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Meerjarigheid en multifunctionaliteit van natuurlijke graanakkers

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Kees van Veluw van het Louis Bolk instituut gaat dieper in op de mogelijkheden om akkerbouw te combineren met meer permanente gewassen en veeteelt

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Meerjarigheid en multifunctionaliteit van natuurlijke graanakkers

  1. 1. Break Out Sessie: Meerjarigheid en multifunctionaliteit van natuurlijke graanakkers Door Mariska Slot en Kees van Veluw (WUR, Farming Systems Ecology) Mariska.slot@wur.nl Kees.vanveluw@wur.nl 28 november Congres Van Akker naar Bos Over: - Doornik Natuurakkers - Meerjarig graan - Alley cropping - Varkens op de akker en het bos - Mark Shepard’s farm - Boomgaard ontwerpen
  2. 2. GMO-soya teelt
  3. 3. Feedlot in the US
  4. 4. Graanakkers van Louis Dolmans Doornik Natuurakkers (De Woerdt)
  5. 5. Doornik Natuurakkers 32 ha totaal, 17 ha akkers, 3000 kg/ha, kosten minimaal, opbrengsten eenkoorn 1.20 Euro per kg, 65 broedvogels, heel veel wandelaars en bezoekrs
  6. 6. From annual to permanent agriculture indicator annual agriculture permanent agriculture above biodiversity max 10 annual crops 20 permanent trees 1-2 livestock types 10 annual crops 10 livestock species underground biodiversity low high production layers 1 layer monocultures upto 7 layers and climbers: polycultures fossile fuel input high: ploughing, sowing low: less ploughing, mainly permanent crops chemical pest and disease control high low: natural anemies fertilieser input high low: recycling, legumes, some micro nutrients effect on climate large emission of ghg absorption of ghg in trees organic matter effect on groundwater risk on pollution clean purified groundwater production high but bulky: grains, soy higher and more divers: upto maize, rice, milk, meat eggs 40 food products + biomass and medicines
  7. 7. Inspiratie voorbeelden • Meerjarig graan / Perennial grains • Alley Cropping: stroken teelt met afwisselende gewassen en of bomen en struiken • Varkens integreren in de akkerbouw/bosbouw • Mark Shepard’s bedrijf • Boomgaard ontwerpen
  8. 8. Perennial grains Louis Dolmans discovered that his old wheat variety (eenkoorn) survived the harvesting and started to regrowth More Info: https://landinstitute.org/our-work/science Article: INCREASED FOOD AND ECOSYSTEM SECURITY VIA PERENNIAL GRAINS, Science 25 June 2010: Vol. 328 no. 5986 pp. 1638-1639 DOI:10.1126/science.1188761 Seasonal development of annual winter wheat (left of each panel) and its wild perennial relative, intermediate wheatgrass (right of each panel). Plant breeding programs are working to domesticate intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) and to develop perennial wheat by crossing it with wheat
  9. 9. Info on Perennial grains - Perennial grains use power to grow roots and stolones to survive - Annual grains use power to produce seeds - Sown in autumn; yields later then annual wheat in late summer - Potential Yield level: 1000 kg/ha (40 bushels) - Could be grazed late autumn and early spring (1000 kg dm as fodder?) - Grazing does not effect grain yield - Perennial = 3-5 years - Yield in second year more than first year - Roots go 1-2 meters deep: preventing mineral leaching and increasing soil organic matter Sources: 1. https://landinstitute.org/about-us/annual-report-2014 2.http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:LbZAg 6vDzS0J:foodsystems.msu.edu/uploads/files/E- 3208.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=nl Idea: use wintergrains for grazing
  10. 10. Joost van Strien: Rows of crops
  11. 11. Sierd Deinum, Pure Graze farmer: strips of pasture for resowing
  12. 12. Bloemenstroken middenin F. van Alebeek - PPO-agv www.bloeiendbedrijf.nl
  13. 13. Verschillende rassen in stroken
  14. 14. Stroken positieve combinaties
  15. 15. Black Walnut Orchard; Retirement crop for farmers 0 10 20 30 40 years All crops and grasses up to 7 years: no impact of juglone Juglone tolerant crops: - Onions - Alfalfa - Sugarbeets - Alnus trees for N-fix - Poultry and Cattle grazing Juglone resistant crops: - Red & white clover - Timothy grass - Currants - Mulberry - Raspberry (shade!) Harvests: - Nuts from year 7 - Wood after 40 years. Juglone accumulates in the soil -> after 7 years impact on crops Distance between rows: 7 meters, between rows: 5 meters -> ca 400 tree/ha - Black walnut has a strong taproot -> no competition - C storage in deep soil layers: climate neutral farming - Animals have a nice niche after year 7 Based on: R.Scott et al. 2007, Agroforestry Systems 71: 185-193
