HistoryThe Great Deaf Making by AKS ( Deafywood )
Institute National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris (INJS)is the current name of the famous school for the Deaffounded by Charles-Michel de lÉpée in 1760 in Paris,France. (The date of the beginning of the school is oftengiven as 1755, but that is incorrect.) After the death ofPare Venin in 1759, the Abbes de lÉpée was introducedto two deaf girls who were in need of a new instructor.The school began in 1760 and shortly thereafter wasopened to the public and became the worlds first freeschool for the deaf. It was originally located in a houseat 14 rue des Mullins, butte Saint-Roch, near the Louvrein Paris. On July 29, 1791, the French legislatureapproved government funding for the school and itwas renamed: "Institution National des Sourds-Muts à Paris.
Charles-Michel de lÉpée (born November 25,1712, Versailles; died December 23, 1789, Paris)was a philanthropic educator of 18thcentury France who has become known as the"Father of the Deaf".
Erastus "Deaf" Smith (April 19, 1787– November 30, 1837) wasan American frontiersman noted for his part in the TexasRevolution and the army of the Republic of Texas. He fought atthe Grass Fight and the Battle of San Jacinto. After the war, DeafSmith led a company of Texas Rangers. Smith was born in DutchessCounty, New York. He was the son of Chilab and Mary Smith. In1798, his family moved to near Natchez, Mississippi, wherethe Grand Gulf Nuclear Generating Station is currently located. Hecame to Texas in 1821 for health reasons but returned to Natchez in1822. His health apparently recovered except for a partial loss ofhearing, hence the nickname "Deaf" Smith, pronounced "DeefSmith." Smith, also known as "El Sordo," appeared in many areasof Mexican Texas and was in most significant actions related todevelopment of the region both under Mexico and during evolution ofindependence. At San Jose Mission, he introduced a fine stock ofMuley cattle from Louisiana to the San Antonio area, where theLonghorn breed was previously popular. He used San Antonio deBexar as a base. Smiths family lived at the southwest corner ofPresa and Nueva Streets in San Antonio de Bexar.
First Sign LanguageThe recorded history of sign language began in 17th Century in Spain, in partwith Bonet. In 1620, Juan Pablo Bonet Summary of the letters and the art ofteaching speech to the mute") in Madrid. Considered the first modern treaty ofphonetics of signed language and the use of signed language to teach speech tothe deaf, this book depicted Bonets form of a manual alphabet. His intent was tofurther the oral and manual education of deaf people in Spain.
Ludwig van Beethoven 17 December 1770 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and eras in Western art music,he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers.Loss of hearingAround 1796, by the age of 26, Beethoven began to lose hishearing. He suffered from a severe form of tinnitus, a "ringing"in his ears that made it hard for him to hear music; he alsoavoided conversation. The cause of Beethovens deafness isunknown, but it has variously been attributed to typhus, auto-immune disorders (such as systemic lupus erythematosus), andeven his habit of immersing his head in cold water to stayawake. The explanation from Beethovens autopsy was that hehad a "distended inner ear," which developed lesions over time
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October18, 1931) was an American inventor andbusinessman. He developed many devices thatgreatly influenced life around the world, includingthe phonograph, the motion picture camera, and along-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed"The Wizard of Menlo Park" (now Edison, NewJersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of thefirst inventors to apply the principles of massproduction and large teamwork to the process ofinvention, and therefore is often credited with thecreation of the first industrial research laboratory.He was test bulb 25000 time failed after won
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovatorwho is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.Bells father, grandfather, and brother had all been associatedwith work on elocution and speech, and both his mother andwife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bells lifes work.His research on hearing and speech further led him to experimentwith hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell beingawarded the first US patentfor the telephone in 1876.In retrospect,Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his realwork as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study
Born in 1747 in the Touraine region of France,Pierre Desloges moved to Paris as a youngman, where he became a bookbinder andupholsterer. He was deafened at age sevenfrom smallpox, but did not learn to sign untilhe was twenty-seven, when he was taught bya deaf Italian
Douglas Tilden (May 1, 1860 to August 5, 1935)was a world-famous sculptor. Tilden was deaf andattended the California School for theDeaf in Berkeley, California (now in Fremont,California).Tilden became deaf at the age of fourafter a severe bout of scarlet fever. Aftergraduating from the CA School for the Deaf, hewent on to attend UC Berkeley,but then left tostudy art in Paris. Once in Paris, Tilden studiedunder Paul Chopin, another deaf sculptor.He made many statues that sit in San Francisco,Berkeley, and the San Francisco Bay Area.
