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Chilli slide

  2. 2. Introduction Chili is fruit of plants belonging to Capsicum genus and Solanaceae family. Capsicum is derived from the Greek word "Kapsimo" meaning "to bite." When eaten, it gives a burning sensation.  Chili originates from South America. In search of spices, in 20th May, 1498 Christopher Columbus set his journey from Portugal. However, but adopted to Malaysian Tropical Climate many decades ago. major producing state; Johor  Perak  Kelantan
  3. 3. Parts of Chilli
  4. 4. Seed Management
  5. 5. • FERTIGATION • Fertigation system is vital for chili plant in order to feed and maintain the healthy grow to produce a good quality chili. • Fertigation prevent the crop from infected roots as  Phytium disease  Fusarium,  Rhizoctonia  Bacterial
  6. 6. Seed sowing method 1. Preparation of seeds  Hybrid F1 568  Hybrid F1 223  Hybrid F1 469 2. Selection of nursery containers
  7. 7. 3. medium of sowing o Peat Moss o Holland Peat 4. Season of sowing • January – February • June – July • September- October
  8. 8. The way for sowing red chilli • Soak the seeds into a container of water, the water used must be purified water, or mineral water. Seed should be soaked for 8 hours in order to facilitate the process of seed germination. • Prepare the tray. Fill the hole with the media seedling tray, fill up a full or 3/4 only. • Sow the seeds in rows - spacing 10- 15 cm between rows at the depth of 1cm. • Put mulch on seed bed. • Daily watering - Germination of seeds take about 7-10 days. • Remove and place the mulch in between rows after seedlings appeared. • Put fungicides if the seedlings affected by fungal diseases like, Wilt, foot rot and damping off.
  9. 9. ADVANTAGE : • Addressing the problem of infertile land, housing and disease PESTS. • The higher revenue because there is no waste and the roots receive • adequate nutrients. • No problem herbicide / sod. • Better quality. • Use of water and fertilizer more efficiently and economically. • Saving labor with automated systems.
  10. 10. Site Management • Temperature: 22-4ºc • Rain: medium 1500-2000mm/year • pH value of soil: 5.5-6.8 • Type of soil: all soil are suitable • Planting method: • In pot: soil media 3:2:1 (soil,organic & sand ) • Fertigation: rice husk & cocopit • Bund: width:1-2cm height:22-30cm interride distance: 45cm
  11. 11. Fertilization  Definition : It is a substance such as solid animal waste or a chemical mixture that you spread on the ground in order to make plants grow more successfully.  Two ways of fertilization : A. Organic fertilizers Manure is organic matter used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
  12. 12. B. Chemical Fertilizers  Crop nutrient requirements is as follows: Nitrogen 180kg/ha Phosphorus 180kg/ha Potassium 200kg/ha Sulfur 35kg/ha
  13. 13. Symptoms and signs of over- fertilization  Crust of fertilizer on soil surface.  Yellowing and wilting of lower leaves.  Browning leaf tips and margins.  Browned or blackened limp roots.  Defoliation.  Very slow or no growth.  Death of seedlings.
  14. 14. SEEDING AND PLANTING • Chilies can be seeded directly into prepared ground or seedlings can be transplanted. • Seeds should be planted 6 mm deep. Rows should be 50 to 60 cm apart and seedlings should be thinned to allow for a plant every 50 to 60 cm within the row. • Seedlings should emerge in 10 to 14 days. When planting out seedlings, acclimatize them to the weather (harden-off) before placing them in the ground. • Fruit should mature in 10 to 16 weeks.
  15. 15. Water Management
  16. 16. • Water is an important natural resource, which is becoming scarce with time. • Agriculture in the future is needed to increase its production to feed the growing world population with limited fresh water. (Howell,2001)  it is necessary to optimize water management • In Malaysia, chilli is commonly grown under soilless culture by using fertigation system.
  17. 17. Irrigation System • Irrigation is used in fertigation technology is the kind of drip (drip irrigation) that is controlled by a timer device that will work automatically according to a predetermined time interval.
  18. 18. • Material requirements: • The Main Pipe (HDPE Poly pipe 35mm) • Pipeline Markets (Poly pipe HDPE 16mm) • Pipeline Tertiary (Micro tubing 6mm) • Dropper (Pen 6mm dripper) • Elbow PVC 1" • Socket Valve 1 ½ " • Socket Valve 16mm • Ball Valve 1 ½" • Ball Valve 1"
  19. 19. • Ripper/Adapter • 16mm Rubber Grommet Set • Tanks Nutrient 200/600 gallons • 1.5 HP Water Pump • The Timer (Timer) • The PH Meter • The EC Meter • Filters Water
  20. 20. Figure 1: Irrigation system
  21. 21. Management of Irrigation System • The supply of fertilizer is done timely manner with the help of tools programmer (timer). • Sprinkle time period is not too long to prevent wastage of fertilizer. • If too long - the amount of fertilizer will exceed the capacity of the coco peat to absorb and store.
