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Maint philosophy


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  • others say: we are there to keep the machine running.
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Maint philosophy

  1. 1. Maintenance Management TRAINING CENTRE : Monday, April 18, 2011
  2. 2. <ul><li>Maintenance Management </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major Causes of 100 Large Failures
  4. 4. Equipment Malfunctions <ul><li>Equipment malfunctions have a direct impact on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product and service quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee or customer safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Maintenance Challenge
  6. 6. Maintenance Strategy Model
  7. 7. Asset Performance Management
  8. 8. Sources Of Unreliability
  9. 9. Performance and Practice- The Current Position
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li> Reduces Reduces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Policy Frequency Severity </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize preventive maintenance X X </li></ul><ul><li>Provide extra machines X </li></ul><ul><li>Replace machine parts early X </li></ul><ul><li>Involve operators in maintenance X X </li></ul><ul><li>Overdesign machines X </li></ul><ul><li>Design machines for maintainability X </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance maint. dept.’s capability X X </li></ul>Maintenance Policies that Reduce Frequency and Severity of Malfunctions
  11. 11. Bathtub Curve Hazard rate Time Infant mortality Wear out failures of good items Failure of weak items Useful life Wear out period Failure of manufacturing defective parts, substandard parts
  12. 12. Overall objective of Maintenance <ul><ul><li>Increased plant availability and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of maintenance Cost </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 3 generation of maintenance <ul><li>Breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive </li></ul>
  14. 14. First Generation <ul><li>Fix It when it broke. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance means Repair. </li></ul>BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE
  16. 16. Second generation <ul><li>Higher Plant Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Longer Equipment Life </li></ul><ul><li>High Cost </li></ul>PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
  17. 18. Reasons for a PM Program <ul><li>Reduce the frequency and severity of interruptions due to malfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Extend the useful life of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the total cost of maintenance by substituting PM costs for repair costs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a safe working environment </li></ul><ul><li>Improve product quality by keeping equipment in proper adjustment </li></ul>
  18. 19. Tradeoff Between Repairs and PM Annual Cost Degree of Preventive Maintenance Minimum Total Maintenance Cost Preventive Maintenance Cost Breakdown and Repair Cost Total Maintenance Costs Minimum Level of Preventive Maintenance
  19. 20. Third generation <ul><li>Higher Plant Availability & Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Better product quality </li></ul><ul><li>Longer Equipment life </li></ul><ul><li>Greater cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance means Care </li></ul>PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
  20. 23. Evolution of Maintenance Strategy
  21. 24. OPPORTUNITY MAINTENANCE <ul><li>In opportunity maintenance, timing of maintenance is determined by the procedure adopted for some other item in the same unit or plant . </li></ul>
  22. 25. DESIGN-OUT MAINTENANCE <ul><li>In design out maintenance, the aim is to minimize the effect of failures and in fact eliminates the cause of maintenance. The equipment with design-out maintenance are so designed that they perform their useful economic life without any maintenance need. This is also called “ Run to Destruction ”. </li></ul>
  23. 26. SOME OTHER MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES <ul><li>PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE :- Identify as to What can go wrong. i.e monitor the parameters that can cause failure. </li></ul><ul><li>RCM [Reliability Centered maintenance)- the type of maintenance is chosen with reliability of the system in consideration, i.e. system functions, failures relating to those functions and effects of the dominant functional system failures. This strategy in the beginning was applied to critical systems such as aircrafts, nuclear and space applications. At present, this is being extended to critical systems in the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>TPM :- Total Productive Maintenance :-TPM, a Japanese concept, involves total participation of all concerned. The aim is to have overall effectiveness of the equipment with participation of all concerned using productive maintenance system. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Following are the major functions of a maintenance department <ul><li>Maintenance of installed equipment and facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Installations of new equipment and facilities </li></ul><ul><li>PM tasks – Inspection and lubrication of existing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>CM tasks – monitoring of faults and failures using appropriate techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications of already installed equipment and facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Management of inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision of manpower </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping records </li></ul>