Teresa de Cartagena (c.1425–) was a Spanishauthor and nun who fell deaf between 1453–1459,which influenced her two known works(Grove of the Infirm) and (Wonder at the Works ofGod). The latter work represents what many criticsconsider as the first feminist tract written by aSpanish woman
Lon Chaney (April 1, 1883 – August 26, 1930) was anAmerican actor during the age of silent films. He is regardedas one of the most versatile and powerful actors of earlycinema, renowned for his characterizations of tortured,often grotesque and afflicted characters, and hisgroundbreaking artistry with makeup. Chaney is knownfor his starring roles in such silent horror films asThe Hunchback of Notre Dame and The Phantom of the Opera.His ability to transform himself using makeup techniqueshe developed earned him the nickname "The Man of aThousand Faces."
Louise Fletcher (born July 22, 1934) is an Americanactress best known for her role as Nurse Ratched inOne Flew over the Cuckoos Nest, for which she won theAcademy Award for Best Actress, and as Kai Winn Adami inStar Trek: Deep Space Nine. She also guest starred on thescience fiction television series Heroes. She also receivedEmmy nominations for her guest starring roles in PicketFences and Joan of Arcadia.
Edward Miner Gallaudet (February 5, 1837– September 26, 1917),son of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Sophia Fowler Gallaudet, was afamous early educator of the deaf in Washington, DC. As a youth, heenjoyed working with tools and also built an "electrical machine." Hekept birds, fowl and rabbits, spending most of his time in the city, butalso occasionally venturing into the country. He had a fond memory of climbing a hill with his father, and another fond memory of his fatherintroducing the subject of geometry to him. His father died when hewas 14, just after he graduated from Hartford High School. He thenwent to work at a bank for three years. He didnt like the "narrowingeffect" of the mental monotony of the work, and he quit to go to workas a teacher at the school his father founded. He worked there twoyears, from 1855 to 1857. While he was teaching, he continued hiseducation at Trinity College in Hartford, completing his studies for abachelor of science degree two years later.
William Homer Thornberry (January 9, 1909 - December 12, 1995)was a United States Representative from the 10th congressional districtof Texas from 1948 to 1963, and then was a federal judge
Mojo Mathers (born 23 November 1966) is a New Zealandpolitician and a member of the New Zealand House ofRepresentatives. She became known through her involvementwith the Malvern Hills Protection Society and helped preventthe Central Plains Water Trusts proposal to build a largeirrigation dam in Coalgate. She has been a senior policyadvisor to the Green Party since 2006 and has stood for theparty in the last three general elections. Her candidacy forthe 2011 election created significant media interest due to herhigh placing on the Green Partys list. Mathers was elected tothe 50th term of Parliament, becoming the countrysfirst deaf Member of Parliament.
Luis Buñuel Portolés (Spanish pronunciation: 22 February 1900– 29 July 1983) was a Spanish-bornfilmmaker who worked in Spain,Mexico, France and the United States.
Oliver Heaviside (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was aself-taught Englishelectrical engineer, mathematician, andphysicist who adapted complex numbers to the study ofelectrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques to thesolution of differential equations (later found to be equivalentTo Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwells field equationsin terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, andindependently co-formulated vector analysis. Although at oddswith the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heavisidechanged the face of mathematics and science for years to come.
