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- 1. ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDES.1. SECTIONS OF SOLIDS.2. DEVELOPMENT.3. INTERSECTIONS. STUDY CAREFULLY THE ILLUSTRATIONS GIVEN ON NEXT SIX PAGES !
- 2. SECTIONING A SOLID. The action of cutting is called An object ( here a solid ) is cut by SECTIONING a solid some imaginary cutting plane & to understand internal details of that The plane of cutting is called object. SECTION PLANE.wo cutting actions means section planes are recommended. OBSERVER E AN PL Section Plane perpendicular to Vp and inclined to Hp. ASSUME UPPER PART ON FV. CT IN SE ( This is a definition of an Aux. Inclined Plane i.e. A.I.P.) REMOVED NOTE:- This section plane appears (A) as a straight line in FV. Section Plane perpendicular to Hp and inclined to Vp. ( This is a definition of an Aux. Vertical Plane i.e. A.V.P.) NOTE:- This section plane appears (B) as a straight line in TV.emember:- After launching a section plane ASSUME LOWER PART SE CT ON either in FV or TV, the part towards observer REMOVED IN PLA TV . NE OBSERVER is assumed to be removed. As far as possible the smaller part is assumed to be removed.
- 3. For TVILLUSTRATION SHOWING Fo IMPORTANT TERMS rT IN SECTIONING. ru e Sh ap e SECTION PLANE TRUE SHAPE Of SECTION x y Apparent Shape of section SECTION LINES (450 to XY) SECTIONAL T.V.
- 4. Typical Section Planes & Typical Shapes Of Sections. Section Plane Ellipse Section PlaneTriangle Through Generators Through Apex ola rab Pa Section Plane Parallel Section Plane Hyperbola to end generator. Parallel to Axis. Ellipse Trapezium Cylinder through Sq. Pyramid through generators. all slant edges
- 5. Q 14.11: A square pyramid, base 40 mm side and axis 65 mm long, has its base on the HP and allthe edges of the base equally inclined to the VP. It is cut by a section plane, perpendicular to theVP, inclined at 45º to the HP and bisecting the axis. Draw its sectional top view, sectional sideview and true shape of the section. X1 21 31 o’ o” 41 3” 3’ 4” 2” 11 2’ 4’ 1’ 1” X b’ d’ Y a’ 45º c’ d d” a” c” b” 4 1 a o 3 c 2 b Y1
- 6. Q 14.14: A pentagonal pyramid , base 30mm side and axis 60 mm long is lying on one of its triangular faceson the HP with the axis parallel to the VP. A vertical section plane, whose HT bisects the top view of the axisand makes an angle of 30º with the reference line, cuts the pyramid removing its top part. Draw the top view,sectional front view and true shape of the section and development of the surface of the remaining portion ofthe pyramid. o’ a’ 6’ 60 b’e’ 1’ 5’ 2’ a’ b’e’ c’d’ o’ X Y b c’d’ b1 4’ 3’ c c1 2 a1 o1 o 1 3 a 30 4 31’ d1 6 21’ d 5 41’ e e1 11’ 51’ 61’
- 7. Q 14.6: A Hexagonal prism has a face on the H.P. and the axis parallel to the V.P. It is cut by a verticalsection plane the H.T. of which makes an angle of 45 with XY and which cuts the axis at a point 20 mm fromone of its ends. Draw its sectional front view and the true shape of the section. Side of base 25 mm longheight 65mm. a’ b’ c’ f’ e’ d’ 6’ 7’ a’ f’ a’ f’ 65 1’ 5’ b’ e’ b’ e’ 2’ X b’ c’ c’d’ c’d’ Y a’ 4’ 3’ f’ e’ d’ b b1 b1 1 2 a c 37 a1 c1 a1 c1 Y1 25 4 6 f1 d1 f1 d1 f d 20 31’ 21’ e1 e1 e 11 ’ 5 41 ’ 71 ’ X1 51’ 61’
- 8. Q 14.24: A Cone base 75 mm diameter and axis 80 mm long is resting on its base on H.P. It is cut by a sectionplane perpendicular to the V.P., inclined at 45º to the H.P. and cutting the axis at a point 35 mm from theapex. Draw the front view, sectional top view, sectional side view and true shape of the section. X1 1 e f1 1 g 1 d 1 h 1 c o’ o” 1 i 1 b j1 35 g” 1 k g’ f” h” f’ e’ h’ i” 1 a e” i’ l1 d’ j’ d” j” c’ c” k” k’ b’ b” l” a’ l’ a” X 2 3 4 5 6 7 6” 7” 8” 9”10” Y 1 12 11 10 9 8 4” 5” 3” 2” 1” 12” 11” 4 3 5 2 c d 6 b e f a o g 1 7 h l i 12 k j 8 11 9 10 Y1
- 9. Q14.13: A hexagonal pyramid, base 30 mm side and axis 65 mm long is resting on its base onthe HP, with two edges of the base parallel to the VP. It is cut by a section plane perpendicularto VP and inclined at 45º to the HP, intersecting the axis at a point 25 mm above the base.Draw the front view, sectional top view, sectional side view and true shape of the section. 51 41 61 X2 Y1 31 o” 71 o’ 11 21 4’ 4” 3’5’ 65 3” 5” X1 2’6’ 2” 6” 25 1’7’ a’ b’f’ c’e’ d’ b” 1” a” 7” f” c” d” e” b c 2 1 3 a 4 d o 7 5 6 e f Y2

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