  16. 16. Watergaard / Waterboerderij Waterboomgaard / Waterbos / Waterlandbouw met - In het water: vis, eenden, Amerikaanse rivierkreeft, paling, - watergroente: waterkastanjes, watersla, azolla - Op de oevers: lisdodde ( voor isolatiemateriaal en de scheuten zijn eetbaar. - Op trellies boven het water: druiven, kiwis, komkommers etc. - Op de rabatten: fruitbomen, cranberries, elzen (natte bosbouw) - Recreatie, Educatiekanoen Gebaseerd op Paludicultuur http://www.google.nl/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCYQFjAAahUKEwjS3oyd05zJAhXCdA8KHaeeDd0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.b- ware.eu%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fpublicaties%2FFritz%2520et%2520al%25202014%2520Paludicultuur%2520VNBL.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHcuWeHHg4d89ocGothTlKYbE5uWg
  17. 17. Kippen in de boomgaard Maart 2013 Sept 2013 http://www.bomenvoorbuitenkippen.nl/sites/default/files/Fotoverslag%20wilgen%20en%20fruit.pdf 3 meter tussen de rij, 2 meter in de rij, struikbomen Kippen gebruiken nu het hele perceel Bij planten 1.5-2 m groot; gaven direct appels 1.5 ha appelboomgaard: € 20.000,- investering Zorgboeren voor arbeid
  18. 18. Varkens
  19. 19. Varkens in het bos
  20. 20. Varkens op wintergraan
  21. 21. Identify your biome and keystone plant communities Establish edible woody polycultures Build fences & roads, utilities, pipelines Transition using Agroforestry practices Manage for eternity! Earthworks/ water management The Restoration Agriculture process: Mark Shepard’s Farming Method
  22. 22. New Forest Farm Viola, Wisconsin
  23. 23. Acorn Squash alleys between Hazelnut rows
  24. 24. Dog Cowies Silvopasture: managed integration of livestock and woody crops… Alley cropping may develop into Silvopasture
  25. 25. Food production level Mark Shepard, New Forest Farm, prod. /ha: 1150 kg Chestnuts 8000 kg Red currents 2250 kg Asparagus 5 Beef cattle 10 Pigs 25 Turkeys And: - 1 pair of Linnets (Kneutjes) - a nest of Weasels and - 3 plant species of the red list Source: Mark Shepard, Herstellende landbouw, 2013, page 275
  26. 26. Ecovrede ontwerp
  27. 27. Cider Boomgaard
  28. 28. Mark Shepards Methode • Niets in de natuur heeft 1 Functie • Observeer Natuurlijke Productie Systemen • Immiteer dat op je landbouwbedrijf om het Multifunctioneel, Biodivers en Hoog Productief te maken • Massaselectie: STUN: shear total utter neglect • Begin met kleine experimenten zoals varkentjes in 1 ha -> observeer en leer en schaal op • Combineer natuur met voedselproductie en educatie en beleving en……denk groot (>moestuinnivo)
  29. 29. tijd: onderzaai  Na laatste wiedgang  Witte klaver  Stoppel/stro laten staan/liggen
  30. 30. Huidige diverisiteit Genen: • Veel graan rassen • Heggen • FAB Tijd: • Rotatie van granen • Zekere bedrijfsopvolging Ruimte: • Kleine velden
  31. 31. Design: De volledige ruimte benutten Space Time
  32. 32. Verdere verhoging diversiteit Space Time
  33. 33. Wppresearch.org
  34. 34. S
  35. 35. 1995 2009 Photo Credit: John Liu
  36. 36. Genen: bomen en dieren DSV zaden http://cornellforestconnect.ning.com/
  37. 37. Oak, Chestnut Apples Hazelnut Prunus: Almonds, Cherries Plums, apricots, peaches Alpricots etc Raspberries, grapes, Currants, gooseberries Fungi, Forage, ANIMALS!
  38. 38. Samenland Farm of Taco Blom - Fruit and nut trees, permanent vegetables, annual trees - 4.2 ha food delivered to 280 people - Could grow to 500 people - Income 29.000 euro/ha - 4.2 ha could provide 3 jobs
  39. 39. Ketelbroek
  40. 40. FOOD FORESTS • After few years high production of edible fruits, nuts, leaves, shoots, tubers and flowers • Farming can gradually shift form annual t perennial crops • Production will increase in time
  41. 41. Ground Zero – Food Forest Ketelbroek 2009
  42. 42. Dairy agro-ecosystem in 1974 and 2015 - Biodiversity goes down (meadow birds, grassland species, soil life, insects etc. - Ecosystems full with empty niches! - To keep production going it needs: NPK-fertilizers, neonicotinoides, pesticides, gmo’s, fossile fuels, irrigation etc. -> results in non sustainable systems The challenge is: can we build sustainable production systems based on biodiversity, natural processes and selforganization in stead of external inputs? -> Permaculture helps!
  43. 43. New Forest Farm Wisconsin, North East USA For Temperate Climate: 1. Oak, Chestnut 2. Apples 3. Hazelnut 4. Prunus: Almonds, Cherries Plums, apricots, peaches Alpricots etc 5. Raspberries, grapes, Currants, gooseberries 6. Fungi, Forage, ANIMALS!
  44. 44. Water movement before Keyline Patterning & Terraces
  45. 45. Water movement After Keyline patterning Terraces & ponds
  46. 46. Silvopasture

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