Henrietta Swan Leavitt (July 4, 1868 – December 12, 1921)was an American astronomer. A graduate of Radcliffe College,Leavitt went to work in 1893 at the Harvard College Observatoryin a menial capacity as a "computer", assigned to count images onphotographic plates. Study of the plates led Leavitt to propound agroundbreaking theory, worked out while she labored as a$10.50-a-week assistant, that made possible the pivotal discoveriesof astronomer Edwin Hubble. Leavitts formulation of theperiod-luminosity relationship ofCepheid variable stars provided thefoundation for a paradigm shift in modern astronomy, an accomplishmentfor which she received almost no recognition during her lifetime.
Harold MacGrath (September 4, 1871 - October 30, 1932) was a bestsellingAmerican novelist, short story writer, and screenwriter. Also known occasionallyas Harold McGrath, he was born in Syracuse, New York. As a young man, heworked as a reporter and columnist on the Syracuse Herald newspaper until thelate 1890s when he published his first novel, a romance titled Arms and theWoman. According to the New York Times, his next book, The Puppet Crown,was the No.7 bestselling book in the United States for all of 1901. From thatpoint on, McGrath never looked back, writing novels for the mass marketabout love, adventure, mystery, spies, and the like at an average rate of morethan one a year. He would have three more of his books that were among thetop ten bestselling books of the year. At the same time, he penned a numberof short stories for major American magazines such as The Saturday Evening Post,Ladies Home Journal, and Red Book magazine. Several of McGraths novelswere serialized in these magazines and contributing to them was somethinghe would continue to do until his death in 1932
Sir William "Billy" McMahon (23 February 1908 – 31 March 1988),was an Australian Liberal politician and the 20th Prime Minister ofAustralia. He was the longest continuously serving government ministerin Australian history (21 years and 6 months) and the longest servingPrime Minister never to have won an election.
We are aware that we have many more “first” Deaf doctors, scientists, etc inthe history. Please feel free to provide the name of Deaf people so we cankeep Deaf history alive. Enjoy reading. After graduating in 1983,Dr. Pachciarz was chief resident in pathology for five years. She completeda fellowship in transfusion medicine and blood banking, and was laboratorydirector of a small county laboratory. She is currently a hospital pathologistand director of the blood transfusion service at Charles R. Drew Universityof Medicine and Science in Los Angeles.
When Zazove received his M.D. in 1978,he became one of the first deaf physiciansin the United States. He then completed aresidency in Family Practice at the Universityof Utah and hung out his shingle. After eightsuccessful years in private practice, heaccepted a position at the University ofMichigan Medical School
Robert Grant Aitken (December 31, 1864 – October 29, 1951) was an Americanastronomer. Born in Jackson, California, he attended Williams College in Massachusettsand graduated with an undergraduate degree in 1887. From 1887–1891, he worked asa mathematics instructor at Livermore, California, then received his M.A. from WilliamsCollege in 1892. He became a professor of mathematics at the College of the Pacific,another liberal arts school. He was offered an assistant astronomer position atLick Observatory in California in 1895.He discovered 3,000 double star system. Hewrote “Double Star Measures”. A crater on themoon is named after him.
Guillaume Amontons (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705)was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist. Hewas one of the pioneers in tribology, along with Leonardoda Vinci, John Theophilus Desaguliers, Leonard Euler andCharles-Augustin de Coulomb. One of the first scientists to study absolute temperature. He developed some of the first barometers and thermometers.
Ruth Benedict (born Ruth Fulton, June 5, 1887 –September 17, 1948) wasan American anthropologist, cultural relativist, andfolklorist. She was born in New York City, andattended Vassar College, graduating in 1909. Sheentered graduate studies at Columbia University in1919, studying under Franz Boas, receivingher PhD and joining the faculty in 1923. MargaretMead, with whom she may have shared a romanticrelationship and Marvin Opler were among herstudents and colleagues.
