Oman
6. Indigo: Oman
7. Wood: Oman
8. Livestock: Oman
9. Grain: Oman
10. Fresh fruit: Oman
1. Necklace from mohenjo-daro made
from gold, agate, jasper,statite and
2. The gold beads are hollow and
pendent agate and jasper beads are
attached with thick gold wire.
3. Steatite beads with gold caps serve
to separate each of the pendent
Mesopotamia's major resources were its
water and fertile soil. Mesopotamia was
the gift of the Tigris and Euphrates.
This was especially true of the alluvial
plain to the south, where the well-
watered fertility of the land nurtured
such staples of the people's diet as
barley, sesame, and dates.
Widely considered to be the cradle of
civilization by the Western world, Bronze Age
Mesopotamia included Sumer and the
Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires,
all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq.
A unique resource of the land was
bitumen, a natural asphalt that seeped
from beds in the ground, especially in the
area around Hit on the Euphrates.
Bitumen had many uses: as an adhesive
for bricks, as a waterproof coating in
construction, and as a cement to create
works of art.
From riverine clay the Mesopotamians
not only made bricks but also
fashioned clay tablets to write on with
the help of pens cut from the reeds
that grew along the rivers' banks.
1. Timber -Zagros Mountains and
2. copper and tin -Anatolia, the
3. Iran; silver from - Taurus Mountains
4. gold -Egypt and even India
5. Afghanistan -precious blue mineral
called lapis lazuli
Gudea Statue I carved diorite
The critical resources that Mesopotamia largely
lacked were building stone (except in Assyria
where gypsum was available), construction-grade
timber, and minerals, including copper and tin
(needed to make bronze), iron, silver, and gold.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient
Northeastern Africa, concentrated along
the lower reaches of the Nile River in what
is now the modern country of Egypt
The greatest natural resource in
Ancient Egypt was the Nile River.
The river provided ﬁsh,
transportation, and an annual ﬂood
that fertilized the land for growing
good crops. Egypt also had other
items of natural resources in rocks
The Egyptians mined from various areas in
Egypt. White limestone came from quarries
near Memphis, quartzite from Gebel el-Ahmar,
and sandstone from Gebel es-Silsila.
Alabaster was quarried out of the eastern
desert. Granite quarries were found around
Copper was the main metal used in Ancient
Egypt . Copper comes naturally mixed with other
minerals in an ore form. The ore had to be heated
to remove the copper from the other elements.
The Egyptians used a heating process called
smelting to remove any impurities from the copper
carvings in the ancient Egyptian Gebel el Silsila
Flint was another important stone for
Ancient Egyptians. It was used in
making sickles for harvesting crops and
in making weapons. Steatite, another
type of stone, was used in making
Flax was another natural resource that
Egypt developed. Flax grew well in the fertile
Nile Valley. It was pulled out by the roots and
then dried. Seeds were removed, and the
core of the plant was placed in water for a
week or more. Then they beat and separated
it into parts that were spun into linen cloth.
Another naturally grown crop in Egypt
was papyrus. It was made into writing
material, a predecessor to paper. The
papyrus plant grew in several feet of
water. It was pulled out, and the stem was
cut into strips. The strips were overlaid in
vertical and horizontal layers and put
under pressure by pounding it together.
The sap of the plant acted like a glue
after it dried, holding the strips together
in a white loose-textured paper.
Egypt lacked good trees for wood due to
the dryness of the climate. Cedar wood had
to be imported from Lebanon to meet the