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JAMES A. CRAIG
 
Formation 
 
Migration 
 
Accumulation
ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM 
 
To be considered are these 3 stages: 
 
Formation of Petroleum 
 
Migration of Petroleum 
 
Acc...
Formation of Petroleum 
 
There are 2 theories concerning the formation of petroleum: 
 
The Inorganic theory 
 
The Or...
Inorganic Theory 
 
Berthelot (1860) & Dmitri Mendeleev (1902): 
 
Iron carbide in the earth’s mantle would react with p...
 
Sokoloff (1890): 
 
Hydrocarbons precipitated as rain from the original nebular matter from which solar system was for...
 
Problems with Inorganic Theories : 
 
No field evidence that inorganic processes have occurred in nature. 
 
Commerci...
Organic Theory 
 
Early marine life forms living on earth were primarily plankton (rich in hydrogen & carbon) 
 
Over 95...
 
As these plankton died, their remains were captured by the process of erosion and sedimentation.
 
Successive layers of organic-rich mud & silt covered preceding layers of organic-rich sediments & overtime created laye...
 
Thermal maturation processes (decay, heat, pressure) slowly converted the organic matter into oil & gas over periods of...
 
Clay & silt are carried together with the dead organic remains & deposited under deltaic, lacustrine & marine condition...
Shales
 
Shale rock = 99% clay mineral + 1% organic material. 
 
Kerogen 
 
Insoluble 
 
High molecular weight 
 
Polymeric ...
 
Thermal alteration of kerogen forms crude oil by increasing the carbon contents. 
 
At shallow depths (< 3,000 ft), ba...
Hydrocarbon maturation
 
Supports for organic hypothesis: 
 
Carbon & hydrogen are the primary constituents of organic material, both plant & a...
Migration of Petroleum 
 
Produced hydrocarbons migrates upward from the deeper, hotter parts of the basin through permea...
Secondary Migration –The generated fluids move more freely along bedding planes and faults into a suitable reservoir stru...
Accumulation of Petroleum 
 
Accumulation & storage occur when the migrating fluids encounter an impermeable shale or den...
 
If the migrating fluids do not encounter a trap, they tend to flow to the surface or deposited on the ocean floor. 
 
...
 
Reservoirs are composed of either: 
Clastic formation –sandstone reservoirs made from silicates (quartz, SiO2). 
Carb...
Types of Traps 
Anticlinal Traps 
Result of ductile crustal deformations. 
HCWC
Fault Traps Result of brittle crustal deformations. 
HCWC
Stratigraphic Traps Impermeable strata seal the reservoir. 
HCWC
Salt Dome Traps 
Combination Traps 
Fault bound anticlinal structures, i.e. combination of anticlinal & fault traps. Many ...
Petroleum Geology - Origin of Petroleum
Petroleum Geology - Origin of Petroleum
Petroleum Geology - Origin of Petroleum
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Petroleum Geology - Origin of Petroleum

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Petroleum Geology, Petroleum Engineering, Origin of Petroleum (Formation, Migration, & Accumulation of Petroleum)

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Petroleum Geology - Origin of Petroleum

  1. 1. JAMES A. CRAIG
  2. 2.  Formation  Migration  Accumulation
  3. 3. ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM  To be considered are these 3 stages:  Formation of Petroleum  Migration of Petroleum  Accumulation of Petroleum
  4. 4. Formation of Petroleum  There are 2 theories concerning the formation of petroleum:  The Inorganic theory  The Organic theory
  5. 5. Inorganic Theory  Berthelot (1860) & Dmitri Mendeleev (1902):  Iron carbide in the earth’s mantle would react with percolating water to form methane.  FeC2+ 2H2O →CH4+ FeO2  This theory is called Deep-Seated Terrestrial Hypothesis.
  6. 6.  Sokoloff (1890):  Hydrocarbons precipitated as rain from the original nebular matter from which solar system was formed.  The hydrocarbons were the ejected from earth’s interior onto surface rocks.  This theory is called Extraterrestrial Hypothesis
  7. 7.  Problems with Inorganic Theories :  No field evidence that inorganic processes have occurred in nature.  Commercial accumulations are restricted to mainly sedimentary basins.  Accumulations are absent from igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  8. 8. Organic Theory  Early marine life forms living on earth were primarily plankton (rich in hydrogen & carbon)  Over 95% of living matter in the ocean is plankton.
  9. 9.  As these plankton died, their remains were captured by the process of erosion and sedimentation.
  10. 10.  Successive layers of organic-rich mud & silt covered preceding layers of organic-rich sediments & overtime created layers on the sea floor rich in the fossil remains of previous life.
  11. 11.  Thermal maturation processes (decay, heat, pressure) slowly converted the organic matter into oil & gas over periods of millions of geologic years.  Conversion of the organic material is called Catagenesis.  It usually occurs under anaerobic conditions.
  12. 12.  Clay & silt are carried together with the dead organic remains & deposited under deltaic, lacustrine & marine conditions to form Source rocks.  Black-coloured, organically-rich shales deposited in a non-oxidizing, quiet marine environment are considered the best source rocks.
  13. 13. Shales
  14. 14.  Shale rock = 99% clay mineral + 1% organic material.  Kerogen  Insoluble  High molecular weight  Polymeric compound
  15. 15.  Thermal alteration of kerogen forms crude oil by increasing the carbon contents.  At shallow depths (< 3,000 ft), bacteria actions on organic materials form Biogenic Gas(natural gas).  At great depths (high temperature & overburden), Thermogenic Gasis formed.  Later stages of thermogenesis will form wet gas and condensate.
  16. 16. Hydrocarbon maturation
  17. 17.  Supports for organic hypothesis:  Carbon & hydrogen are the primary constituents of organic material, both plant & animal.  Nitrogen & Porphyrinsare found in organic matter & in many petroleum.  Porphyrins are chlorophyll derivatives in plants & blood derivatives in animals.
  18. 18. Migration of Petroleum  Produced hydrocarbons migrates upward from the deeper, hotter parts of the basin through permeable strata into suitable structures.  There are 2 stages of migration: Primary Migration –Kerogen transformation causes micro-fracturing of the impermeable & low porosity source rock, allowing hydrocarbons to move into more permeable strata.
  19. 19. Secondary Migration –The generated fluids move more freely along bedding planes and faults into a suitable reservoir structure.  Migration can occur over several tens of kilometers in lateral directions.
  20. 20. Accumulation of Petroleum  Accumulation & storage occur when the migrating fluids encounter an impermeable shale or dense layer of rock.  This is called a Trap.  After accumulation, the fluids tend to stratify according to their relative densities:  Gas  Oil  Water
  21. 21.  If the migrating fluids do not encounter a trap, they tend to flow to the surface or deposited on the ocean floor.  Examples are:  Seepages  Escaping natural gas  Bituminous lakes
  22. 22.  Reservoirs are composed of either: Clastic formation –sandstone reservoirs made from silicates (quartz, SiO2). Carbonate formation –carbonate reservoirs made from detritus(coral or shell fragments).  Reservoirs must be:  Porous  Permeable  Trapped.
  23. 23. Types of Traps Anticlinal Traps Result of ductile crustal deformations. HCWC
  24. 24. Fault Traps Result of brittle crustal deformations. HCWC
  25. 25. Stratigraphic Traps Impermeable strata seal the reservoir. HCWC
  26. 26. Salt Dome Traps Combination Traps Fault bound anticlinal structures, i.e. combination of anticlinal & fault traps. Many global reservoirs have this type.

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