First Deaf Natural historyCharles Bonnet (March 13, 1720 – May 20,1793), Swiss naturalist and philosophical writer, was born atGeneva, of a French family driven into Switzerland by thereligious persecution in the 16th century. Bonnets life wasuneventful. He seems never to have left Switzerland, nor doeshe appear to have taken any part in public affairs except forthe period between 1752 and 1768, during which he was amember of the council of the republic. The last twenty fiveyears of his life he spent quietly in the country, at Genthod,near Geneva, where he died after a long and painful illness on20 May 1793. His wife was a lady of the family of De la Rive.They had no children, but Madame Bonnets nephew, thecelebrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, was brought up astheir son.
AstronomerAnnie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 –April 13, 1941) wasan American astronomer whose cataloging workwas instrumental in the development ofcontemporary stellar classification. With EdwardC. Pickering, she is credited with the creation ofthe Harvard Classification Scheme, which wasthe first serious attempt to organize and classifystars based on their temperatures.
Swedish ChemistCaption: Anders Ekeberg. Portrait of AndersGustaf Ekeberg, Swedish chemist andmineralogist (1767-1813). Ekeberg became afull professor at Uppsala in 1794 and waselected to the Royal Swedish Academy ofSciences. Around 1795 he began investigatingyttrium, a newly discovered heavy metal andfound that it contained another unknown heavymetal which he called tantalum. He introducedthe theories of Lavoisier into Sweden, and hadthe distinction of being the teacher of thecomposer Berzelius
British Electrical ScientistSir John Ambrose Fleming FRS (29 November 1849 – 18April 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist.He is known for inventing the first thermionicvalve or vacuum tube, the diode, then called the kenotron in1904. He is also famous for the left hand rule (for electricmotors). He was born the eldest of seven children of JamesFleming DD (died 1879), a Congregational minister, and hiswife, Mary Ann, at Lancaster, Lancashire and baptized on 11February 1850. He was a devout Christian and preached onone occasion at St Martin-in-the-Fields in London on the topicof evidence for the resurrection. In 1932, along with DouglasDewar and Bernard Acworth, he helped establishthe Evolution Protest Movement. Having no children, hebequeathed much of his estate to Christian charities,especially those that helped the poor. He was anaccomplished photographer and, in addition, he paintedwatercolours and enjoyed climbing in the Alps.
American BotatanistThomas Meehan (21 March 1826 Potters Bar, which wasin Middlesex at the time and is now in Hertfordshire, England–19November 1901), was a noted British-born nurseryman, botanistand author. He worked as a Kew gardener in 1846–1848, andthereafter he moved to Germantown in Philadelphia. He was thefounder of Meehan’s Monthly (1891–1901) and editorof Gardener’s Monthly (1859–1888).Meehan grew up on the Isle of Wight. His interest in plants wassparked by his father, who was a gardener. He published his firstbotanical contribution at age fourteen, which led to hismembership of the Wernernian Society. His knowledge and skillsresulted in his securing a position at Kew Gardens from 1846 to1848, where he was influenced by William Jackson Hooker.
British AstronomerJohn Goodricke FRS (17 September 1764 – 20 April1786) was an eminent and profoundly deaf amateurastronomer. He is best known for his observations ofthe variable star Algol (Beta Persei) in 1782. JohnGoodricke, named after his grandfather Sir JohnGoodricke (see Goodricke Baronets of Ribston Hall), wasborn in Groningen in the Netherlands, but lived most ofhis life in England. He was profoundly deaf through mostof his life, due to scarlet fever in early childhood. Hisparents sent him to Thomas Braidwoods Academy,a school for deaf pupils in Edinburgh, and in 1778 tothe Warrington Academy.
