The Biological Perspective The Biological Perspective Nervous System Controlling Sensing & Behavior Neurons & The Biological Perspective
Links to Learning Objectives <ul><li>NS, NEURONS & NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>LO 2.1 Nervous system, neurons, nerves </li></ul><ul><li>LO 2.2 Neural communication </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRAL & PERIPHERAL NS </li></ul><ul><li>LO 2.3 Brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>LO 2.4 Somatic and autonomic systems </li></ul>STRUCTURES OF THE BRAIN LO 2.5 Studying the brain LO 2.6 Bottom part of the brain LO 2.7 Control of emotion, learning, memory, & motivation LO 2.8 Control of senses and movement LO 2.9 Higher forms of thought LO 2.10 Left and right sides of the brain THE CHEMICAL CONNECTION LO 2.11 Hormones & the nervous system
Carries information to and from all parts of the body ervous system
Branches of Nervous System PERIPHERAL Autonomic Somatic Para Sympathetic Brain Spinal Chord 2.1 What are the nervous system, neurons and nerves? CENTRAL
Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Chord CENTRAL
Peripheral Nervous System PERIPHERAL Autonomic Somatic Para Sympathetic
Neuroscience <ul><li>Neuroscience – study of neural structures, behavior and learning </li></ul>
Structure of the Neuron Dendrites Axon Soma Myelin
Repairing Nerve Fibers “ … axons of neurons found in the body are also coated with a thin membrane called the neurilemma , or Schwann’s membrane. This membrane, which surrounds the axon and the myelin sheath, serves as a tunnel through which damaged nerve fibers can repair themselves.” -Page 50 (Ciccarelli & White)
Generating the Message: Neural Impulse <ul><li>All or none – like the firing of a gun, the neuron either fires completely or it does not fire at all </li></ul>
The Synapse 2.2 How do neurons use neurotransmitter to communicate? The neurotransmitter is like a key and the receptor sites are like locks.
Neuron Communication <ul><li>Excitatory neurotransmitter - causes receiving cell to fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agonists mimic/enhance neurotransmitter effect on receptor sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inhibitory neurotransmitter - causes receiving cell to stop firing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>antagonists block/reduce cell’s response to other neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul>
Central & Peripheral Nervous Systems Nervous Svstems Central & Perioheral Central & Peripheral Nervous Systems
Central Nervous System <ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spinal cord - bundle of neurons carries messages between body and brain </li></ul></ul>2.3 How do the brain and spinal cord interact?
Reflex Arc: Three Types of Neurons Afferent (sensory) neurons Efferent (motor) neurons Interneurons
Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Peripheral nervous system (PNS) - all nerves and neurons not contained in the CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows brain to communicate with senses </li></ul></ul>2.4 How do the autonomic and somatic nervous systems interact and control?
Autonomic NS: Parasympathetic “ Rest and digest” Some psychologists believe that extraverts are seeking to increase naturally low autonomic arousal.
Autonomic NS: Sympathetic “ Fight or Flight” Some psychologists believe that introverts shy away from things in an attempt to lower naturally high autonomic arousal.
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Neural Squeeze Chain What is your reaction time like? How many inches per second does a neural impulse travel? Let’s find out. We will need a stopwatch, a calculator and a little touching…
<ul><li>If the neural impulse fires with same “strength” every time it fires, how can you tell the difference among different stimulus intensities? </li></ul>
<ul><li>In small groups, discuss how the sympathetic NS functions help out in a “fight or flight” situation. What are the implications when the sympathetic NS remains active for extended time periods? </li></ul>