  22. 22. • During the day, it is enough to sprinkle over five to six minutes for every two hours for crops grown in the lowland. • During this period, every crop receives approximately 100ml – 150ml of fertilizer. • Drip irrigation system is easily blocked by a pile of minerals and algae. • To overcome - use the filters and the filter must be kept clean from time to time to ensure effectiveness.
  23. 23. Weed Management
  24. 24. • Weeds compete with crop for soil moisture, nutrients, sunlight and space thus reduce the yield • Weeds besides competing with the crop plants for nutrients, space, moisture, sunlight they are known to harbor insect pests and pathogens causing damage to the main crop like red chili.
  25. 25. intercultivation • intercultivation is carried out mainly by bullock drawn hoes after establishment of chili seedlings • initial stages of crop growth, depth of intercultivation is shallow, cares are to be taken that seedlings are not buried or branches are not torn while intercultivation.
  26. 26. • Until the cotton is dibbled the intercultivation is carried out in both the directions. • If the weed intensity is high near the vicinity of the chili seedlings small hoes are worked very close to the base of the chili seedlings as small hoes manouvarability is better than bigger ones. • After the dibbling of cotton seeds intercultivation is carried out only in one direction
  27. 27. • Repeated intercultivation 8 to 10 times is carried out • To prevent cracking and conserve soil moisture repeated intercultivation is done even though there may not be weeds. • The last intercultivation is done at greater depth so as to layout the land into ridges and furrows to conserve soil moisture.
  28. 28. Tillage • Tillage is also sometimes used for weed control, however an over reliance on tillage can lead to soil structural issues, loss of soil moisture and damage to the crop. • Advantages: limits evaporation (by limiting the evaporative surface), reduces weed growth (few weeds grow in un-irrigated areas), and minimizes interruption of cultural operations (i.e. tillage, harvesting etc. and irrigation can be carried out simultaneously).
  29. 29. Disease management. Why disease management?
  30. 30. Disease management. Continue… Chillies is infected by as many as 26 diseases. 5 of them are considered major diseases. 21 of them are considered minor diseases. How do you know if the disease if major or minor? 31
  31. 31. Is this a mojor disease or minor? 32
  32. 32. Best strategic disease management in red chillies. • Avoidance Avoidance. Exclusion Eradication Protection Resistance 33
  33. 33. There are 12 fungal diseases, 2 bacterial diseases and 12 viral diseases. Is it fungal, viral or bacterial? Signs and symptoms . 34
  34. 34. 35
  35. 35. 36
  36. 36. Chili pepper: Diseases Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria) TSWV (TSW virus) Anthracnose (Collectotrichum spp.) Cercospora Leaf Spot (Cercospora capsici) Management: -Use resistant varieties, fungicides, crop rotation & well drained soil 37
  37. 37. Chili pepper: Insect pests Aphids (Nasonovia ribisnigri) Army worms (Spodoptera exigua) Management : Crop rotation, parasitic wasp & spraying insecticides or miticides Thrips (Caliothrips fasciatus) Broad mites (Polyhagotarsonemus latus) 38
  38. 38. Harvesting •Harvesting should be done at the right stage of maturity. • Retaining fruits for a long period on the plants causes wrinkles and color fading. •the produce is to heaped or kept in clean gunnies for one day for uniform color development for the pods. •Grading is to be done to remove defective and discolored pods.
  39. 39. Record • Based on survey  For each plant can produce maximum 4kg of chili.  If we use 3,000 plant of chili per acres, production will be 12,000 kg for starting harvest.
  40. 40. Market prices • Price on Farmers 'Market is fix make by Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority – FAMA. • Based on Commodity Price Guide 22 The Farmers 'Market In Alor Star Kedah on January 29, 2014. • Price of Chili for RED LOCAL / OIL / KULAI ; Farmers 'Market Guide Price =RM8.00 Public Market Price = RM10.00.There have  Price Savings = RM2.00.
  41. 41. Equipment Price (RM) Poly tank 400 gallon 400.00 Pump 0.75hp 250.00 Main pipe poly 32mm x 100m 120.00 Dripper 120.00 Nipple 100.00 Medium coco peat 70 bag 315.00 Medium rice husk 70 bag 175.00 Poly bag 15 x 14 40kg 300.00 Tubing 4mm 9 roll x 80m 198.00 Fertilizer tank a/b x 2 70.00 Silver shine 0.035mm x 250m 70.00 Fitting lump sum Timer digital 1 minute cut off 60.00 Tray 10 pieces 30.00 Seeds 10gm 30.00 Fertilizer a/b 1 set = 50kg 240.00 Disk filter 1’’ 55.00 Total 2813.00
  42. 42. Benefits of Red Chilli Fight Inflammation Helps to Clear Congestion Boosts Immunity Cardiovascular Health Weight Loss Cancer Protection Natural Pain Killer