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cross polar microscopy on crude

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waxy crude result of obervation under cross polar microscopy
result in micro and macro crystalline structure

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cross polar microscopy on crude

  1. 1. Rheological study of waxy crude oil example from Cambay basin reservoir NAME- Akshaya kumar mishra Roll no-14mpe12 GUIDE- Mr Uttam Bhui
  2. 2. Current Scenario • As production from conventional oil reserves declines at a rate of about 5% per year, global demand is rising steadily • In this environment, heavy-parafinic oil is playing an instrumental role in reserve replacement
  3. 3. Complications in heavy crude production • When the fluid temperature falls below the WAT there is wax deposition in the tubing/piping . Wax deposition will reduce the effective flow area and may lead to complete pipe blockage • The precipitation of wax components out of the oil is responsible for the changes in waxy crude oil properties, including the gelation of oil and increase in viscosity
  4. 4. • Therefore it is very important to understand the properties and behavior of paraffinic crude so that the design of the facilities can be optimized according to the nature of crude
  5. 5. OBJECTIVE • The objective of this project is to study rheological properties of waxy crude oils from Cambay basin reservoirs for flow assurance • Study of crudes in static and dynamic condition at different temperature. • Study of rheological property of crudes before and after adding different doses of pore point depressant. • Developing a correlation between above analysis & SARA analysis of crude to form a generalize solution
  6. 6. Instrumentation & analytical Procedure Physical appearance ,behavior Chemical Composition Static Conditioning During Cooling Behavior in Dynamic condition GCMS , FTIRCross Polar Microscopy Study With Rheometer CORRELATION OF GATHERED DATA & CONCLUSION
  7. 7. CROSS POLAR MICROSCOPY • Polarizing microscopes are used in the study of thin sections of minerals and rocks as well as other anisotropic materials (fibers, plastics, etc.). • Anisotropy is the property of being directionally dependent, as opposed to Isotropy, which implies identical properties in all directions • This test method consists of determining the wax appearance temperature (WAT, or cloud point) of a crude oil by measuring the temperature at which wax crystals can be seen via microscopy under cross polarized light • The oil sample is placed between the cross-polarized filters, and any crystalline material present will rotate light allowing the light to pass through the second polarization filter
  8. 8. CROSS-POLAR MICROSCOPY BA310Pol
  9. 9. 60ºC 45ºC 35ºC 50X HC1 Oil Tem p (F) Oil Temp (C) Observation 140 60 No Observation 131 55 No Observation 122 50 No Observation 113 45 No Observation 104 40 No Observation 96.8 36 Wax crystals appear 91.4 33 Number of crystal increases rapidly OBSERVATION :- Macrocrystalline (paraffin) waxes have larger, elongated structures
  10. 10. 60ºC 45ºC 35ºC 50X HC3 Oil Tem p (F) Oil Temp (C) Observation 140 60 No Observation 131 55 No Observation 122 50 No Observation 113 45 No Observation 104 40 No Observation 96.8 36 Wax crystals appear 91.4 33 Number of crystal increases rapidly OBSERVATION :- Macrocrystalline (paraffin) waxes have larger, elongated structures
  11. 11. 60ºC 45ºC 35ºC 50X HC4 Oil Tem p (F) Oil Temp (C) Observation 140 60 No Observation 131 55 No Observation 122 50 No Observation 113 45 No Observation 104 40 No Observation 96.8 36 Wax crystals appear 91.4 33 Number of crystal increases rapidly OBSERVATION :- Macrocrystalline (paraffin) waxes have larger, elongated structures
  12. 12. 60ºC 45ºC 35ºC 50X PC1 Oil Tem p (F) Oil Temp (C) Observation 140 60 No Observation 131 55 No Observation 122 50 No Observation 113 45 No Observation 104 40 No Observation 96.8 36 Wax crystals appear 91.4 33 Number of crystal increases rapidly OBSERVATION :- rounded microcrystalline (naphthene and iso- paraffin) waxes
  13. 13. 60ºC 45ºC 35ºC 50X PC2 Oil Tem p (F) Oil Temp (C) Observation 140 60 No Observation 131 55 No Observation 122 50 No Observation 113 45 No Observation 104 40 No Observation 96.8 36 Wax crystals appear 91.4 33 Number of crystal increases rapidly OBSERVATION :- rounded microcrystalline (naphthene and iso- paraffin) waxes
  14. 14. 60ºC 45ºC 35ºC 50X PC3 Oil Tem p (F) Oil Temp (C) Observation 140 60 No Observation 131 55 No Observation 122 50 No Observation 113 45 No Observation 104 40 No Observation 96.8 36 Wax crystals appear 91.4 33 Number of crystal increases rapidly OBSERVATION :- rounded microcrystalline (naphthene and iso- paraffin) waxes
  15. 15. CONJECTURE • The anisotropic nature of wax crystals allows their size and shape to be determined by CPM • From Studies it has been established that Microcrystalline (paraffin) waxes were found to have larger, elongated structures compared to the smaller, rounded microcrystalline (naphthene and iso-paraffin) waxes.
  16. 16. 50XDK24 50XDK3350XHO1 50XHO250XSAE 50XBK19 Macrocrystalline (paraffin) waxes have larger, elongated structures rounded microcrystalline (naphthene and iso-paraffin) waxes
  17. 17. FURTHER AGENDA OF THE PROJECT 1 • Physical properties & Behavior in dynamic condition • Study with Rheometer 2 • Chemical Composition • FTIR, GCMS 3 • PPD TREATMENT • Tests are reperformed after adding different doses of PPD & behavior is monitored 4 • CORRELATION OF GATHERED DATA & CONCLUSION
  18. 18. Rheometery • Heavy – paraffinic crude tend to change its behavior &physical properties under applied shear stress . • In this test the rheological properties of crude are studied at different applied shear stresses
  19. 19. FTIR • FTIR- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique which is used to obtain Raman scattering of a solid, liquid or gas • FTIR radiation is passed through a sample. Some of the infrared radiation is absorbed by the sample and some of it is passed through (transmitted). • The resulting spectrum represents the molecular absorption and transmission, creating a molecular fingerprint of the sample
  20. 20. GCMS • Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS) is a technique for the analysis and quantization of organic volatile and semi-volatile compounds • Gas chromatography (GC) is used to separates mixtures into individual components using a temperature-controlled capillary column • Mass spectrometry (MS) is used to identify the various components from their mass spectra
  21. 21. PPD Treatment • From the above result we observe that different crudes showed different wax structure . some of them show a rounded microcrystalline structure while other showed larger elongated Macrocrystalline structures . • So after the test different PPD are selected for different type of wax. • Pour point depressants (also known as PPDs) are polymers that are designed to control wax crystal formation in lubricants resulting in lower pour point and improved low temperature flow performance • All the tests are reperfomed by adding different doses of PPD selected , the change in appearance as well as chemical & physical behavior is monitored

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