Oml1a

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Oml1a

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution
  2. 2. French Economic Disadvantages <ul><li>Years of war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported the American Revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy debts. </li></ul><ul><li>High unemployment  soldiers returning from the battlefronts. </li></ul><ul><li>French businessmen were afraid to take risks. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
  4. 4. Industrial England: &quot;Workshop of the World&quot; That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte
  5. 5. The Enclosure Movement
  6. 6. “ Enclosed” Lands Today
  7. 7. Metals, Woolens, & Canals
  8. 8. Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
  9. 9. Mine & Forge [1840-1880] <ul><li>More powerful than water is coal. </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful than wood is iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations make steel feasible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Coalfields & Industrial Areas
  11. 11. Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-1914 1, 200, 000 miners 250 million tons 1914 500, 000 miners 300 million tons 1880 200, 000 miners 30 tons 1850 50, 000 miners 1 ton of coal 1800
  12. 12. Young Coal Miners
  13. 13. Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
  14. 14. British Pig Iron Production
  15. 15. Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
  16. 16. Textile Factory Workers in England >1 million workers 224, 000 looms 1850 200, 000 workers 85, 000 looms 1833 150, 000 workers 2400 looms 1813
  17. 17. The Factory System <ul><li>Rigid schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>12-14 hour day. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind-numbing monotony. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Textile Factory Workers in England
  19. 19. British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812
  20. 20. Young “Bobbin-Doffers”
  21. 21. Jacquard’s Loom
  22. 22. New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
  23. 23. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”
  24. 24. The Power Loom
  25. 25. James Watt’s Steam Engine
  26. 26. Steam Tractor
  27. 27. Steam Ship
  28. 28. An Early Steam Locomotive
  29. 29. Later Locomotives
  30. 30. The Impact of the Railroad
  31. 31. “ The Great Land Serpent”
  32. 32. Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851 Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.
  33. 33. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits
  34. 34. Crystal Palace: British Ingenuity on Display
  35. 35. Crystal Palace: American Pavilion
  36. 36. The &quot;Haves&quot;: Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution
  37. 37. 19 c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche
  38. 38. Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie
  39. 39. Stereotype of the Factory Owner
  40. 40. “ Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life
  41. 41. The &quot;Have-Nots&quot;: The Poor, The Over-Worked, & the Destitute
  42. 42. Industrial Staffordshire
  43. 43. Problems of Polution The Silent Highwayman - 1858
  44. 44. The New Industrial City
  45. 45. Early-19c London by Gustave Dore
  46. 46. Worker Housing in Manchester
  47. 47. Factory Workers at Home
  48. 48. Workers Housing in Newcastle Today
  49. 49. The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare!
  50. 50. Private Charities: Soup Kitchens
  51. 51. Private Charities: The “Lady Bountifuls”
  52. 52. Protests / Reformers
  53. 53. The Luddites: 1811-1816 Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].
  54. 54. The Luddite Triangle
  55. 55. The Luddites
  56. 56. The Neo-Luddites Today
  57. 57. British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves! Peterloo Massacre, 1819
  58. 58. The Results of Industrialization at the end of the 19c
  59. 59. By 1850 : Zones of Industrialization on the European Continent <ul><li>Northeast France. </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium. </li></ul><ul><li>The Netherlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Western German states. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>East Germany  Saxony </li></ul>
  60. 60. Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750-1900

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