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Nursing education In India


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Nursing education in india

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Nursing education In India

  2. 2. In 1871, the first school of nursing was started in Government General Hospital, Madras with a six month diploma midwives program with four students. Four female superintendents and four trained nurses from England were posted to Madras. Between 1890 and 1900, many schools, under either missions or government, were started in various parts of India. In the 20th century, national nursing associations were started.
  3. 3. In 1918, training schools were started for health visitors and dais, at Delhi and Karachi. Two English nurses Griffin and Graham were appointed to give training to and to supervise the nurses. In 1926, Madras State formed the first registration council to provide basic standards in education and training. The first four year bachelor's degree program was established in 1946 at the college of nursing in Delhi and Vellore.
  4. 4.  Nursing Council Act came to existence in 1948 to constitute a council of nurses who would safe guard the quality of nursing education in the country.  The mandate was to establish and maintain uniform standards of nursing education.  Today, Indian nursing council is a statutory body that regulates nursing education in the country through prescription, inspection, examination, certification and maintaining its stands for a uniform syllabus at each level of nursing education.
  5. 5.  There are seven levels of nursing education in India today,  Auxiliary Nursing and Midwifery (ANM) or Multi Purpose Health Worker- Female (MPHW-F)  General Nursing and Midwifery (GNM)  Basic Bachelor of Nursing (B.Sc. Nursing)  Post Basic Bachelor of Nursing (P.B.B.Sc. Nursing)  Masters in Nursing (M.Sc. Nursing)  Masters of Philosophy in Nursing (M.Phil)  Doctorate in Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D)
  6. 6.  The ANM training was for 2 years and mainly covered maternal and child care and family welfare.  the Indian Nursing Council revised the ANM’s syllabus in 1977 and reduced the duration to 18 months.  The focus of training is on community health nursing.  The employment opportunities are that can work as multipurpose health workers. The minimum qualification for teaching is B.Sc. (N)
  7. 7.  To provide clinical experience in fundamentals of nursing, medical surgical nursing and maternal and child health nursing, institutions should have with general hospital with a minimum of 160 beds covering all the general conditions. OBJECTIVES 1. Perform basic health care activities in community and institutional setting, 2. Plan and carry out nutrition and health education activities in the home, clinic and community. 3. Provide immunization services, family health care and family planning services. 4. Participate in prevention and control of communicable disease, promote environmental sanitation.
  8. 8.  In 1918, Diploma Nursing Programme has been started in Lady School of Nursing.  The International Council of Nurses believes that a basic in nursing should prepare nurses for first level positions in nursing both in the hospital and community. It gives importance for restoring and maintaining health, and in preventing disease and also helps to develop a deep pride in the nursing profession among students to enable further professional growth.
  9. 9.  The general nursing and midwifery course is conducted in 477 centers in the country. The syllabus has undergone many revisions according to the change in the health plans and policies of the Government and changing trends and advancements in general education, nursing health sciences and medical technology. The latest revision of syllabus by INC in 2004 has increased the duration of the course from three year to three and half year.
  10. 10.  The basic entrance has become intermediate or class 12 instead of earlier class 10. Both science and arts students are eligible. The focus of general nursing education is the care of sick in the hospital. Schools of nursing are generally attached to teaching hospitals. Three Board examinations are conducted, one at the end of each year. On passing the candidates are registered as registered nurse and mid – wife by the respective state nursing councils.
  11. 11.  Age for the entrance shall be 17 years to 35 years, provided they meet the minimum educational requirement i.e. 12 years of schooling.  Minimum education all students should pass 12 classes or its equivalent, preferably with science subjects.  Admission of students shall be once a year.  Students should be medically fit.  The selection committee should comprise tutors, nurse administrators, and educationalist/psychologist. The principal of the school shall be the chairperson
  12. 12.  Graduate nursing education started in India in the year 1946 in CMC , Vellore and in the RAK college of nursing at Delhi university.  At present 1373 colleges have been recognized by INC to conduct the course under several universities in India.
  13. 13.  A candidate seeking admission should have:  pass the 2 year of pre university exam or equivalent as recognized by concerned university with science subjects ie Physics, biology and chemistry.  students of vocational courses  obtained at least 45%of total marks in science subjects in the qualifying exam, if belongs to a scheduled caste or tribe , should have obtained not less than 40 % of total marks in science subjects.  completed 17 years of age at the time of admission or will complete this age on or before 31st December of the year of admission  is medically fit
  14. 14.  to provide a balance of professional and general education  to enable a student to become a professional nurse practitioner who has self direction and is a responsible citizen.  Through planned guided experiences students are provided with opportunities to develop  a broad concept of the fundamental principles of nursing care based on sound knowledge and satisfactory levels of skill in providing care to people of all ages in community or institutional setting
