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# What Is Statistics

Basic details about statistics.

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### What Is Statistics

1. 1. What is statistics? Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions. There are two main branches of statistics 1. Descriptive Statistics – the organization and description of the characteristics of a collection of data. Example: Mean, Median, Mode 2. Inferential Statistics – the use of descriptive statistics to make educated guesses about something The basic fallacies of inferential statistics: They assume that the past is prologue to the future They assume you are going to test your inference an infinite amount of times. How Statistics Work? Statistics starts with a question, not with data/information Every time we use statistic to find the solution for a question. Statistics are what decision makers can use to reduce ambiguity by qualifying it. “Not enough to know Just enough for a better guess Statistics are born” All Statistics are based on data Data are what we hear, see, smell, taste, touch, etc. Data requires measuring Good measurement gives good data Good data give better answers than bad data But all data will give you an answer Statistics are designed to transform data into information Make decisions using that information. Statistics are about and used to measure/assess risk of the decision. Importance of Statistics Page 1
2. 2. Areas we use statistics Business and Industry Health and Medicine Learning Research Social Statistics Natural Resources Business and Industry Statistics to Start or start a Business Whether you are writing a business plan, feasibility study, advertising and marketing campaign, or even still deciding on what kind of business to start, start by looking at what is already happening in the field or industry you are interested in. Business trends and statistics can give you a quick, overall glance at the viability of an s industry, and how well people are already doing in that industry. Statistics are not magic formulas for success, but they can give you important clues about how others are succeeding - or failing. The statistics can be useful in helping you come up with new business ideas, in developing strategies and marketing campaigns. campaigns Importance of Statistics Page 2
3. 3. Statistics to manufacturing In this process we use statistic to understand the number of products we have to produce and what are the new strategies we have to apply in future. It also gives an overview of the market. Statistics to marketing In marketing we use statistic in many ways Banking The money you have in your business bank account can often provoke actions that are regretted at a later time. For example, if you have a healthy balance, you may decide to splash out on a purchase or investment that will in time, leave your account dangerously low: when money comes in, it is not unusual for all common sense to go out of the window…a bit extreme you may think! Statistics to Engineering Engineers apply physical and chemical laws and mathematics to design, develop, test, and supervise various products and services. Engineers perform tests to learn how things behave under stress, and at what point they might fail. As engineers perform experiments, they collect data that can be used to explain relationships better and to reveal information about the quality of products and services they provide. Statistical Computing Computing is the interface between statistics, computer science and numerical analysis. It is the area of computational science specific to the mathematical science of statistics. The terms computational statistics and statistical computing are often used interchangeably, although Carlo Lauro (a former president of the International Association for Statistical Computing) proposed making a distinction, defining statistical computing as "the application of computer science to statistics", and computational statistics as "aiming at the design of algorithm for implementing statistical methods on computers, including the ones unthinkable before the computer age Importance of Statistics Page 3
4. 4. Health and Medicine Medical statistics deals with applications of biostatistics to medicine and the health sciences, ical including epidemiology, public health forensic medicine, and clinical research. health, Find data on indicators of the nation's health, such as health inequalities, morbidity rates, smoking drinking and drug use, and abortion statistics. Statistics is an important tool in pharmacological research that is used to summarize (descriptive statistics) experimental data in terms of central tendency (mean or median) and variance (standard deviation, standard error of mean the mean, confidence interval or range) but more importantly it enables us to conduct hypothesis testing. This is of particular importance when attempting to determine whether the pharmacological effect of one drug is superior to another which clearly has pharmacological implications for drug development and getting that next paper published in a respectable journal! Therefore, it is essential for pharmacologists to have an understanding of the uses and abuses of ab statistics. Learning Statistic for teachers The techniques of statistics can prove to be valuable tools for teachers of all subjects. The ability to interpret statistics is advantageous to analyze lab results, book and journal articles, and as an aid in approaching problem-solving scientifically. Statistics will allow you to critically evaluate your students, solving your teaching, and the results of educational research. Statistics are unique in two ways: 1. They best analyze groups or populations. "Thestatisticians' concern is with properties which are descriptive of the group, or aggregation itself rather than with properties of particular members"(Ferguson, 6). 2. They allow one to compare unrelated material. For example, statistics are useful in comparing the productivity of athletes. The performance of a hockey goalie can be compared to that of a soccer goalie by using information such as shots taken vs. shots saved. These statistics can be related even though hockey and soccer are very different sports. Statistics for other fields Most of the fields in the world related to learning we use statistic. Especially in education field we use statistics to identify problems and manage how it should be change. Subjects like science we usually use statistics to do practical and make decisions. Importance of Statistics Page 4
