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What is Irrigation ?
1. Irrigation is an artificial application of water
to the soil
2. It is usually used to assist in growing crops
in dry areas and during periods of inadequate
IT IS A SCIENCE DEALING WITH
PLANNING , DESIGNING, CONSTRUCTION,
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF
Additionally, irrigation also has a few
other uses in crop production, which
1. Protecting plants against frost,
2. Suppressing weed growing in grain fields
3. Helping in preventing soil consolation
How was irrigation used?
Engineers in Mesopotamia built humongous dams, to
create reservoirs and canals that would carry water
across land, so that people without easy access to water
could get water for their needs.
As part of the irrigation system, there were many canals
carrying water to different parts of Mesopotamia.
PERCENTAGE OF IRRIGATION
TYPES OF IRRIGATION:
• Surface irrigation
• Center pivot irrigation
• Lateral move irrigation
• Localized irrigation
1. Surface Irrigation
Surface irrigation can be subdivided into two types:
• Border Strips or Basin Flood:
– Strips of land with dikes on the sides
– Usually graded but with no cross slope
– Downstream end may be diked
– Small channels carry the water (entire surface is not wet)
– Commonly used on row crops
– Lateral as well as vertical infiltration
– Furrows are usually graded
• Methods of water supply
–Head ditch with siphon tubes or side-
–Gated pipe (aluminum or plastic pipe with
small gates that can be opened and closed)
–Buried pipeline with periodically spaced
valves at the surface
2. CENTER PIVOT IRRIGATION
• Is a form of sprinkler irrigation.
• Consisting of several segments of pipe (usually
galvanized steel or aluminum) joined together and
supported by trusses.
• Mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers.
• System moves in a circular pattern.
• These systems are common in parts of the United
States where terrain is flat.
3. LATERAL MOVE IRRIGATION:
• A series of pipes, each with a wheel is affixed to its
midpoint and sprinklers along its length.
• Water is supplied at one end using a large hose.
• After sufficient water has been applied, the hose is
• The hose is reconnected.
• The process is repeated until the opposite edge of
the field is reached.
• This system is less expensive to install.
• Much more labor intensive to operate.
• It is limited in the amount of water it can
• They are most often used for small or oddly-
shaped fields, such as those found in hilly or
mountainous regions, or in regions where
labor is inexpensive.
4. LOCALIZED IRRIGATION:
• Water is distributed under low pressure through a
• Applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent
IT MAY BE DIFFERENT KINDS:
TOPICS TO BE FOCUSED:
Drainage means the removal of water from the soil it
have two main goals prevention of seepage, improvement
of soil properties.
Drainage system means the different methods to be
used for dewatering the foundation and to keep the
DEFINITIONS TO BE REMEMBER:
The drainage system depend on drainage characteristic of
soil, the length of time of system must operate, and position
of ground water.
For temporary drains installed during construction,
minimum interference with work and maximum
effectiveness in a short time are essential.
For permanent drains long term effectiveness and
minimum maintenance is required.
Two main goals of drainage are,
prevention of seepage
improvement of soil properties
Primary Drain Secondary Drain Trunk Drain
Natural WaterwaySecondary Water WayStream
•Faster & Easier to Install
•Cheaper Per Foot
•Longer Useful Life
Still Flows 24/7 to Depth
of Tile Drain!
The Golden Rule
“Drain only the amount of water needed to ensure
equipment access and healthy crop production, and not a
-Dr. Wayne Skaggs
Water Table Profile
• Soil type
• Drainage intensity
• Planting date
FOR YOUR ATTENTION
Prepared by Akkaya