Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Educational Technology Topic

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Is a procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that incorporates media, assumes that training or instruction really is required. Assure Model
  3. 3. • The first step in planning is to identify the learners. • Your learners may be: – be students, trainees, or members of an organization such as a Sunday school, civic club, youth group, or fraternal organization. ANALYSE LEARNERS
  4. 4. ANALYSE LEARNERS • You must know your students to select the "best" medium to meet the objectives. • The audience can be analyzed in terms of (1) general characteristics and (2) specific entry competencies—knowledge, skills, and attitudes about the topic
  5. 5. ANALYSE LEARNERS • Even a superficial analysis of learner characteristics can provide helpful leads in selecting instructional methods and media. • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LEARNERS DEPEND: -reading skills, ethnic or cultural subgroup, learner’s apathy, social background and etc. • The more advanced have a sufficient base for using audiovisual or even verbal materials. (1) General Characteristics (of the learners)
  6. 6. ANALYSE LEARNERS (2) Specific Entry Competencies • At the beginning, you have to assume that the learners lack the knowledge and skills • But they possess the knowledge or skills needed to learn and understand from the lesson.
  7. 7. STATE OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE STATED IN TERMS OF: • what the learner (audience) will be able to do as a result of instruction (behavior). • The conditions under which the student or trainee is going to perform and the degree of acceptable performance should be included.
  8. 8. STATE OBJECTIVES • The next step is to state the objectives as specifically as possible. • The objectives may be derived from a needs assessment or a course syllabus, stated in a textbook, taken from a curriculum guide, or developed by the instructor.
  9. 9. STATE OBJECTIVES The ABCDs of Well-Stated Objectives 1. A well-stated objective starts by naming the Audience of learners for whom the objective is intended. 2. It then specifies the Behavior or capability to be learned and 3. the Conditions under which the capability would be observed. 4. specifies the Degree to which the new skill must be mastered—the standard by which the capability can be judged.
  10. 10. STATE OBJECTIVES (1) Audience • focus on what the learner is doing, not on what the teacher is doing. • Learning is most likely to take place when the learner is active— mentally processing an idea or physically practicing a skill. • not what the teacher does, the objective begins by stating whose capability is going to be changed
  11. 11. STATE OBJECTIVES (2) Behaviour • The heart of the objective is the verb describing the new capability that the audience will have after instruction. • This verb is most likely to communicate your intent clearly if it is stated as an observable behavior.
  12. 12. STATE OBJECTIVES (2) Behaviour What will the learner be able to do after completing instruction? Vague terms such as know,' understand, and appreciate do not communicate your aim ' clearly. Better are define, categorize, and demonstrate, which denote observable performance.
  13. 13. STATE OBJECTIVES (3) Conditions • A statement of objectives should include the conditions under which performance is to be observed, if such conditions are relevant
  14. 14. STATE OBJECTIVES (4) Degree • The final requirement of a well-stated objective is to indicate the standard by which acceptable performance will be judged • Includes: What degree of accuracy or proficiency must the learner display? Whether the criteria are stated in qualitative or quantitative terms.
  15. 15. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS A systematic plan for using media demands that the media be selected systematically at first.
  16. 16. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS The selection process has two stages: • (1) choosing an appropriate media format and • (2) selecting, modifying, or designing the specific materials within that format.
  17. 17. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS Choosing a Media Format • a very complex task because of the following: vast array of media available, the infinite variety among learners, and the objectives to be pursued.
  18. 18. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS Things to consider in media selection models: • instructional situation or setting (e.g., large- group, small-group, or self-instruction), • learner variables (e.g., reader, nonreader, or auditory preference)
  19. 19. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS and the nature of the objective (e.g., cognitive, affective, motor skill, or interpersonal) must be considered against the presentational capabilities of each of the media formats (e.g., presenting still visuals, motion visuals, printed words, or spoken words). • Some models also take into consideration the capability of each format to give feedback to the learner
  20. 20. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS Obtaining Specific Materials: Select, Modify, or Design • Once you decided what media format suits your objectives the next thing that you should consider is in finding specific materials to convey the lesson
  21. 21. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS Selecting Available Materials • The majority of instructional materials used by teachers and trainers are "off the shelf"—that is, ready-made and available from school, district, or company collections or other easily accessible sources.
  22. 22. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS Survey of Sources • Your first step might be to survey some of the published media reference guides to get a general idea of what is available.
  23. 23. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS Modifying Available Materials • If you cannot locate any suitable materials you can always modify what is available. • This can be both challenging and creative.
  24. 24. SELECT MEDIA AND MATERIALS Designing New Materials • certain basic considerations must be taken into account when designing new materials. For example: - Objectives - Equipment - Audience - Facilities - Cost - Time - Technical Expertise
  25. 25. UTILIZE THE MATERIALS • To get maximum learning impact from your presentation, you must follow certain utilization procedures
  26. 26. UTILIZE THE MATERIALS • previewthe materials, • practice the presentation, • prepare the environment, • prepare the audience, and present.
  27. 27. UTILIZE THE MATERIALS Preview the Materials • No instructional materials should be used blind • During the selection process you should have determined that the materials are appropriate for your audience and objectives.
  28. 28. UTILIZE THE MATERIALS Practice the Presentation • After previewing the materials, you should practice your portion of the presentation. • However, do not over practice, or the presentation will sound "canned.“
  29. 29. UTILIZE THE MATERIALS Prepare the Environment • Wherever the presentation is to take place classroom, auditorium, meeting room, or whatever the facilities will have to be put in order. • Utilization of many media requires a darkened room, a convenient power supply, and access to light switches.
  30. 30. UTILIZE THE MATERIALS Present the Material • This is what you've been preparing for, so you will want to make the most of it. Our term for this is showmanship. • instructor should be able to direct attention in the classroom.
  31. 31. REQUIRE LEARNER PERFORMANCE • THE fifth step in the ASSURE model is to provide opportunities for learners to practice the capability being taught. • Educators have long realized that participation in the learning process by the learner enhances learning.
  32. 32. REQUIRE LEARNER PERFORMANCE PROPOSITIONS: • John Dewey urged reorganization of the curriculum and instruction to make student participation a central part of the process. • behavioral psychologists such as B. F. Skinner demonstrated that instruction providing for constant reinforcement of desired behaviors is more effective than instruction in which responses are not reinforced.
  33. 33. EVALUATE • THE final component of our ASSURE model for effective learning • most frequent type of evaluation is the paper- and-pencil test • The most frequent thought of purpose is to measure student achievement.
  34. 34. EVALUATE Three purposes of evaluation • evaluation of learner achievement, • evaluation of media and methods, • and evaluation of the instructional process.
  35. 35. EVALUATE Revision • The final step of the instructional cycle is to sit back and look at the results of your evaluation data gathering. • If your evaluation data indicate shortcomings now is the time to go back to the faulty part of the plan and revise it. • The model works, but only if you use it to upgrade the quality of your instruction constantly.