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# 02. History - Evolution of Computers

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Evolution of Computers.
Computer's History :)

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### 02. History - Evolution of Computers

1. 1. Evolution of Computer A.P.Mohana Priyaa +
2. 2. Used in Asia for a Long time (2000-3000 BCE) Also known as “SOROBAN” perform addition and subtraction Wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them. Rules memorized by the user Regular arithmetic problems can be done Abacus
3. 3. NAPIER’S DEVICE John Napier a Scottish Mathematician Set of eleven animal bones later it was replaced by rod Number marked on them, they placed side by side Products and quotients of large numbers could be obtained
4. 4. SLIDE RULE Invented in 17th century based on the emerging work on logarithms by John Napier Perform all arithmetic & trigonometric function Final value can be straight away read on scale
5. 5. PASCAL’S CALCULATING MACHINE (PASCALINE) Blaise Pascal a French mathematician developed mechanical calculating machine called Pascal’s calculating machine in 1642 CE First real desktop calculating device that could add and subtract. Construct of set of toothed wheels or gears. Each wheel having 0 through 9. Arithmetic operation performed by turning these wheels. Concept still seen in conventional electric meter and taxi meter
6. 6. LEIBNITZ’S IMPROVED PASCAL MACHINE Pascal machine perform only addition and subtraction operation Pascal machine was improved in 1673 CE Introduced wheel could perform multiplication, division and square root operation.
7. 7. PUNCHED CARD Punched cards were first used around 1725 by Basile Bouchon and Jean-Baptiste Falcon and greatly improved by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801. Control textile looms, invented punched cards. Cards with holes were used to make attractive design on fiber Presence and absence of punched hole represented two states for raisers or lowers of wrap thread
8. 8. CHARLES BABBAGE’S ENGINES. Charles Babbage (1792-1871) made a machine called Difference Engine. Evaluate accurate algebraic expression and mathematical tasks up to 20 decimal places, This machine is also called as Babbage's difference engine, Later adopted by insurances companies for computing life tables. Later modified the device as Analytical Engine.
9. 9. If had memory unit, operation arithmetic operators. Produced the output in punched card format. Parts and working principle of Analytical Engine similar to today computer. Charles Babbage is called “Father of Computer”
10. 10. HOLLERITH’S MACHINE Dr.Herman Hollerith of U.S.A, working in U.S.A as census offices Developed a card reading machine and used punched cards for tabulating and calculating data, Data was being compiled and analyzed.
11. 11. MARK-I DIGITAL COMPUTER All calculating machines are invented basically mechanical machine. First electro-mechanical computer developed by Howard aiken. Used Hollerith's punched cards and principle of computer stated by Charles Babbage Automatically perform a sequence of arithmetic operators. Huge mechanical calculator which occupied several norms. Inside several miles of electrical wires and electro mechanical relays and mechanical counter for arithmetic calculations
12. 12. FIRST ELECTRONICS COMPUTER (ABC) Atanasoff-Berry Computer Dr. John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry developed first electronic computer. It is called as ABC. Use vaccum tubes for storage , arithmetic and logical function. Special purpose used to solve simultaneous equation. It could perform 500 addition or 350 multiplication in one second.
13. 13. Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC) Electronic computer, Developed by Prof. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. Produced in 1940 for U.S.army It used 18000 V.T 70000 resistor 10000 capacitor and 60000 switches (27 tons) Occupy 5000 s7 suet of space. Perform 300 multiplication/second Fastest machine. ENIAC was considered a significant development because the speed was first experience with ENIAC.
14. 14. Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computers (EDVAC) First electronic stored program computer. Electronics computers developed in 1949. EDVAC different form ENIAC. 1.use of binary and electronic arithmetic operators. 2.Internal storage of instructions were written in digital forms.
15. 15. Electronics Delay Storage AutomatiC (EDSAC) Developed by group of scientist headed by prof.mauriee willies Using EDSAC , addition operation was accomplished in 1500 microseconds and multiplication operator in 4000 micro second
16. 16. Manchester Mark 1 Small experimental computer.  Performs operation based on stored program. Designed Manchester university by a group of scientist headed by Prof. M.H.A Newman. Storage capacity of only 32words, each of 31 binary digits. Limited to stored data and instruction.
17. 17. UNIVersal Automatic Computer I (UNIVAC I) Second commercial computer produced in the United States. Made by the inventors of the ENIAC. UNIVAC –I is first computer used for business in 1954 The machine was simply known as "the UNIVAC“
18. 18. MICROPROCESSOR Microprocessor chip INTEL 4004 was developed in 1969 by INTEL. perform only few instruction and very small amount of data. 1971 INTEL 8008 MP was developed. Foundation for development of personal computer(pc).
19. 19. 19 SoC  A System on a Chip or System on Chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip  Integrates almost all components into a single silicon chip. Along with a CPU, an SoC usually contains a GPU, memory, USB controller, power management circuits, and wireless radios.  Whereas a CPU cannot function without dozens of other chips, it’s possible to build complete computers with just a single SoC ◦ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_on_a_chip
20. 20. PERSONAL COMPUTERS (PC) First PC (with MP) developed in 1974. In 1977 first successful micro computer (PC) developed by a young technician named Steve Wozniak. This was called the computer Apple-1
21. 21. Created by the 1991 Apple–IBM– Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing (POWER PC)
22. 22. Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel. Pentium CPU based computers were most commonly used Computers few years ago Pentium
23. 23. Intel Core is a brand name that Intel uses for various mid-range to high-end consumer and business microprocessors. In general, processors sold as Core are more powerful variants of the same processors marketed as entry-level Celeron and Pentium Core
24. 24. All the best!