5. 5. Research The word researches are depending in statistics, when we found any data from research we analyze and make decisions using statics. These are the examples for government researches. Research and Development: DOE Could Enhance the Project Selection Process for Government Oil and Natural Gas Research. GAO-09-186 December 29, 2008 Although competitive oil and natural gas markets generally provide incentives for companies to invest... Ontario government supporting alternative energy research. The government of Ontario has invested approximately \$5 million to support research in the cleantech sector. Bureau of Government Research wants 'realistic' development strategy In a report released today to City Business, the Bureau of Government Research called for New Orleans to implement... Dialog Offers Government Research Reports Dialog announced that it will be offering a collection of more than 400,000 government-sponsored research reports distributed by... Bureau of Government Research rips New Orleans City Council for handing out no-bid contract At a time when resources are scarce, the Bureau of Government Research today issued its latest report taking... A broader vision for government research In recent years, the question of "balance" has been a hot topic in science policy circles. All these researches are useful to get decisions for future of the country Statistical surveys Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. Surveys of human populations and institutions are common in political polling and government, health, social science and marketing research. A survey may focus on opinions or factual information depending on its purpose, and many surveys involve administering questions to individuals. When the questions are administered by a researcher, the survey is called a structured interview or a researcher administered survey. When the questions are administered by the respondent, the survey is referred to as a questionnaire or a self- administered survey. Importance of Statistics Page 5
6. 6. Social Statistics Social statistics is the use of statistical measurement systems to study human behavior in a social environment. This can be accomplished through polling a particular group of people, evaluating a particular subset of data obtained about a group of people, or by observation and statistical analysis of a set of data that relates to people and their behaviors. Often, social scientists are employed in the evaluation of the quality of services of a particular group or organization, in analyzing behaviors of groups of people in their environment and special situations, or even in determining the wants or needs of people through statistical sampling. We use statistic in so many things in social environment. To fond Social indicators we use statistics. From these Social indicators, we can understand about the society. These are the main ponts we can get from Social indicators Child-bearing, Child and elderly populations , Population health, nutrition and educational level in country. to identify the strength of working people. to planning the future Housing , Human settlements identify problems in housing planning. to settle the problems in slums. Education, Literacy study about the currant education system in country. develop the subject planning future employment planning. Health to provide health facilities. Income and economic activity , Unemployment to understand about savings and investment. introduce future investing systems Importance of Statistics Page 6
7. 7. Natural Resources Statistics are used in the scientific study of agriculture as a tool to determine if the differences in variables are real or due to chance. This translates to the farmer to let him know with confidence which varieties are better than other varieties or which fertilizer treatments will give better yields than others. In many countries in agriculture they use so many statistical researches to do their agriculture successfully. These are some of projects that some countries are managed. The Pennsylvania Office of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS-PA) is a joint federal/state office of USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA). The office is funded and staffed by both federal and state resources. This cooperative arrangement is much more efficient than operating separate and duplicate federal and state agencies to measure Pennsylvania agriculture. The mission is to provide timely, accurate and useful statistics in service to Pennsylvania and U.S. agriculture. USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) is a network of 46 field offices (including the Harrisburg office), serving all 50 states and Puerto Rico through cooperative agreements with state departments of agriculture or universities. These field offices regularly survey thousands of farm operators, ranchers, and agribusinesses who voluntarily provide information on a confidential basis. Consolidating these reports with field observations, objective yield measurements, and other data, statisticians then produce state statistics. These statistics are forwarded to NASS headquarters in Washington, D.C., where they are combined and released to the public. Agricultural Water Use Survey (AWUS) Description The Agricultural Water Use Survey is conducted to gather information on water use, irrigation methods and practices, and sources and quality of water used for agricultural purposes on Canadian farms. This survey is part of the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) initiative and is also the result of a collaboration between Statistics Canada, Health Canada, and Environment Canada. The data collected will be used in CESI's reporting activities. The information will also be used by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to inform water use policy and development of programs for Canadian irrigators. Statistics Canada will also use the survey results to improve the modelling of irrigation volumes by type of crops and as part of the water accounts. Statistical activity The goal of the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activities. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the co-operation and input of the provinces and territories. Importance of Statistics Page 7
8. 8. The place statistics hold in Sri Lanka As all other countries, Sri Lanka uses statistics for all kind of decision making process. As a developing world country we hold more risk than developed countries. In Sri Lanka there are few governmental departments. Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka Department of Statistics and Computer Science Department of Statistics and Computer Science have been dedicated to the highest standards of education, research and community outreach since its establishment in 1996. Other than these departments most of the Universities in Sri Lanka have statistics Departments. Department of Statistics - University of Colombo. Department of Mathematics and Statistics - University of Jaffna. University of Kelaniya - Department of Statistics & Computing. Department of Economics & Statistics, University of Peradeniya. Importance of Statistics Page 8
9. 9. References Web sites http://www.pcworld.com www.pcmall.com http://www.scs.pdn.ac.lk http://www.cmb.ac.lk http://www.statistics.gov.lk http://www.statistics.com http://en.wikipedia.org http://onlinestatbook.com http://www.blurtit.com Other Downloaded presentations from internet. Downloaded pdf references from internet. Grade 9,10,11 S social Studies books. Importance of Statistics Page 9