8.3 Introduction to C++  8.3.1 Program Structure    8.3.2 Using Compiler
8.3.1 Program Structure• Learning Outcome   – Identify the component of C++      i. comment      ii. preprocessor directiv...
8.3.1 Program Structure    • A computer program consists a list of      instructions written in a computer language.//This...
8.3.1 Program Structure// height.cpp                                  i. comment// Convert height in feet to inches#includ...
8.3.1 Program Structure•    comment//This is my first C++ program//It prints a line of text/*This is my first C++ program ...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. comment•   The purpose to insert a comment    –   To document a program    –   To improve progra...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. preprocessor directive- Preprocessor directive is a general instruction  to the C++ compiler- # ...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. preprocessor directive- iostream.h  :specific file needed for programs that either  input data f...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. functionint main() : the parentheses, () after main indicate that    main is a program building ...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: the left brace, {, must begin the body of every    function.: a corresponding right brace,...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of:i) variable declaration and reserve word   e.g. : int feet...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of:ii) input / output console    input console: use standard ...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of:ii) input / output consoleoutput console: use use standard...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of: iii) C++ statement    : Every statement must end must end...
8.3.1 Program Structurei. return statementreturn 0;: is included at the end of main function.: the C++ keyword return stat...
8.3.2 Using Compiler• Learning Outcome   – Edit   – Compile   – Link   – Execute program
8.3.2 Using Compiler  program.cpp             C++      program.obj(C++ source code)       compiler   (object code)        ...
8.3.2 Using Compiler• Edit – enter the program statement• To write a C++ program, you need to enter the  program statement...
8.3.2 Using Compiler• Compile – translating C++ into machine code  Compil  (also called “object code”)  – Compiler determi...
8.3.2 Using Compiler• Execute Program – an application can be run.  – Finally, the computer, under the control of its    C...
8.3.2 Using Compiler Tool          Step          ProductEditor         Edit                            Source codeCompiler...
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8.3 program structure (1 hour)

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  • Others example: string.h , conio.h, dos.h, time.h, graphics.h
  • cout semicolon. (also known as the statement terminator).
  • semicolon. (also known as the statement terminator).
  • semicolon. (also known as the statement terminator).
  • semicolon. (also known as the statement terminator).
  • semicolon. (also known as the statement terminator).
  • IDE explanation Borland also provides several versions of C++Builder that contain graphical user interfaces (GUIs). These GUIs are formally called integrated development environments (IDEs) and enable the developer to edit, debug and test programs quickly and conveniently. Using an IDE, many of the tasks that involved tedious commands can now be executed via menus and buttons. IDE provides user-friendly menus and tools to perform all the functions
  • Example of syntax error int x  missing semi colon. Cout<< x;  standard output stream object – cout – must use small letter Example of program-logic error. Use wrong formula to calculate area of rectangle.
  • 8.3 program structure (1 hour)

    1. 1. 8.3 Introduction to C++ 8.3.1 Program Structure 8.3.2 Using Compiler
    2. 2. 8.3.1 Program Structure• Learning Outcome – Identify the component of C++ i. comment ii. preprocessor directive iii. function iv. body v. return statement
    3. 3. 8.3.1 Program Structure • A computer program consists a list of instructions written in a computer language.//This is my first C++ program//It prints a line of text i. comment#include <iostream.h> ii. preprocessor#include <stdlib.h> directiveint main() iii. function{ cout << "My first C++ program" ; iv. body system("PAUSE"); return 0; v. return} Fig. 1 : Example 1 statement
    4. 4. 8.3.1 Program Structure// height.cpp i. comment// Convert height in feet to inches#include <iostream.h> ii. preprocessor#include <stdlib.h> directiveint main() iii. function{ int feet, inches; inches = feet * 12; cout << “Enter feet value : ”; cin >> feet; cout << “Height is“ << inches ; iv. body cout << “in.” ; system("PAUSE"); return 0; v. return} Fig. 2: Example 2 statement
    5. 5. 8.3.1 Program Structure• comment//This is my first C++ program//It prints a line of text/*This is my first C++ program It prints a line of text */• Style to insert a comment in C++. – Text begin with two double slash (//) - normally used for single line comment – Text begin with /* and ends with */ - possibly containing many lines
    6. 6. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. comment• The purpose to insert a comment – To document a program – To improve program readability – help other people read and understand a program.• Remember – comment do not cause the computer to perform any action when the program is run.
    7. 7. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. preprocessor directive- Preprocessor directive is a general instruction to the C++ compiler- # :are processed by preprocessor before program is compiled.- #include <iostream.h> :tells the preprocessor to include in the program the contents of the input/output stream header file iostream.h
    8. 8. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. preprocessor directive- iostream.h :specific file needed for programs that either input data from keyboard or write output on the screen. :called as header file ( with the file extension .h) :other examples :#include <stdlib.h> :#include <math.h>
    9. 9. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. functionint main() : the parentheses, () after main indicate that main is a program building block called a function. : example given on Fig. 1; contain only one function. : C++ programs normally begin executing at function main.
    10. 10. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: the left brace, {, must begin the body of every function.: a corresponding right brace, }, must end the body of each function.: examples: Refer to Fig.1 and Fig.2 ( body segment )
    11. 11. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of:i) variable declaration and reserve word e.g. : int feet, inches; reserved word variables
    12. 12. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of:ii) input / output console input console: use standard input stream object - cin and input operator, >>, to allow user type in a value (or values) e.g. : cin >> feet;
    13. 13. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of:ii) input / output consoleoutput console: use use standard output stream object - cout and the output operator, <<, to output the message. e.g. : cout << “Height is“ <<inches;
    14. 14. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. Body: The body of main may consist of: iii) C++ statement : Every statement must end must end with semicolon (;).e.g. :i. cout <<"My first C++ program”;ii. inches = feet * 12;
    15. 15. 8.3.1 Program Structurei. return statementreturn 0;: is included at the end of main function.: the C++ keyword return statement is used at the end of main, the value 0 indicates that the program has terminated successfully.:the right brace,}, indicates the end of main.
    16. 16. 8.3.2 Using Compiler• Learning Outcome – Edit – Compile – Link – Execute program
    17. 17. 8.3.2 Using Compiler program.cpp C++ program.obj(C++ source code) compiler (object code) Linker C++ Library program.exe (executable program) Fig. 1: Building a C++ Program
    18. 18. 8.3.2 Using Compiler• Edit – enter the program statement• To write a C++ program, you need to enter the program statements by using: – Text editor (e.g. Notepad, Microsoft Word etc.) – Integrated Development Environment (IDE)(e.g. Dev C++, Borland C++ etc.)• The complete program statements called “source code”. code
    19. 19. 8.3.2 Using Compiler• Compile – translating C++ into machine code Compil (also called “object code”) – Compiler determines the syntax error.• Link – Run the linker – combine the machine code with code from C++ library; after compiles is successful.
    20. 20. 8.3.2 Using Compiler• Execute Program – an application can be run. – Finally, the computer, under the control of its CPU, executes the program one instruction at a time. Remember : Compiler detects grammatical (syntax) error NOT the program-logic error
    21. 21. 8.3.2 Using Compiler Tool Step ProductEditor Edit Source codeCompiler Compile Object codeLinker Link Executable image Run Result / Output

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