  25. 28. An effective maintenance system includes the following elements <ul><li>Maintenance Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Control of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Condition Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Work Order </li></ul><ul><li>Job planning </li></ul><ul><li>Priority and backlog control </li></ul><ul><li>Data recording system </li></ul><ul><li>Performance measurement measures or indices </li></ul>
  26. 29. Core Philosophy <ul><li>Measurable Targets :-What gets measured get done </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on vital few :- Follow 80:20 rule </li></ul><ul><li>Precision Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Continual Improvement :- Small but sustainable improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation :- Do what you write and write what you do </li></ul>
  27. 30. How to approach <ul><li>Empower people through maximizing usage of system </li></ul><ul><li>Revisit processes in line with latest technology development </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of statistical tools </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize use of machine language </li></ul>
  28. 31. ERP System <ul><li>Define & Monitor PM back-log i.e. No of man days </li></ul><ul><li>Develop equipment tree & develop standard code for spares </li></ul><ul><li>Implement fault code & follow discipline at all level </li></ul><ul><li>Perform RCA & monitor effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Measure crew efficiency </li></ul>
  29. 32. Material (Spares) <ul><li>Monitor inventory / turn over ratio against bench mark figures </li></ul><ul><li>Develop extensive storage and handling system </li></ul><ul><li>Check for non moving / obsolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor availability </li></ul><ul><li>Extra care for Insurance spares e.g. Periodic checking ensure smooth movement of moving part </li></ul>
  30. 33. Documentation <ul><li>Follow standard document format </li></ul><ul><li>Document shall be specific & clear to third party </li></ul><ul><li>Use more pictures for illustration </li></ul><ul><li>SOP & SMP shall be treated as living document and shall be reviewed periodically (once a year) </li></ul><ul><li>Implement document control system </li></ul>
  31. 34. PM Database Requirements <ul><li>Detailed records, or an ongoing history, must be maintained on each machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates and frequency of breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptions of malfunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of repairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine specifications/checklists for PM inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Computers generally used to maintain a database </li></ul><ul><li>Also, data can be kept in plastic pocket on a machine </li></ul>
  32. 35. Modern Approaches to PM <ul><li>PM at the source - workers have the fundamental responsibility for preventing machine breakdowns by conducting PM on their own machines </li></ul><ul><li>Workers listen for indications of potential equipment malfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance-related records maintained by workers </li></ul><ul><li>Use of quality circles </li></ul>
  33. 36. Precision Maintenance <ul><li>Contamination Control </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Lubrication Control </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Workmanship & skill development (Introduce Certification System) </li></ul>
  34. 37. Reliability Maintenance <ul><li>Monitor OEE </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor MTBF </li></ul><ul><li>Measure MTTR </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on RCA & its effectiveness </li></ul>
  35. 38. OEE Monitoring
  36. 39. Examining The Losses- OEE
  37. 40. Energy Efficiency <ul><li>Large conveyor belt offers a good opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set current limit for each motor for corrective action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check possibility of introducing VFD in large fan where flow is controlled using damper </li></ul><ul><li>VFD for large pump </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum demand control (observed PLF < 0.7) </li></ul><ul><li>Plan production to take advantage of day & night tariff </li></ul>
  38. 41. Maintenance Excellence Model
  39. 42. Maintenance KPI’s
  40. 43. TRAINING <ul><li>Knowledge –Skill Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Training Modules </li></ul><ul><li>Competency Test. </li></ul>
  41. 44. Repair Programs <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get equipment back into operation as quickly as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control cost of repairs crews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control cost of the operation of repair shops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the investment in replacement spare parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the investment in standby or backup machines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform the appropriate amount of repairs at each malfunction. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. How Speedy Should Repairs Be? Cost Speed of Making Repairs 0 Minimum Total Cost of Repairs Cost of Repair Crews & Shops, Spare Parts, and Standby Machines Cost of Interruptions to Production Total Costs of Repairs Slow Fast Cost of repair as a function of MTTR
