(Networking and Security)
Akshay N Mahajan
• Exists in infrastructure mode or
ad hoc mode .
• ad hoc mode : Clients communicate without
the aid of a Central access Point.
• Infrastructure mode : Usually a WLAN
connected with a wired network.
( LOCAL AREA NETWORK )
TYPES OF WIRELESS LANs
• Infrared LAN : Used to connect computers
within a room.They can’t penetrate opaque
• Spread Spectrum LAN : Uses the spread
spectrum technology to communicate.
• Narrowband microwave : Use micro waves
(Standards for wireless LAN)
• Hyper LAN : It’s an European
telecommunication standards institutes
• Bluetooth : Specified by Bluetooth special
interest group.Used for short range wireless
• 802.11 wireless technology : Specified by
the IEEE(Institute of Electrical &
• Medium for communication air hence most
• Constantly hammering an access point with
access requests can cause jamming.
• Interference with other wireless services
using the same frequency range e.g.
• MAC authentication fail in front of
firmware using randomly chosen spoofed
• In case of ad hoc modes any hacker with a
adapter configured for ad hoc mode can
easily access the peer to peer network.
• Checking the rogue access points.
• WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) frame
• IP sec (Internet protocol security) .
• 802.1x/EAP :
1)ROGUE ACCESS POINTS
• A rogue access point is one that is
accessible to an organizations employees
but is not managed as a part of the trusted
network (with no security measures
2)WEP FRAME ENCRYPTION
• Process of converting clear text to cipher text.
Decryption is reverse of the process.
• Key is the only piece of information to be shared
by both the end points.
2)WEP HAS FLAWS
• Static WEP keying calls for the tiring job of
entering the same keys on every device.
• If a device using static WEP key is lost, the
possessor of the device can be easily
access the LAN.
• WEP uses RC4 encryption.Which becomes
unsafe when initialization vector is
2) TKIP & AES
• TKIP include per packet keying and message
• AES, a stronger alternative to RC4.
3) IPsec (Internet Protocol
• IPsec design is a frame work for multiple
services like secrecy, data integrity and
protection from replay attacks.
• Consists of 2 parts :
1st carries security identifier
2nd deals with establishing keys
• Used in Transport mode and Tunnel mode.
EAP(Extensible Authentication Protocol) types
in use today)
uses digital certificates
for both user and
(frame work for providing
and dynamic key distribution)
Much more to be done
• Wireless communication still prone to
• Stronger and full proof encryption
techniques , than the currently used
RC4must be developed.
• Much more research needed in the design
field of wireless technology.