1Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCESodium Bicarbonate: A Role in Sports PerformanceAllison KliewerUniversity of the Incarnate WordSeptember 30, 2011
2Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEIntroductionAthletes involved in sports try to compete and train at the best of their abilities. Theyhave to be able to perform in any condition and at their best in order to excel in a sport.Athletes that excel in their sport can achieve opportunities, such as institutional scholarships,endorsements, thousands and even millions of dollars worth of contracts. To the less eliteathlete, being the best at a sport means winning a district game, a high school championship orbreaking a personal record. In any case all athletes strive to be their best and perform using100% of their abilities.Many dietary supplements offer consumers, promises. These products can be put intocategories for the casual exerciser, the weekend work-out fanatic, the one-time-a-month gymmember, the parent as well as their little league child, the beginner trainer, the elite, and theprofessional athlete. They offer to do such things as better performance, strength, endurance,and lean muscle mass. There is a billion dollar industry in sport supplements and ergogenic aids.Rakhee, D. (2008) from BCC research estimated “that the market for sports nutrition productsreached $ 31.2 billion and should reach $91.8 billion by 2013.” These ergogenic aids and dietarysupplements are used to enhance sport performance and many are outlawed by institutionssuch as the NCAA and United States Olympic Committee. Coaches and athletes who are lookingto improve performance and training blindly take supplements without knowing the real effectsof the product.
3Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEErgogenic aids and other supplements that are aimed towards athletes are notregulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) therefore can claim to do things notproven. Some of the most popular sport supplements are creatine, protein or amino acidcomplexes, and caffeine. There are regulations for these supplements by some sportsinstitutions but many supplements have not been regulated. It is important to have regulationsto ensure that every athlete is on the same playing field, and to ensure the safety of theathlete. Mirasol, F. (2009) reported in a web article that the FDA had issued a public healthadvisory, warning consumers to stop using bodybuilding products that are commonly marketedas dietary supplements. Since the federal government does not regulate such products, theproduct is manufactured independently without codes or regulations, putting every consumerof the product at risk. Most products are taken off the market only after serious healthproblems have been reported in association with the supplement. “The FDA has authority toact only after it has received reports of serious health problems associated with productsalready on sale and it is able to prove a serious health hazard” (Singer, N., and Schmidt, M.2009). It is the role of the dietician, sports nutritionist, and health professional to guide andinform the athlete, as well as anyone who has influence over the athlete, such as parents andcoaches about proper sports nutrition and what is needed from their diet to enhance and allowthe body to perform at 100% of the athlete’s natural ability.If a supplement is on the market athletes must be aware of the ergogenic potential, aswell as the health hazards. Also, if a supplement offers an ergogenic benefit, sports institutionsand athletes alike need to know what the benefits are so that a substance can be banned ifneed be, and eliminate the possibility of an unfair playing field. Athletes who can pay for the
4Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEsupplements should not have an edge over those athletes who cannot pay for the supplementor do not choose to artificially aid themselves in order to perform at a higher level. That is whyit is important to determine whether a product has ergogenic potential so that regulations, ifneeded, are made.Sodium bicarbonate is one of the newest supplementations available on the market.Although sodium bicarbonate, more commonly known as baking soda, has been a householditem for years, it is new in terms of sport enhancement. It claims to increase endurance,shorten recovery time, and help increase intensity during exercise. Claims from internet sourcessuch as bsnonline.net, bodybuilding.com and other supplement shops proclaim that takingsodium bicarbonate will increase endurance, intensity with resistance training, help withmuscle recovery, and maximize physique and performance impact. There are no regulationsconcerning sodium bicarbonate, nor has the supplement been proven as a performanceenhancing ergogenic aid.Studies have reported conflicting results regarding sodium bicarbonate ingestion inathletes, and although it is sold as a sport enhancing dietary supplement, ergogenic effects ofsodium bicarbonate have not been elucidated. Conclusive evidence is needed to determine therole of sodium bicarbonate on sport performance.Sodium Bicarbonate on Sprint ExerciseSprint exercise is a predominantly high intensity exercise. Athletes who are involved insprint sports are usually interested (in a dietary supplement) for an increase in trainingintensity, strength, power, and faster sprint times. Sprint athletes also look for fast recovery
5Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEtimes because many will have to repeat sprints within a game or tournament. Sprint athletestend to have greater muscle mass then those involved in endurance sports. Sprinters need arapid response from supplementation because sprints are short lived compared to anendurance athlete who will need the effects of supplementation to last throughout theduration on their event. The articles following will discuss the effects of sodium bicarbonateingestion/supplementation on sprint athletes.In 2010, Zinner, C., Wahl, P., Achtzehn, S., Sperlich, B., and Mester, J. conducted arandom experimental double blind study on 11 trained male participants between 20 and 32years of age. According to Zinner (2010), the problem being investigated was concerning thefact that there was no data regarding oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate on repeated highintensity sprint exercise and lactate and hydrogen ion distribution. Oral ingestion of sodiumbicarbonate leads to a higher efflux of lactic acid (La) to the working skeletal muscle. The highergradient of La between plasma and the red blood cells would lead to a higher amount of La inthe red blood cells. This influx would alter the ratio between the La and RBCs and between theplasma which would therefore increase performance, which is what was hypothesized.The purpose of the study was to investigate the hypothesis and specifically test whetheroral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate will increase the influx of lactate into red blood cellschanging the ratios of red blood cells to plasma, therefore increasing performance duringrepeated sprint exercise (Zinner, 2010). High intensity exercise off balances lactate, red bloodcells, and plasma equilibrium which causes fatigue; buffering of the equilibrium will enhanceperformance. This knowledge helped to guide the framework of the article.
6Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEThe total duration of the protocol was 42 minutes consisting of a 10 minute warm upperiod at 50% of peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ max) followed by four 30 second bouts of maximalexercise separated by five minutes passive rest and a recovery period of ten minutes after thelast bout. The power output and oxygen uptake had a technical error measurement of 1.2%and 2.8%. Repeated measured ANOVA was used to compare variables across the time points.Blood samples were taken from the earlobe of the participants and used reliable instruments tomeasure the data.The outcomes of the study were as so; the lactate ratio was not affected by sodiumbicarbonate ingestion and the hydrogen ion ratio is not affected by short maximal bouts ofexercise, as that of the lactate ratio. The most significant finding was that there was an increasein the intensity of the exercise.The design is appropriate for the study and purpose of the study. The design isappropriate to answer the stated purpose and questions, however there could have been moretested. The athletes only reported three times to be tested, whereas the study would havebeen more thorough if the athletes had more testing trials so there could be more conclusiveevidence. The design validity is threatened by the limited number of trials. There is a logical linkbetween the design, sampling method and statistical analysis. The sample size is small andlimited. There is bias because they are only male athletes and only 11 participants which is aweakness of the study. The evidence would be stronger and more valid if the sample size waslarger and included females. The study also does not state what kind of athletes theparticipants were. If there was variation in the sports the participants were involved in, that
7Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEmight affect the outcome of the study. Mortality, inclusion and exclusion criteria were notreported on. The instruments were not clearly stated and not all instruments were addressed.The reliability and strategies are not described sufficiently as are the recording strategies. Thedata analysis is thorough. Using the statistical software the outcomes are reliable. The resultswere labeled and addressed in an understandable manner and the analysis was interpretedcorrectly.Future studies would include a larger sample size to increase validity; a larger samplesize will also allow the article to be generalized to a larger population. Females would need tobe added to the study. A sound sampling method would help to avoid a weakened study. Datacollection should have been matched to a previous study that way the findings could directlycompare. To compare closely with other studies the protocol could have been very similar orthe same to strengthen the findings. Blood sampling methods also differed from previousstudies causing discrepancy. The insignificant findings concerning the lactate levels could bedue to the small sample size. The different sampling times between blood lactate and thehydrogen ion concentration could have also caused some discrepancies. Future testing needs tobe done matching protocol and methods to previous studies in order to compare the findingsand be able to draw a conclusion.Lavender, G., and Bird, S. conducted a similar study in 1989, which is considered oldresearch now, but still has strong evidence and recent studies to validate their outcomes.Fatigue that is experienced during intensive short exercise is attributed to lactacidosis.Lactacidosis inhibits muscular contraction by inhibiting key glycolytic pathways, inhibiting the
8Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEreleases of calcium ions form the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the binding of these ions to theprotein troponin, and impairing the neural impulse propagation. Based on that frameworkmany studies have hypothesized and tested to see if an alkaline such as sodium bicarbonatecould act as a buffer against the lactacidosis that happens within the muscle during intenseexercise. Some studies have found that an ingestion of sodium bicarbonate before exercise willincrease performance, while other studies have found no improvement. Prior to Lavender, G.,and Bird, S. (1989) there had been mixed studies on the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate onmuscle metabolism and exercise performance; there were also no previous studies that focusedon sprint exercises.The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion uponrepeated bouts of intensive short duration exercises. Lavender, G., and Bird, S. (1989)performed a double-blind random experimental design study. There were 8 female and 15 malefit and healthy participants between the ages of 18 and 28 who volunteered for the study. Theparticipants were tested on a cycle ergometer and performance was assessed using a light-sensitive monitor linked to a BBC microcomputer.Using analysis of variance test over peak power and average power, there was asignificantly higher average power in the supplement group. The sodium bicarbonate groupalso showed a significantly higher peak power value, but was only seen in two of the sprintrepetition tests. The findings also confirm what other tests had found; the duration of theexercise is important if the enhanced bicarbonate buffer proved to be most effective (Lavender,G., and Bird, S. 1989). The main findings support previous studies that concluded ingestion of
9Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEsodium bicarbonate improves performance of short-duration exercise. Lavender, G., and Bird,S. also found that bicarbonate ingestion can increase power output during repeated sprints andthe effects of the supplement increase as the number of sprints increase (1989).The treatment in the design is clearly stated but there is some uncertainty concerningthe subset group. There is only one mention about the subset group which is odd. However, thedesign was appropriate and seemed to be valid, as well as linked to the sample method andstatistical analysis. The sample was a good size and although it had more males, females wereincluded. There is, however discrepancy in the study because it did not say the participantswere athletes, only that they were familiar with maximal effort. The supplementation ofsodium bicarbonate directly applies to athletes, the study is weakened when the participantsthey chose may not be athletes. Instruments were a weak part of this article. Some wereaddressed but not all instruments were found in the literature. Reliability is questionableconsidering the instruments were not given much attention in the article. The findings,however are reliable because they can compare to previous findings conducted through otherstudies. The data analysis was limited and could have been clearer, but was appropriate for thestudy. The analysis was interpreted correctly and the tables and charts helped the strength ofthe analysis.The blackcurrant ingestion group is not fully discussed in the material and methodssection of the article which raises questions. Also the results of the blackcurrant ingestion groupis mentioned but without much detail and with “small inconsistent differences “reported
10Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE(Lavender, G., and Bird, S. 1989). This weakens the study because it raises questions about thevalidity and ethical practices performed.The fact that the findings can be compared to previous studies and find the sameconclusions greatly strengthens the study. The study is over ten years old which shows thatsodium bicarbonate has not been explored much by researchers. There needs to be newresearch possibly with the same procedure and method, but with new instrumentation. Thenew technology might find alternate outcomes than those Lavender, G., and Bird, S. found 22years ago.Conclusion of Sodium Bicarbonate on Sprint ExerciseBased on the two articles exploring sodium bicarbonate ingestion on sprints andrepeated sprint exercise, we can conclude that sodium bicarbonate does have a beneficialeffect on sprint athletes. They now need to investigate how long the sodium bicarbonate willwork as a buffer against lactate in the muscle and find if there are limits to the positive effect.Sodium Bicarbonate on Endurance ExerciseEndurance athletes are known for their ability to keep moderate to high intensitythroughout a long period of time during an event. Compared to the physical characteristics of asprint athlete, endurance athletes tend to have a lower muscle mass and a low body fatpercentage. Endurance athletes need to be able to perform with intensity and skill abilitythroughout a long event. These athletes look for a way to keep up their endurance and fight theeffect of fatigue. In a supplement they would look for something to delay the onset of fatigue
11Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEand help keep up the energy. Sodium bicarbonate offers to delay the onset of fatigue so thepotential benefits of NaHCO could affect the endurance athlete if they choose to use thesupplement. The following article investigates the effects of sodium bicarbonate on enduranceathletes.Another out dated study was conducted by McLaughton, L., Dalton, B., and Palmer, G. in1999. Although the article is not recent the results of this study are still reliable. Sodiumbicarbonate has been used as a buffering agent to improve performance during continuousshort term high intensity work. There have been time improvements documented forperformance ranges from 30 seconds to 6 minutes. This base knowledge is what guided theframework of the study. Prior to the present study there have not been conclusive resultspertaining to the use of sodium bicarbonate as a buffer substance in aerobic performance. Dueto the lack of information, the purpose of the study is to determine whether sodiumbicarbonate given in a 300 mg/kg body mass dose, could improve competitive cycle ergometerperformance of 60 minute duration, in well trained endurance athletes riding in a competitivesituation.There were 10 male volunteers that all had very similar anthropometric characteristics.All cyclists were currently training and were familiar with physiological laboratory testing andtime trials in a competitive situation. Mortality, inclusion, and exclusion criteria were notreported on. They performed the test on an air-braked cycle ergometer. The performance datawas analyzed using a one way analysis of variance ANOVA. The blood gas and lactate data wasanalyzed with a two way ANOVA with repeated measures.
12Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEThere was a positive benefit during the 60 minute competitive cycle with a 14% higheraverage power output compared with an older study. This could be due to a difference inprotocol, as well as a difference in substances used for testing. McLaughton, L., Dalton, B., andPalmer, G. used sodium bicarbonate as the testing solution, and the previous study usedsodium citrate (1999). The ergogenic effects are clear and most likely due to the maintenanceof pH levels in the blood.The design is clear and appropriate for the purpose of the study. Design is valid andcould only be strengthened by more tests or a more specific test, but the test run wereappropriate for the purpose of the study. There is a logical link between design, sample andstatistical analysis. The sample size is low and has potential biases. There are no femalesincluded in the study; also the participants have already been used in laboratories and otherstudies, which might open room for bias. Also, there was not much variation in thecharacteristics of the subjects, which can limit the strength of the study design. One strength ofthe study is that the subjects are all cyclists and cycling was the exercise used for testing. Theinstruments were no t clearly addressed or explained. Specific instruments were given but withunclear understanding of how they were used. Accuracy, precision and error control was notrecorded. However, the data analysis was very in depth and appropriate for the study.Conclusion of Sodium Bicarbonate on Endurance ExerciseFuture studies should test other endurance sports and compare findings. TheMcLaughton, L., Dalton, B., and Palmer, G. showed that there is a benefit on high intensitycycling events lasting 60 minutes, but other endurance sports might have different results.
13Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEThere also needs to be other similar studies conducted so that the results form McLaughtoncan be verified and strengthened.Sodium Bicarbonate on Resistance TrainingResistance training requires energy demand and a high level of anaerobic metabolism.Most athletes do not compete in resistance training; rather they use resistance training tocondition and strengthen their bodies to be able to perform at a higher level. Since sodiumbicarbonate is associated with such effects as increasing blood lactate and bicarbonate levels,decreasing perceived exertion, increasing the exercise time to exhaustion, and improvingperformance in high intensity strength training, an athlete who is involved with resistancetraining would possibly benefit from the sodium bicarbonate supplementation. The next articleexplores the effects sodium bicarbonate has on resistance training.Wollner, M., Sanos, E., Jerfferson, D. and Novaes, S. state that acidosis is the majorcause of fatigue (2008). The increase hydrogen ion concentration causes a drop in the muscularand blood pH, slows glycolosis, interferes with calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulumand calcium ion binding, and increases perception of fatigue. Sodium bicarbonate has beenfound to induce alkalosis when ingested in humans, therefore could delay acidosis and allow ahigher blood lactate concentrations during exercise. Metabolic alkalosis through ingestion orinfusion of sodium bicarbonate has been shown to enhance performance for short durationhigh intensity exercise, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated (Wollner, M., Sanos,E., Jerfferson, D. and Novaes, S. 2008). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine theacute ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate on muscular strength.
14Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCESubjects were randomly selected from gym academies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Therewere 11 males ranging from the age of 19 to 39 years. The study was designed as a cross-sectional, community based survey. The subjects were tested on bench press and pull pressexercises with the two groups either with or without the sodium bicarbonate supplement.Inclusion and exclusion criteria were not mentioned, but one participant did not complete thestudy due to an injury.Wollner, M., Sanos, E., Jerfferson, D. and Novaes, S. found that there was no ergogeniceffect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on muscular strength (2008). Former strength studiesfound conflicting evidence and concluded sodium bicarbonate as an ergogenic aid. Theconflicting results could be caused by many different things. One reason could be to the factthat the present study did not take blood samples, therefore the pH and H ion distributioncannot be analyzed. The pH and H ion concentration levels are the reasoning behind theergogenic benefits: if that data is not collected, results of the findings will be a mystery. Thevariables studied are difficult to test, and the participants might have had trouble following thelifting protocol. There were also differences in dosage taken between the studies. Based off theCameron, S.,Cooke, R., Brown, R., and Faibairn, K. (n. d.) study, people with larger statureingested a larger dosage due to their physical characteristics. It could be possible that theparticipants in the present study did not take a high enough dosage.The variables are linked to the framework and the concepts. They are defined and arelogical and consistent. The sample size was small and there was a wide age range. The smallsample size weakened the study and the study outcomes cannot apply to the larger population
15Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEnor can it be generalized. The instruments were not very well explained and some were unclearin their usage. There were only a few that were reported. We can only assume the otherinstruments used were reliable and valid. More tests would have to be run with a more detailedinstrumentation report in order to validate the study. The study is weak in the instrumentationarea. The data analysis is appropriate for the study and thorough. Even though many of thefindings were insignificant, they were still reported. Charts and graphs helped interpret data.Conclusions of Sodium Bicarbonate on Resistance TrainingConclusions cannot be drawn from one study. The study was not valid, so therefore noassumptions can be made based off the results. However, future studies should test strength ina very controlled environment to avoid human error that might negatively affect the study.Strength tests must be very controlled from procedure to the sampling method used. The nextstudy must be very well organized.Sodium Bicarbonate on Chronic IngestionMany studies that have been conducted are based on the acute effects of sodiumbicarbonate. Most likely an athlete, if proven to benefit performance, will use the supplementmore than once. They would possibly use the supplement for everyday training to enhance thework done during a workout and better their endurance, strength, and speed skills when incompetition. The following articles look into the effects of sodium bicarbonate and chronicingestion.
16Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEMcNaughton , L., Backx., L., Plamer, G., and Strange, N. (1999) conduct another studybased on sodium bicarbonate. We can infer that since the author has already conducted onevalid study on the same supplement, even though it is an older article, he is familiar with thesubject and is reliable. The rapid use of glycogen as an energy store during high intensitymaximal effort results in an increased concentration of hydrogen ions in the muscle and blood.Sodium bicarbonate may be beneficial to combat the rise of hydrogen ion in the muscle andblood, and therefore delay the onset of fatigue. The time delay of sodium bicarbonate ingestionprior to exercise has not been determined. McNaughton , L., Backx., L., Plamer, G., and Strange,N. therefore evaluated whether sodium bicarbonate, when taken chronically over a period of 5days, could alter resting plasma pH and improve anaerobic exercise performance of 60 secondduration (1999).Eight male subjects around the age of 25 volunteered for the study. They were tested onan electronically braked ergometer. Work and power data were downloaded to an on-line PC. Itwas a crossover experimental design. The control was taken one month after the initial test.The results show that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate over a period of 5 days canimprove short term high intensity exercise performance (McNaughton , L., Backx., L., Plamer,G., and Strange, N. 1999). This suggest that the body stores extra bicarbonate and can use theextra as a buffer to improve performance. The present study’s findings are similar to those ofother studies, resulting in improved performance on short-term high-intensity exercise. Themechanism for improved performance is thought to be the greater buffering capacity for the Hions caused by ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.
17Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEThe outcomes of the study are strong and consistent with the results from other studies.The size of the sample greatly weakens the study. Eight subjects are not enough to generalizeor validate the results. Mortality, inclusion, an exclusion criteria are not reported in theliterature. The sampling method is not mentioned either. The knowledge gap reveals that themechanism causing an ergogenic effect is not well known. McLaughton, L., uses the word“probably” to describe why sodium bicarbonate improves performance. More researchinvestigating the mechanism of sodium bicarbonate ingestion is needed.The design was appropriate but did not go into great detail. It was appropriate toanswer the study questions. The variables were clear and applied to the study. There is a logicallink between the design, sample and statistical analysis. Instrumentation was stated withspecific names yet not explained. Accuracy and error control were not stated. The informationgiven on the instruments was limited and weakened the study. The analysis was also not verywell explained but appropriate for the study. Tables and charts helped to visually show the dataanalysis. Both instrument reporting and data analysis could have been stronger and thereforeweakened the study.Edge, J., Bishop, D., and Goodman, C. (2006) conducted a study that investigates chronicbicarbonate ingestion. Accumulation of hydrogen ions that cause fatigue affect oxidativephosphorylation, enzyme activity, and ion regulation. Intra and extracellular buffer systemswork to reduce the buildup of hydrogen ions. An increase in the muscle buffering capacity, bytaking sodium bicarbonate may improve performance. There is limited research that does notshow how much sodium bicarbonate should be ingested. Some studies have shown
18Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEimprovements in buffer capacity after intense interval training while others have not. Thepurpose of the study was to determine effects of chronic ingestion of sodium bicarbonatebefore training on the muscle buffer capacity.Performance test were conducted on 16 female students between the age of 18 and 20who were moderately trained in a variety of club level sports. Food diaries were kept so thatthe subjects can recreate what they ate every time they tested. On the day of the test a musclebiopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis immediately after exercise. It was a pre- and post-test experimental design that was performed on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer.In contrast to what was hypothesized, the results indicated H ion accumulation duringtraining is not an important factor in improving muscle buffer capacity. Edge, J., Bishop, D., andGoodman, C. (2006) found that ph is not significantly altered during the beginning of intenseexercise, but towards the middle or end of the training session. There might also be changes inintracellular level of proteins involved in ion regulation and mitochondrial respiration.The sample did not include males and the subjects were not well trained, whichweakened the study. The sample size was small compared to the data they were testing. Thevariables were hard to distinguish because they were testing so many different variables. It washard to decipher which ones were the most important to the study. Instruments were givenwithout an explanation which weakened the article. Validity has to be assumed with the littleinformation given about the instruments. Accuracy, precision and error control was notaddressed. Analysis techniques are clearly described. Analysis was correct and appropriate forthe article. The analysis procedure was appropriate for the study and the data collected. Tables
19Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEand charts were key very helpful in understanding the data analysis. The threats to validity arethe small sample size and the moderately trained subjects. These threats weaken the study andtherefore the results cannot be generalized to the athletic population.Conclusion of the Chronic Effects of Sodium BicarbonateBased on the two articles regarding chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion it can beconcluded that chronic ingestion can benefit sport performance. What needs to be investigatednext is the effect of chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion on transport proteins and improvedpotassium regulation. Research needs to be conducted regarding the other effects of sodiumbicarbonate. Chronic ingestion might not be healthy for the body. Research needs to beconducted to find the limits of sodium bicarbonate benefits on the body. There might be anadverse effect from chronic bicarbonate ingestion.Sodium Bicarbonate with Specific InstrumentationThe instrumentation used to measure the effects of sodium bicarbonate onperformance is important. The more detailed the instrument is, the more detailed the data andin result the analysis is detailed and has a greater validity. The instrumentation can strengthenor weaken a study. The following articles use specific instrumentation to assess the effects ofsodium bicarbonate. The instrumentation used has an impact on the validity of the two studies.Verbitsky, O., Mizrahi, J., Levin, M., and Isakov, E. (1997) begin their article with statingthat an accumulation of hydrogen ions in the muscle cell causes fatigue. To reduce hydrogenion concentration, lactic acid in the cell must also be reduced. Sodium bicarbonate facilitates an
20Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEefflux of hydrogen ions and lactic acid from the cell. Two components of fatigue have beenreported. One is due to intracellular acidosis, and another is due to changes in the excitation-contraction coupling process. Most studies have focused on performance or maximum poweras a measurement, rather than muscle fatigue. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on process ofprogressive muscle fatigue and recovery had not been studied. The purpose of the study was toevaluate the effect of ingestion of sodium bicarbonate on muscle progressive fatigue asinduced by functional electrical stimulation and on muscle recovery after intensive cyclingexercise.There were six healthy and active male subjects that took part in the cross sectionalstudy. The procedure is where the importance of the instrument use is shown to be important.Each subject performed three different tests. Each test started with 2 minutes of functionalelectrical stimulation (FES) of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. The FES ensured that themuscle was fatigued and preloaded before the cycling was tested. The knee torque wascontinuously monitored using a specially designed testing apparatus. The subjects sat on aspecially designed chair while the transcutaneous electrical stimulation was applied through apair of rubber electrodes. The torque of the knee is a result of activation of the quadricepsfemoris by the electrodes.Higher peak and residual torques resulted from supramaximal load combined with acuteingestion of sodium bicarbonate. Due to the special instrumentation, “that acute ingestion foNAHCO is an effective means for increasing the torques in isometric contraction, thus reducing
21Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEmuscle fatigue an enhancing recovery ”Verbitsky, O., Mizrahi, J., Levin, M., and Isakov, E.(1997).Procedure was very detailed and linked to the purpose of the study. The procedure wasdifficult to follow in the reading but it did apply to the concepts and framework. The designwas linked to the purpose of the study and applied to the concepts and framework. The studysample did not have much information given about it. It was very small and the age was highcompared to most athletes who are involved in sports and use supplements such as sodiumbicarbonate, therefore making the study hard to generalize. The variables were hard to definebut did relate to the purpose of the study. The instrument used in the study was given veryspecifically. The “specially constructed testing apparatus” was given much detail in anunderstandable way. Precision, sensitivity, accuracy and error control was also given along withhow the data was recorded. Further studies are needed with the same instrumentation toverify the validity of the instrument. The data analysis was appropriate yet unclear even withthe use of tables and charts. The data analysis was hard to understand and displayed an unclearmeaning.Induced alkalosis leads to enhanced muscle glycolitic adenosine triphosphate (ATP)which may increase glycogen utilization and allow a greater capacity for high intensity exercise(Raymer, G., Marsh, G., Kowalchuk, T., and Thompson, R. 2004). This suggests that sodiumbicarbonate ingestion would result in a greater contribution of anaerobic energy productionduring exercise. Muscle biopsy can provide clear understanding of what is taking place insidethe muscle cell. There are inherent limitations of frequent sampling and poor time resolution
22Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEassociated with muscle biopsy analysis. The mechanism for sodium bicarbonate to enhanceintense exercise is not clearly elucidated. The purpose of the study was to clarify changesoccurring in intracellular metabolism with exercise during induced alkalosis. Raymer, G., Marsh,G., Kowalchuk, T., and Thompson, R. used phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS) and venous blood sampling to study the effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on themetabolic and acid-base response to incremental forearm wrist flexion exercise (1997).Six healthy moderately active males volunteered for the quasi-experimental crossoverstudy design. The subjects were studied twice; once under control and again with NaHCOsupplementation. Exercise protocol was identical for each test which consisted of progressivetime to fatigue and peak power output during ramp exercise to fatigue in the P-MRS and bloodsampling exercise series was significant between the control and induced alkalosis group. Noneof the subjects were trained in specific sports.The alkaline group was significantly different from the control group in forearm muscleintracellular pH during incremental wrist flexion exercise to fatigue. There was a significantdifference between the alkaline and control group in the plasma lactate threshold in the initialphase. Forearm venous plasma pH during incremental wrist flexion exercise to fatigue wassignificantly different between control and alkaline group. Forearm muscle to venous H iongradient during incremental wrist flexion exercise to fatigue is significantly different fromcontrol to alkaline group wrist flexion exercise to volitional fatigue.The design was appropriate for the study purpose and to answer the study questions.The design is valid; the only percievedproblem would be in recreating the study because the
23Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEinstruments used were all custom made. It would be hard to oppose the finding from anotherstudy without the same instruments, therefore weakening the study. The sample size was smalland none of the subjects were athletes. This will also weaken the study because the use ofsodium bicarbonate is ergogenic for athletes, so athletes should be the ones tested. Also thereare no females in the study. The variables are appropriated for the study design and purpose;they are defined and consistent. Instrumentation used in the study was very clear andthorough. Although the ergometer was custom built, enough detail was given to ensure thereliability of the instrument. Very specific details were addressed so that the instrumentationwas understood, as well as precision and accuracy protocols. More tests should be donehowever, to truly make sure the custom built ergometer is valid. The data analysis wasappropriate and interpreted correctly. All results were reported and tables and charts were alsogiven.Conclusion of instrumentationInstrumentation use proved to be beneficial while studying the effects of sodiumbicarbonate ingestion. The specific tools used in the previous articles helped with research andmight have had a big impact on the results. Even though the results that come from a studywith specific instrumentation are difficult to compare, new instrumentation is important inadvancing knowledge and technology.Sodium Bicarbonate and Specific Sports:As discussed earlier, sodium bicarbonate might be a useful ergogenic aid. If the claimsare true, athletes might turn to sodium bicarbonate to accelerate their performance in
24Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEcompetition. Not all athletes train and perform at the same level. A professional power lifterwill not have the same conditioning regime as that of a cross country runner. The power lifterwill focus on explosiveness, strength, and power while a cross country runner will focus onkeeping pace and endurance. The same is true with the supplements an athlete chooses totake. An endurance athlete will not take a supplement that claims to aid in power and strength,rather they would take a supplement that will aid in endurance and a delayed time to fatigue.That is why it is important to test potential ergogenic aids on specific sports. An aid might findto be useful to a certain athlete and useless to another athlete of a different sport. Thefollowing articles investigate sodium bicarbonate and its role as a supplement with specificsports.Zajac, A., Cholewa, J., Poprzecki, S Waskiewicz,Z., and Langfort, J. studied sodiumbicarbonate on youth swimmers (2009). Sprint athletes rely on anaerobic glycolysis as theprimary source of fuel. The total capacity of the glycolytic pathway is limited by theconcentration of hydrogen ions which accumulates in the muscle due to intense exercise. Theaccumulation of hydrogen ions in the cell causes the muscle cells to become acidic; aciditylimits the muscles contractibility and in result decreases the intensity of work done by themuscle. The body’s first line of defense against the hydrogen ion accumulation is naturallyoccurring bicarbonates. Sodium bicarbonate as a supplement is thought to help with the body’snatural defense and work as a buffer. The increased bicarbonate reserve will allow thehydrogen ions to leave the muscle cells at a faster rate and therefore the accumulation ofhydrogen ions that cause fatigue will take longer to build up in the cell and delay the onset offatigue during anaerobic exercise. Prior studies that tested that hypothesis have been
25Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEconducted with untrained athletes. No studies prior have focused on young athletes and thesport of swimming starts early in the athlete’s life. Swimmers begin intensive training as earlyas 7 and 8 years old. The young swimmers usually take part in the same training regime as doadult and professional swimmers, that is why it is important for research to be conducted on ayounger population of athletes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of oraladministration of sodium bicarbonate on swim performance in competitive youth maleswimmers.Eight competitive youth male swimmers, all of whom were around 15 years of age, tookpart in the double-blind experiment. Each subject completed two test trials of 4x50 meterfreestyle swim with one minute rest between each sprint. Swim times, plasma lactate, standardbicarbonate, bases excess, and the effect of the sodium bicarbonate were variables tested.Blood samples were drawn from finger three times during the trial; upon arrival, 60 minutesafter ingestion, and during the first minute after the time trial.Intake of sodium bicarbonate in youth swimmers can significantly increase workcapacity during short intensive interval training. It can also improve sprint performance at the50 meter freestyle swim (Zajac, A., Cholewa, J., Poprzecki, S Waskiewicz,Z., & Langfort, J. 2009).The study was narrow in scope and was not trivial. The problem is very relevant tosports nutrition and any dietitian working with athletes. The purpose statement is very specificand easily guides the reader. The statement is to the point and very clearly states purpose andthe population as to whom the study will relate. The statement was good and very strong. Theproblem statement is not as clearly stated, but is very easy to find in the literature. It is a big
26Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEproblem; therefore it takes more than a statement to explain to the reader. This was a veryresearchable problem due to the fact that swimming is already based off of measurement oftime. The framework is not clearly stated but does help to define the concepts of interest inthe study. The framework is directly linked to the purpose. There is no visual of the frameworkbut it is linked to variables in the study. The concepts are faster speed in the water; increasedph, increased lost exercise plasma lactate concentration, and increased blood concentration ofHCO₃. The framework is related to any athlete and therefore those who care after the athleteare also related. The knowledge is growing but athletes will try the anything that promisesresults so a sports dietitian needs to have the latest information on a supplement, especiallyergogenic supplements. The hypothesis was unclear but questions that were raised weredirectly linked to the purpose of the study as well as the framework and concepts of the study.Study design was appropriate and was appropriate to answer the stated purpose. The validitywas strong and no major threats were discovered. The sample size was small and weakens thestudy but the participants were great subjects for the study. They did not study female athleteswhich show bias. The variables were directly related to the purpose and appropriate for thestudy. The article gave specific instrumentation, yet did not clearly state the way theinstruments were being used which weakened the article. The analysis was clear andappropriate for the study. Significant and insignificant findings were included in the analysis.Tables and charts accompanied the analysis and strengthened the article. The analysis wasinterpreted correctly and the analysis techniques were clearly described.As shown in some research, alkalosis has been shown to cause a special effect inpredominantly upper limb exercises (Artioli, G., Coelho, Benatti, F., Gailey, A., Guallno, B., &
27Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCELancha Jr., A. 2006). Although there is no consensus in the literature concerning the use ofalkaline substances as an ergogenic aid on anaerobic exercise, it is thought that an increase inblood pH will provide delayed fatigue and improve exercise. Since judo is a predominantlyupper limb sport, it is important for the sport of judo to determine whether or not sodiumbicarbonate can be used as a reliable ergogenic aid and benefit the athlete by improvingperformance in fights (Artioli, G., Coelho, Benatti, F., Gailey, A., Guallno, B., and Lancha Jr., A.2006).There were seven male judo fighters chosen to participate in the study. The inclusion criteriaincluded to be between the age of 18 and 30 years of age, be dedicated to judo training for atleast 6 weekly hours, a minimum brown belt graduation, and regularly compete in regional orhigher championships. There was one case of mortality due to an injury. The participants wereinvolved in two tests; each test consisted of three, five minute fights with a fifteen minuterecovery time between each fight. The participants fought the same competitor each time andthe competitor was within 10% of the participant’s body weight. Blood collections occurred inrest after ingestion of substance, after warm up, after each fight and 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 minutesafter each fight. The study adopted a counterbalanced double-blind model.The variables are linked to the concepts of the framework. The treatment is clearly specifiedand is appropriate to the study purpose. The design is appropriate to answer the purpose andquestions. The design was valid and very well thought through; there was not much room forbias. There was a logical link between design and sampling method. The sampling size was verysmall and weakened the study. There was also somewhat variability in the selection criteria. A
28Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEgeneralization of the results cannot be made, and the sample size does not represent the wholepopulation. The instrumentation was explained but not very understandable. The instrumentsmeasure the variables of the study. The variables and methods of collection are described. Therecording strategies’ were briefly stated. Analysis techniques are described and appropriate toanswer each question. The presentations of the results are somewhat understandable and usetable sand charts to help visually. The analyses were interpreted correctly and both insignificantand significant results were addressed.Wu, C., Shih, M., Yang, C., Huang, M., Chang, C., researched sodium bicarbonate ingestion ontennis performance (2010). Tennis consists of short bouts of high energy followed my times ofrecovery between points and games. Repetitive short-term high-intensity efforts throughout atennis match can result in significant neuromuscular fatigue. The neuromuscular fatigue is whatis thought to contribute to decreased stroke accuracy and velocity. Sodium bicarbonate hasbeen previously shown to aid in the performance of short-term high-intensity exercise, singlebout high-intensity exercise, 1 hour competitive cycling, and 30 minutes of various ball games.Several studies have failed to find ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation onexhaustive resistance exercise. Recent findings have suggested that sodium bicarbonate mighthelp in alleviating exercise-induced impairment in the neural functions. Wu, C., Shih, M., Yang,C., Huang, M., Chang, C., hypothesized that sodium bicarbonate supplementation may preventthe fatigue- induced decline in skilled tennis performance (2010). The purpose of the study wasto investigate the effect of NAHCO supplementation on skilled tennis performance after asimulated match.
29Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEThere were 9 male Division I college tennis players who were recruited and participated inthe randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind design study. There were twoexperimental trails that alternated the subjects with placebo or bicarbonate. Subjectsconsumed the same exact diet two days before each trial. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Testwas used to assess the subject’s accuracy, consistency of service, forehand stroke to both sidesof the court, and backhand ground stroke to both sides of the court. A simulated match lastingapproximately 50 minutes consisted of 12 games, receiving and returning, and the ball was fedby a ball serving machine. Heart rate was monitored throughout the study period by a shortranged telemeter. The rate of perceived exertion was recorded using a Borg scale. Bloodsamples were taken from a forearm vein by a trained nurse and an autoanalyzer and blood gasanalyzer was used to measure lactate, pH, hemoglobin, and base excess.The results show that NaHCO supplementation can prevent the decline in skilled tennisperformance (Wu, C., Shih, M., Yang, C., Huang, M., Chang, C., 2010).The treatment is clearlyspecified and is appropriate for the study. The design is appropriate to answer the purpose andquestion. The design is logically linked between the design, sampling method and statisticalanalyses. The sample size is very limited. It is appropriate for the study problem and purpose,yet is too small which weakens the study. More tests would have to be run with a larger samplesize to validate the study outcome. The instrumentation was not explained. Specific nameswere given, but they were not well addressed; therefore weakening the study. The instruments’reliability has to be assumed. Recruitment method no t reported on.
30Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEFuture testing should test other tennis skills with measurement of stroke velocity andrunning speed. Research should also investigate neuromuscular functions and psychologicalvariables such as reactive, anticipatory, and decision-making capacities (Wu, C., Shih, M., Yang,C., Huang, M., Chang, C., 2010).Sodium bicarbonate on Gastrointestinal DiscomfortEven if proven to be an ergogenic aid, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO), might not be agood supplement for athletes to take due to its side effects. If ingested, sodium bicarbonatecan cause gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. If an athlete chooses to take NaHCO as a supplementto better their performance, but experiences GI discomfort, instead of the performanceenhancing affect they predicted, their performance might be negatively altered. Depending onhow strong the symptoms are, the athlete might perform better without the use of thesupplement. GI comfort is important to the athlete’s performance, and if a supplement causesGI stress the athlete might perform better without the added benefits of the ergogenic aid. Theathlete must weigh the benefits of the supplement and decide what would be better for themas an individual and their overall performance in their sport.While sodium bicarbonate is in the middle of discussion related to its ergogenic effectson sports, there are other issues to be noted. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has beenassociated with mild gastrointestinal discomfort with reported symptoms including belching,stomach cramping, bowel urgency, flatulence, diarrhea, bloating, stomach ache and vomitingCameron, S., Cooke, R., Brown, R., & Fairbairn, K.2010). Prior to Cameron, S., Cooke, R., Brown,R., & Fairbairn, K. there had been only two studies investigating incidences of GI discomfort
31Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEassociated with bicarbonate ingestion, both studies had been on athletes of low to mediumbody mass. Rugby players tend to be larger in statue then the general athlete, and due to theirlarge stature they would need to ingest larger amounts of sodium bicarbonate to meet therecommended dosage. The purpose of Cameron et al. study is to investigate physiologicalresponses, GI tolerability, and ergogenic effect of 0.3 g.kg body weight (BW) of NaHCO onrepeated sprint ability (RSA) in well trained rugby players.There were 25 male rugby players recruited from Otago Sevens, Otago Focus Squad andOtago Rugby Academy in Dunedin, New Zealand who participated in the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Participants were randomly assigned to consumeNaHCO or placebo for initial testing followed by a 7 day washout period. The testing wasreplicated in opposite conditions under a crossover design so that each participant was eachowns control. Participants completed GI discomfort questionnaires at baseline, 60, 90, and 120minutes post ingestion. Each participant followed a rugby-specific warm up and a nine minuteexercise simulating rugby game play followed by a five minute rugby specific repeated sprinttest (RSST). Immediately following the RSST blood was collected from the participants and theindividual participants rated their perceived exertion on a modified 10 point Borg scale. Theparticipants then had 24 hours to complete a chronic GI discomfort symptom questionnaire.The Average age of participants was 21.6 years, the average height was 1.82 meters andthe average weight was 95 kilograms. There were no significant differences on performanceoutcomes between the placebo and NaHCO conditions. NaHCO supplementation did increasebicarbonate concentration and maintain pH during the high intensity exercise. There was
32Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEhowever a significantly higher incidence rate of belching, stomach ache, diarrhea, stomachbloating and nausea in the NaHCO group compared to placebo. Also the severity of stomachcramps, belching, stomach ache, bowel urgency, vomiting, stomach bloating, diarrhea andflatulence reported in the NaHCO group was significantly worse after ingestion compared toplacebo.The important findings of the study show that due to the higher incidence and severityof GI discomfort after the consumption of NaHCO, physical performance of some individualsmight be negatively impacted. The study also shows that performance is not enhanced in welltrained rugby players, rather the NaHCO acts as a buffer against lactate buildup within the cell,not necessarily an ergogenic affect. Therefore, individual athletes must decide what is moreimportant to their performance. Large athletes with higher body weight must take intoconsideration the negative effects of sodium bicarbonate on the GI tract because large athletesmust consume larger amounts of NaHCO to meet the recommended dosage (Cameron, S.,Cooke, R., Brown, R., & Fairbairn, K. 2010).The problem statement was clearly made and related to the purpose of the study,although the purpose investigated more than what the problem statement and the backgroundliterature discussed. The background and framework should directly apply to the problem andpurpose statement, and cover the information needed for the research. In the Cameron et al.study, the background literature discussed both the potential NaHCO ingestion benefits on therugby player’s performance, and the negative GI effects of NaHCO ingestion. However, theproblem statement only addressed the GI tolerability of ingested NaHCO, not the ergogenic
33Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEpotential. The literature was very easy to understand and every section was clearly labeled toavoid confusion. Although the study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlledcrossover trial, there were still weaknesses. Based on the rule of thumb and the number ofvariables being tested, the sample size is small. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were not given.The sample size does not allow for the findings to be generalized. Even though the article andproblem was sport specific and would not necessarily relate to other sports, the small samplesize has limited generalization even for rugby players. The anthropometrical and bodycomposition measures were very similar with a small standard deviation, so that the findings ofthe study could only be generalized to male rugby players who happen to have the samephysical characteristics. The Experimental testing protocol was clearly outlined in a figurewithin the literature and helped with the understandability of the study. The visual aid of theprotocol strengthened and showed the organization of the study. The experimental testingprotocol was the strength of the study, however the findings would be stronger and more validif the tests were repeated. An increased number of repeated tests would allow for a largercollection of data and the analysis would be strengthened by the quantity of data collected. Theoutcomes of the analysis would be more reliable if there was a larger data pool to begin with.The GI discomfort was measured on a Borg scale. This limits the results and reliability of thequestionnaire and therefore the study in general. The perceived exertion was also measured ona 10 point Borg scale. A 10 point Borg scale, although easier for the participant to complete,does not give the participant a true voice nor does it give the researcher strong ground to standon concerning the questionnaire. This will in turn limit the validity of the data collected and theimportance of the findings.
34Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEConclusionThe research articles have shown that there is still much research to be conducted onsodium bicarbonate ingestion as an ergogenic aid. All twelve of the articles had a very lowsample size. This was one of the biggest problems, because even if the evidence from threestudies showed the same results, each study still had questionable validity due to the samplesize. Many of the studies did not report on sample recruitment methods. They also did notreport on mortality or inclusion and exclusion criteria. The samples and the information givenabout them was a weak point for all twelve of the articles. Future studies should focus on avalid sample sizes so that the evidence can be strong and validity of results will not bequestioned.More study’s need to be done on trained athletes. If the research purpose is to test apotential ergogenic aid, test should be done on samples that are athletes and likely to useergogenic aids. This will also limit human error in exercise tests. When athletes are used fortesting, the procedure is sounder because it eliminates the possibility of human error due to asubject’s lack of experience with exercise or competitive, high intensity situations. Untrainedsubjects might react differently under testing conditions compared to an athlete who should beuse to high stress environments.More studies need to be done on similar subjects and sports so that comparisons can bedrawn between the studies. It is hard to compare results between a tennis player and aswimmer. The results might conclude the same thing, but the sports are very different and the
35Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEbody will be performing differently which will affect the results. Comparison studies will alsohelp validate certain studies because another study will show similar results.Based of the articles, sodium bicarbonate does benefit sport performance in highintensity short exercises as well as longer moderate intensity exercise. The ergogenic effects aremoderate and do not dramatically improve performance, rather it helps athletes stay at a highintensity for a longer period of time due to the muscle buffering capacity.
36Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEReferencesArtioli, G., Coelho, Benatti, F., Gailey, A., Guallno, B., & Lancha Jr., A. (2006). Can sodiumbicarbonate intake contribute to judo fights performance? Rev Bras Med Esporte,12,331-335.Cameron, S., Cooke, R., Brown, R., & Fairbairn, K. (2010). Enhancing the buffering capacity inrugby union players: Tolerability and performance. Sparc Final Report.Edge, J., Bishop, D., & Goodman, C. (2006). Effects of chronic NaHCO ingestion during intervaltraining on changes to muscle buffer capacity, metabolism, and short-term enduranceperformance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 101, 918-925.dio:10.1152/japplphysiol.01534.2005.Lavender, G., & Bird, S. R. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints. BritishJournal of Sports Medicine, 23 (1), 41-45.McNaughton, L., Backx, K., Palmer, G., & Strange, N. (1999). Effects of chronic bicarbonateingestion on the performace of high-intensity work. European Journal of AppliedPhysiology, 80, 333-336.McNaughton, L., Dalton, B., & Palmer, G. (1999). Sodium bicarbonate can be used as anergogenic aid in high intensity, competitive cycle ergometry of 1 h duration. EuropeanJournal of Applied Physiology,80, 64-69.
37Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEMirasol, F., (2009, Aug 21). Sports supplements grow despite controversy: A test of endurance.Retrieved from http://icis.com/articles/2009/08/24/9242007/sports-supplements-grow-despite-contriversy.htmlRaymer, G., Marsh, G., Kowalchuk, T., & Thompson, R. (2004). Etabolic effects of inducedalkalosis during progressive forearm exercise to fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology,96, 2050-2056. doi:10.1152/japplphysoiol.01261.2003.Rakhee, D. (2008, Sept). Sports nutrition and high energy supplement: The global Market.Retrieved from http://bccresearch.com/report.htmlSinger, N., Schmidt, M., (2009, July). Supplements for athletes draw alert from F.D.A.. The NewYork Times. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B02E7DD1730F93 AA15754C0A96F9C8B63&scp=2&sq=athletesandsupplements&st=cse&pagewanted=1Verbitsky, O., Mizrahi, J., Levin, M., & Isakov, E. (1997). Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonateon muscle force, fatigue, and recovery. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83(2), 333-337.Wollner, M., Santos, E., Jefferson, D., & Novaes, S. (2008). Effects of bicarbonatesupplementation on muscular strength. Journal of Exercise Phisiology, 11(6), 25-33.Wu, C., Shih, M., Yang, C., Huang, M., Chang, C., (2010). Sodium bicarbonate supplementationprevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match. Journal of theInternational Society of Sports Nutrition. 7(33).
38Running head: SODIUM BICARBONATE: A ROLE IN SPORTS PERFORMANCEZajac, A., Cholewa, J., Poprzecki, S Waskiewicz,Z., & Langfort, J. (2009). Effects of sodiumbicarbonate ingestion on swim Performance in youth athletes. Journal of Sports Scienceand Medicine, 8, 45-50.Zinner, C., Wahl, P., Achtzehn, S., Sperlich, B., & Mester, J. (2011). Effects ofbicarbonateingestion and high intensity exercise on lactate and H ion distribution indifferent blood compartments. European Journal of Applied Physiology. doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1800-4.