  43. 46. Breakdowns Trigger Repairs and Corrective Actions <ul><li>An equipment breakdown should trigger two actions: </li></ul><ul><li>Fast repair of the malfunction equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a program to eliminate cause of the malfunction and need for such repairs in the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification/redesign of malfunctioning machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification/redesign of part or product being processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training of operators to improve machine care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More frequent preventive maintenance/inspection </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Advantages of Letting Workers Repair Their Own Machines <ul><li>Greater variety may make job more satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>May be more sensitive to potential malfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Increase flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Can make minor repairs faster </li></ul><ul><li>Can avoid minor repairs by cleaning, lubricating, adjusting and servicing machines </li></ul><ul><li>Operate machines more carefully </li></ul>
  46. 49. Evolution of Asset Mangement Strategy Reliability Availability MTBF Production Safety Maintenance Cost downtime No. of failures MTTR Break-down Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)
  47. 50. Introduction to Reliability <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The probability that an item will perform a required function without failure under stated conditions for a stated period of time . </li></ul><ul><li>Why Reliability : </li></ul><ul><li>When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it with numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind. -- Lord Kelvin, 1883, May 3 </li></ul><ul><li>A study, in the 80’s, showed that when a customer is satisfied with a product he might tell 8 other people, whereas, a dissatisfied customer will tell 22 people. </li></ul>
  48. 51. Various Terms Used in Reliability <ul><li>MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) </li></ul><ul><li>MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard Rate = </li></ul><ul><li>Repair Rate = </li></ul>T1 R1 T2 R2 T3 [No of Failures per Unit time] [ No of repairs per unit time ]
  49. 52. <ul><li>Capability: Item’s ability to satisfy functional needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency: Item’s ability to effectively utilized the energy supplied </li></ul><ul><li>Quality: Item’s Fitness to a particular purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: The item’s ability to start or continue to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainability: The item’s ability to quickly start following its failure. </li></ul>Understanding Few Related Key Concepts
  50. 53. System Reliability The main objective of system reliability is the construction of a model (life distribution) that represents the times-to-failure of the entire system based on the life distributions of the components R 1 R 2 R Series System R 2 R 1 R Parallel System- Standby System failure = Failure of any component At least one of the units must succeed for the system to succeed
  52. 55. REPAIR OR REPLACE <ul><li>The question as “How long to Repair “ an equipment and “When” to “REPLACE” it has quizzed the maintenance personnel since ever. </li></ul><ul><li>Given below are a few guidelines . </li></ul>
  53. 56. REPAIR OR REPLACE <ul><li>In modern day business environment where the impetus is placed on reduction of manufacturing cost and improving overall plant efficiency and reliability , thus directly affecting the profitability and customer’s satisfaction. </li></ul>
  54. 57. REPAIR OR REPLACE <ul><li>To know when an equipment is reaching its useful life cycle, the key is not its age but its condition. Plant equipments may be old but most of equipments are continually upgraded and maintained in order to keep up with evolving manufacturing and production requirements. However a few considerations applicable are as follows. </li></ul>
  55. 58. SAFETY <ul><li>If the equipment presents an un-acceptable safety risk to Plant , Plant Personnel, and Environment – Replace it. </li></ul><ul><li>In worst case scenario there could be loss of life or an environmental accident , causing huge financial loss , loss of Customer and public Confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>However before replacing , give consideration of possibility of Upgrading the equipment to achieve acceptable safety standard. </li></ul>
  56. 59. EXTERNALLY IMPOSED FORCES <ul><li>GOVERNMENT LEGISLATIONS :- Externally imposed changes such as those required by Govt. Legislations (Stack Emission, Noise Pollution , Waste Disposal etc) are sometimes the major reason for replacement of equipments /processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example :- Open Hearth Furnaces for Steel Making. </li></ul><ul><li>MARKET FORCES :- If the present equipment is not able to produce to the quality standards required by the market , there is no point in producing the goods which can’t be marketed. In such condition replacement of equipment becomes imperative to meet the market demand. </li></ul><ul><li>******************************************* </li></ul>
  57. 60. MAINTENANCE COST <ul><li>Maintenance cost associated with maintaining the equipment to acceptable reliability level may be far too expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of spare parts could become un-acceptable from business stand-point. </li></ul>
  58. 61. TECHNOLOGICAL OBSCELENCE <ul><li>As each organisation looks for ways and means to reduce cost ,and if the present equipment can not meet production requirement in Quantity and Quality , then it needs to be replaced. However before new equipment is bought , detailed study of life-cycle cost and reliability to be done and strategy developed. </li></ul>
  59. 62. Thank You