First Deaf Noble AwardCharles Jules Henry Nicolle (21 September1866 Rouen - 28 February 1936 Tunis) was aFrench bacteriologist who received the NobelPrize in Medicine for his identification of lice asthe transmitter of epidemic typhus. He learnedabout biology early from his father EugèneNicolle, a doctor at a Rouen hospital. He waseducated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille inRouen He received his M.D. in 1893 fromthe Pasteur Institute. At this point he returnedto Rouen, as a member of the Medical Facultyuntil 1896 and then as Director of theBacteriological Laboratory. In 1903 Nicollebecame Director of the Pasteur Institute inTunis, where he did his Nobel Prize-winningwork on typhus. He was still director of theInstitute when he died in 1936.
Russia Rocket pioneerKonstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (17September [O.S. 5 September] 1857 – 19September 1935) was an ImperialRussian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneerof the astronautic theory. Along with hisfollowers the German Hermann Oberth and theAmerican Robert H. Goddard, he is considered tobe one of the founding fathers of rocketryand astronautics. His works later inspired leadingSoviet rocket engineers such as SergeyKorolyov and Valentin Glushko and contributedto the success of the Soviet space program.
American Pediatric CardiologistHelen Brooke Taussig (May 24, 1898 - May20, 1986) was an American cardiologist, workingin Baltimore and Boston, who founded the fieldof pediatric cardiology. Notably, she is creditedwith developing the concept for a procedure thatwould extend the lives of children born withTetrology of Fallot (also known as blue babysyndrome). This concept was applied in practiceas a procedure known as the Blalock-Taussigshunt. The procedure was developed by Dr.Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas, who wereTaussigs colleagues at the Johns HopkinsHospital.
FIRST DEAF ARMY Keith Nolan joined the Reserve Officers Training Corps about a year ago, where he has excelled in academic and field training. His superiors say he has all the makings of a model soldier. The problem is, the Army doesn’t accept deaf soldiers.Former Northampton resident Keith Nolan has long dreamed of joining the Army.He’s not allowed to because he is deaf.Nolan attended Northamptons former Clarke School for the Deaf, now called ClarkeSchools for Hearing and Speech, until 1994, when he moved to Maryland. His father,Kevin Nolan, was a guidance counselor and teacher at Clarke School for 21 years,and was a Ward 2 city councilor from 1986 to 1987. Now living in Waltham, he isbelieved to have been the first born-deaf person elected to public office in the country.
2.Raymond T. Atwood, AmericanBacteriologist. He focused on theproduction of vitamins andantibodies.
3.Kreigh B. Ayers, AmericanChemist He was one of first deafchemists hired by Goodyear in WorldWar I.
4.Donald L. Ballantyne, American Professorof Experimental Surgery (1922 –2012present)He was known authority ontransplantation techniques. He was first DeafProfessor of Experimental Surgery and Directorof the Microsurgical Research and TrainingLaboratories.
5.Lewis H. Babbitt, American HerpetologistHe was a curator for the Worcester Natural HistorySociety. He traveled and gave lectures aboutreptiles at schools across the nation
6.Robert J. Farquharson, American Civil WarSurgeon 1824 – 1884). He was appionted byAndrew Johnson as surgeon during the Civil War,Fourth Tennessee Infantry. He later founded theAcademy of Sciences which he was President inIowa.
7. Regina Olson Hughes, ScientificIllustrator 1895 – 1993) She illustrated manyflower species that scientists collected from all overthe world. She was only deaf artist to have soloexhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. She washonored by having two different new species namedfor her.
8.Donald J. Kidd, Canadian Geologist 1922 – 1966)He was first person to receive doctoral degree in Canada.He conducted research in geology. He was an instructor atGallaudet College.
9.Leo Lesquereux, AmericanPaleobotanist 1806 – 1889)He was one of great founders of fossil botany inNorth America. He classified and named fossils.He described over 900 species of mosses.
10.James H. Logan, AmericanMicroscopist 1843 – 1917)He acquired a patent for an improvement in themicroscope. He donated some species to schools aswell as Gallaudet College.
11.Gerald M. McCarthy, AmericanEntomologist 1858 – 1915)He was state bontanist in NC until 1893. He built alaboratory to analyze the quality of drinking water