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GSM and Similar Architectures              Lesson 11              Handover       © Oxford University Press 2007. All right...
Handover (handoff) from one to another          neighbouring cell • Process of transferring a call (or data   transfer) in...
Main reasons for handover in cellular             networks• If the mobile device moves out of the  range of one cell (base...
Handover process• Important one in any cellular network• Must be completed efficiently and without  inconvenience to the u...
Two main types of handover• Hard handover─ GSM systems• Soft handover ─ CDMA systems           © Oxford University Press 2...
Hard Handover• Existing radio link must be dropped for a  small period of time• Then taken over by another base station• A...
Call drop in hard handover• Break in call transmission• Handover takes place in a few ms (at best  in 60 ms)• Interruption...
Inter-cell intra-BSC handovers when a mobile    station moves from one cell to another              © Oxford University Pr...
Inter-BSC intra-MSC handovers when amobile station moves from one cell to another              © Oxford University Press 2...
Signal strength• Measurement continuously performed at  the RRM (radio resource management)  sub layers in the Mobile stat...
Inter cell Handover• When the signal strength goes weak due  to several reasons (for example, the  mobile moving away from...
Inter-MSC Handover• Handover also takes place for load  balancing when the traffic from the cells  and BSCs high• An ongoi...
Inter-BSC Handover• Handover for load balancing when the  traffic from the cells and BTSs high• The BSCs connect to an MSC...
Inter-BSC, Inter-MSC Handover• For load balancing when the traffic from  the cells and BTSs as well as BSCs high          ...
Intra-cell Handover• Due to interference at certain frequencies,  the signal quality poor• The BSC can handover the call t...
Inter-cell, Intra-BSC Handover• When an MS moves to a neighbouring cell  and suffers poor signal quality, the BSC  can han...
Inter-cell, intra-MSC handover1. The RRM sub layer transmits a signal   report from MSi to BTSi and from BTSi to   BSCi. I...
Inter-cell, intra-MSC handover3. BTSk sends acknowledgement of the   channel to BSCj and BSCj acknowledges   the handover ...
Inter-cell, intra-MSC handover•   The RRM directs the MS radio interface    to operate at another channel linked to    BTS...
Handoff–handover processes• New handover methods have also evolved  and are used in addition to the older  techniques• 3G ...
Soft handover• Mobile station at the boundary of two  adjacent cells─ does not suffer call drops  due to handover in the b...
Soft handover• Soft handover does not require breaking of  the radio link for cell-to-cell transfer of a  call. A mobile d...
New generation (3G) networks• Ensure mobility by handover not only  among the BTSs, BSCs, or MSCs but also  among the in-b...
Summary•   Handover when the mobile device    moves out of the range of one cell    (base station) and a different base   ...
End of Lesson 11   Handover© Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved.                                           ...
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Mobile compchap03l11gsm handover

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Mobile compchap03l11gsm handover

  1. 1. GSM and Similar Architectures Lesson 11 Handover © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 1
  2. 2. Handover (handoff) from one to another neighbouring cell • Process of transferring a call (or data transfer) in progress from one channel to another • The core network performs handovers at various levels of the system architecture or • May handover the call to another network altogether © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. Main reasons for handover in cellular networks• If the mobile device moves out of the range of one cell (base station) and a different base station can provide it with a stronger signal• If all channels of one base station are busy then a nearby base station can provide service to the device © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. Handover process• Important one in any cellular network• Must be completed efficiently and without inconvenience to the user• Different networks use different types of handover techniques © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. Two main types of handover• Hard handover─ GSM systems• Soft handover ─ CDMA systems © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. Hard Handover• Existing radio link must be dropped for a small period of time• Then taken over by another base station• A call in progress redirected not only from a base station to another base station but also from its current transmit–receive frequency pair to another frequency pair• An ongoing call can not exchange data or voice for this duration © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. Call drop in hard handover• Break in call transmission• Handover takes place in a few ms (at best in 60 ms)• Interruption is hardly discernible by the user• Handover to another cell is required when the signal strength is low and error rate is high. GSM systems perform hard handovers © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 7
  8. 8. Inter-cell intra-BSC handovers when a mobile station moves from one cell to another © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. Inter-BSC intra-MSC handovers when amobile station moves from one cell to another © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. Signal strength• Measurement continuously performed at the RRM (radio resource management) sub layers in the Mobile station, BTS, and BSC• The RRM responsible for handover management © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Inter cell Handover• When the signal strength goes weak due to several reasons (for example, the mobile moving away from the cell in which it is presently localized to the boundary region of another cell), there is handover from a cell to another © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Inter-MSC Handover• Handover also takes place for load balancing when the traffic from the cells and BSCs high• An ongoing call, which is being handled by a cell, may be handed over to another MSC• Since the two MSCs are interfaced through PCM the handover performed over a wired line © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. Inter-BSC Handover• Handover for load balancing when the traffic from the cells and BTSs high• The BSCs connect to an MSC• A call, which is ongoing in a cell through a BTS, may be handed over to another BSC connected to the same MSC• Since the BSCs connect to the MSC interfaces by PCM, the handover is over a wired line © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. Inter-BSC, Inter-MSC Handover• For load balancing when the traffic from the cells and BTSs as well as BSCs high © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. Intra-cell Handover• Due to interference at certain frequencies, the signal quality poor• The BSC can handover the call to another frequency of the cell in such cases © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. Inter-cell, Intra-BSC Handover• When an MS moves to a neighbouring cell and suffers poor signal quality, the BSC can handover the call to a different BTS channel of the same BSC © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Inter-cell, intra-MSC handover1. The RRM sub layer transmits a signal report from MSi to BTSi and from BTSi to BSCi. In case a handover is necessary, BSCi signals the handover requirement to MSCi.2. MSCi signals the handover requirement to another BSCj and BSCj allocates radio resources and transmits the activated channel to another BTSk. © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. Inter-cell, intra-MSC handover3. BTSk sends acknowledgement of the channel to BSCj and BSCj acknowledges the handover request grant via message to MSCi4. MSCi transmits handover command to BSCi, BSCi to BTSi, and BTSi to the MSi’s RRM layer © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 18
  19. 19. Inter-cell, intra-MSC handover• The RRM directs the MS radio interface to operate at another channel linked to BTSk © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 19
  20. 20. Handoff–handover processes• New handover methods have also evolved and are used in addition to the older techniques• 3G standards and technology makes it possible for several mobile phones to use the same channel and for neighbouring cells to use the same frequency bands © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 20
  21. 21. Soft handover• Mobile station at the boundary of two adjacent cells─ does not suffer call drops due to handover in the boundary region• Gives seamless connectivity to a Mobile station• An offset to pseudo noise code─ method of soft handover © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 21
  22. 22. Soft handover• Soft handover does not require breaking of the radio link for cell-to-cell transfer of a call. A mobile device can be simultaneously connected to several base stations © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 22
  23. 23. New generation (3G) networks• Ensure mobility by handover not only among the BTSs, BSCs, or MSCs but also among the in-between LANs• Ensures seamless (uninterrupted) connectivity to the user © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 23
  24. 24. Summary• Handover when the mobile device moves out of the range of one cell (base station) and a different base station can provide it with a stronger signal or when present cell traffic high• Hard handover in GSM• Call drop for hard handover• Soft handover in CDMA © Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 24
  25. 25. End of Lesson 11 Handover© Oxford University Press 2007. All rights reserved. 25

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