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  1. 1. IP SPOOFING By Ch. Rakesh Sharma
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>TCP/IP – in brief </li></ul><ul><li>IP Spoofing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitnick Attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Session Hijack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DoS/DDoS Attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Defending Against the Threat </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. TCP/IP in 3 minute or less <ul><li>General use of term describes the Architecture upon which the Interweb is built. </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP are specific protocols within that architecture. </li></ul>
  4. 4. TCP/IP in 3 minutes or less Application Transport Interweb Network Access Physical TCP IP
  5. 5. TCP/IP in 3 minute or less <ul><li>IP is the internet layer protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not guarantee delivery or ordering, only does its best to move packets from a source address to a destination address. </li></ul><ul><li>IP addresses are used to express the source and destination. </li></ul><ul><li>IP assumes that each address is unique within the network. </li></ul>
  6. 6. TCP/IP in 3 minutes or less <ul><li>TCP is the transport layer protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>It guarantees delivery and ordering, but relies upon IP to move packets to proper destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Port numbers are used to express source and destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Destination Port is assumed to be awaiting packets of data. </li></ul>
  7. 7. IP Spoofing Sometimes on the internet, a girl named Alice is really a man named Yves
  8. 8. IP Spoofing – Overview <ul><li>Basically, IP spoofing is lying about an IP address. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, the source address is incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>Lying about the source address lets an attacker assume a new identity. </li></ul>
  9. 9. IP Spoofing – Overview <ul><li>Because the source address is not the same as the attacker’s address, any replies generated by the destination will not be sent to the attacker. </li></ul><ul><li>Attacker must have an alternate way to spy on traffic/predict responses. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain a connection, Attacker must adhere to protocol requirements </li></ul>
  10. 10. IP Spoofing – Overview <ul><li>Difficulties for attacker: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP sequence numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One way communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adherence to protocols for other layers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. IP Spoofing – The Reset Victim - Bob Sucker - Alice Attacker - Eve 1. SYN – Let’s have a conversation 2. SYN ACK – Sure, what do you want to talk about? 3. RESET – Umm.. I have no idea why you are talking to me 4. No connection – Guess I need to take Bob out of the picture…
  12. 12. Types of Attacks in IP SPOOFING <ul><li>Mitnick Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Session Hijacking </li></ul><ul><li>DoS Attack </li></ul><ul><li>DDoS Attack </li></ul>
  13. 13. IP Spoofing – Mitnick Attack <ul><li>Merry X-mas! Mitnick hacks a Diskless Workstation on December 25 th , 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>The victim – Tsutomu Shinomura </li></ul><ul><li>The attack – IP spoofing and abuse of trust relationships between a diskless terminal and login server. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mitnick Attack 1. Mitnick Flood’s server’s login port so it can no longer respond 2. Mitnick Probes the Workstation to determine the behaviour of its TCP sequence number generator 3. Mitnick discovers that the TCP sequence number is incremented by 128000 each new connection 4. Mitnick forges a SYN from the server to the terminal 5. Terminals responds with an ACK, which is ignored by the flooded port (and not visible to Mitnick) Server Workstation Kevin Mitnick 6. Mitnick fakes the ACK using the proper TCP sequence number 7. Mitnick has now established a one way communications channel
  15. 15. IP Spoofing - Session Hijack <ul><li>IP spoofing used to eavesdrop/take control of a session. </li></ul><ul><li>Attacker normally within a LAN/on the communication path between server and client. </li></ul><ul><li>Not blind, since the attacker can see traffic from both server and client. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Session Hijack Alice Bob Eve I’m Bob! I’m Alice! 1. Eve assumes a man-in-the-middle position through some mechanism. For example, Eve could use Arp Poisoning, social engineering, router hacking etc... 2. Eve can monitor traffic between Alice and Bob without altering the packets or sequence numbers. 3. At any point, Eve can assume the identity of either Bob or Alice through the Spoofed IP address. This breaks the pseudo connection as Eve will start modifying the sequence numbers
  17. 17. IP Spoofing – DoS/DDoS <ul><li>Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) are attacks aimed at preventing clients from accessing a service. </li></ul><ul><li>IP Spoofing can be used to create DoS attacks </li></ul>
  18. 18. DoS Attack Server Attacker Legitimate Users Interweb Fake IPs Service Requests Flood of Requests from Attacker Server queue full, legitimate requests get dropped Service Requests
  19. 19. DoS Attack <ul><li>The attacker spoofs a large number of requests from various IP addresses to fill a Services queue. </li></ul><ul><li>With the services queue filled, legitimate user’s cannot use the service. </li></ul>
  20. 20. DDoS Attack Server (already DoS’d) Attacker Target Servers Interweb 1. Attacker makes large number of SYN connection requests to target servers on behalf of a DoS’d server 2. Servers send SYN ACK to spoofed server, which cannot respond as it is already DoS’d. Queue’s quickly fill, as each connection request will have to go through a process of sending several SYN ACKs before it times out SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN ACK SYN ACK SYN ACK SYN ACK Queue Full
  21. 21. DDoS Attack <ul><li>Many other types of DDoS are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>DoS becomes more dangerous if spread to multiple computers. </li></ul>
  22. 22. IP Spoofing – Defending <ul><li>IP spoofing can be defended against in a number of ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As mentioned, other protocols in the Architectural model may reveal spoofing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP sequence numbers are often used in this manner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New generators for sequence numbers are a lot more complicated than ‘add 128000’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it difficult to guess proper sequence numbers if the attacker is blind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Smart” routers can detect IP addresses that are outside its domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Smart” servers can block IP ranges that appear to be conducting a DoS. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>IP Spoofing is an old school Hacker trick that continues to evolve. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for a wide variety of purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Will continue to represent a threat as long as each layer continues to trust each other and people are willing to subvert that trust. </li></ul>