  15. 15.  understanding of the application of principles from the physical biological and social sciences for assessing the health status  ability to investigate health care problems systematically  ability to work collaboratively with members of allied disciplines towards attaining optimum health for all members of the society  understanding of fundamental principles of administration and organization of nursing service  understanding of human behaviour and appreciation of effective interpersonal relationship with individuals families and groups
  16. 16.  INC has recognized two modes of programmes at this level.  A. Regular B.Sc (Post Basic) course for those who have 10+2 + GNM (General Nursing & Midwifery) which has a duration of 2 years  B. Distance B.Sc (Post Basic) course for those who have 10+2 GNM + 2year Exp which has a duration of 3 years.
  17. 17.  Eligibility for admission  The candidate seeking admission must:  hold a certificate in General nursing.  be a registered nurse  have minimum of two years of experience. Now it is relaxed that no experience after GNM is required for admission to this course.  have passed pre university exam in the arts /science/commerce or its equivalent which is recognized the university  be medically fit  have a good personal and professional record  have working knowledge of English
  18. 18.  OBJECTIVES—the goal of the post certificate programme leading to the bachelor of nursing is the preparation of the trained nurses as a generaralist who accept responsibility for enhancing the effectiveness of nursing care.  Administer high quality nursing care to all people of all ages in homes , hospitals and other community agencies in urban and rural areas
  19. 19.  Apply knowledge from the physical, social and behavioral sciences in assessing the health status of individuals and make critical judgment in assessing the health status of the individuals and make critical judgment in planning ,directing and evaluating primary, acute and long term care given by themselves and others working with them  Investigate health care problems systematically  Work collaboratively with members of other health disciplines  Teach and counsel individuals , families and other groups about health and illness  Understand human behavior and establish effective interpersonal relationships
  20. 20.  First two years course in masters of nursing was started at RAK College of Nursing in 1959.and in 1969 in CMC Vellore.  At present there are 401 colleges imparting MSc Nursing degree course in different specialties
  21. 21.  increased cognitive ,affective and psychomotor competencies and the ability to utilise the potentials for effective nursing performance  expertise in the utilization of concepts and theories for the assessment ,planning and intervention in meeting the self care needs of an individual for the attainment of fullest potentials in the field of specialty.  ability to practice independently as a nurse specialist  ability to function effectively as nurse educators and administrators
  22. 22.  ability to interpret the health related research  ability to plan and initiate change in the health care system  leadership qualities for the advancement of practice of professional nursing  interest in life long learning for personal and professional learning advancement
  23. 23.  have passed BSc. Nursing/post certificate BSc, or nursing degree of any university  have a minimum of one year of experience after obtaining BSc, in hospitals or nursing educational institutions or community health setting  for BSc, nursing post certificate, no such experience is needed after graduation the candidate shall be-a registered nurse or registered midwife for admission to medical surgical nursing, community health nursing, pediatric nursing obstetric and gynecological nursing.  .
  24. 24.  a registered nurse for admission to psychiatric nursing  the candidate shall be selected on merit judged on the basis of academic performances in BSc nursing, post certificate BSc, or nursing and selection tests
  25. 25.  Medical Surgical Nursing -Cardio Vascular & Thoracic Nursing  Medical Surgical Nursing–Critical Care Nursing  Medical Surgical Nursing –Oncology Nursing  Medical Surgical Nursing - Neurosciences Nursing  Medical Surgical Nursing - Nephro- Urology Nursing  Medical Surgical Nursing -Orthopedic Nursing  Medical Surgical Nursing - Gastro Enterology Nursing  Obstetric & Gynaecological Nursing  Paediatric (Child Health) Nursing  Psychiatric (Mental Health) Nursing  Community Health Nursing
  26. 26.  Four common papers are there included in the syllabus. They are:  advanced concepts of health and nursing  education and nursing education  bio-statistics, research methodology and nursing research  administration and nursing administration
  27. 27.  In 1980 RAK college of nursing started an MPhil programme as a regular and part time course. Since then several universities started taking students for the MPhil course in nursing.  Prominent among these are: MGR Medical University, Rajive Gandhi University of Health Sciences, SNDT University and Delhi University etc.
  28. 28.  Objectives  to strengthen the research foundations of nurses for encouraging research attitudes and problem solving capacities  to provide basic training required for research in undertaking doctoral work Duration  Duration of the full term M.Phil course will be one year and part time course will be two year.
  29. 29. DOCTORATE OF PHILOSOPHY IN NURSING (PhD in Nursing}  Erlier Indian nurses were sent abroad for Ph. D programme.  PhD programmes in nursing was first started in India in 1992  Universities where PhD programmes are conducted in India include  PhD Consortium by Indian Nursing Council, RUGHS and WHO  RAK College of Nursing  NIMHANS Banglore
  30. 30.  Eligibility criteria  The candidate should be post graduate in nursing with more than 55% of aggregates of marks  Should have research background  May or may not published articles in journals  The course duration is far regular PhD course is 3 years and for part time is 4 years
  31. 31.  REFERENCES  Neeraja KP. Text book of nursing education.2005.1st edn. Noida. Jaypee brothers medical publishers( p) Ltd.