B 1-tech-project-report-proforma


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B 1-tech-project-report-proforma

  1. 1. B.TECH PROJECT REPORT PROFORMAGeneral Instructions:1. All the students shall strictly follow the given proforma while preparing project reports.2. 4 (3+1) Copies (Five (4+1) copies for those doing project in Industries) of Project Reports in hard copy form and 2 in soft copy form (CDs) shall be submitted.3. Black colour with Gold Letters shall be used as wrapper for the bound form of report.4. There shall be introduction (without sub-heading) and conclusion (without sub- heading) for each chapter. Also there shall be link between chapters i.e., there shall not be abrupt end or abrupt beginning of successive chapters.5. All figures and tables shall be identified by chapter nos. and not by section or sub-section nos. They must be labeled properly with proper numbers and shall be referred in the text. There shall be some explanation regarding each figure and table.6. Proper margins must be given for each page.7. All the paras must be justified on the right side.8. Any equations must be identified by the chapter no.9. There shall not be separate page given for each chapter.10. Page Nos. shall be given in order at the bottom middle of each page.11. For references, IEEE format shall be followed. For example, text books shall be referred as author(s) name(s), title of book, publishers name, edition, year of publication; journal papers as author(s) name(s), title of paper within quotes, journal name, volume no., month and year, page nos.; URL’s as http://www......... . Books, Journals, URL’s must be given in order with separate sub-headings and in alphabetical order of authors.12. Name and Roll No. shall be indicated on the cover page, inside cover page, in certificate and in acknowledgements.13. There is no need to give the references in the text.
  2. 2. Font: Times New RomanOuter and Inner Cover Page Item Size (points)Project Title 18University Name 14Degree Name 14Branch Name 14Student Name 14Roll No. 14Guide(s) Name(s) 16Department Name 14College Name 14College Location & State 14Year 16All others 12Certificate:Title : 16 PointsAll others : 12Acknowledgement:Title : 16All others : 12ContentsTitle : 16Chapter Titles : 14All others : 12List of Figures/ TablesTitle : 16Column Headings : 14All others : 12
  3. 3. NomenclatureTitle : 16Others : 12AbstractTitle : 16Keywords : 10Others : 12Chapters & Appendices:Chapter Name & No. : 16 NormalTitle : 16 BoldSub-heading : 14 BoldText : 12 NormalTables:Table No. & Caption : 12 Bold (Table 1.1: Characteristics of Diode)This shall be given just above the table, centered to the tableFigures:Figure No. &Caption : 12 Bold (Fig. 1.1: Pin Diagram of 8085)This shall be given at the bottom of the figure, centered to the figure.References:Title : 16 BoldOthers : 12Page Setup:A 4, executive bond paper, single side, 1 ½ Line SpacingMargins: Top: 1.5’ Bottom: 1’ Left: 1.5’ Right: 0.75’
  4. 4. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC LIGHT SIGNAL CONTROLLER USING VHDL A Project Report Submitted to the FACULTY of ENGINEERING ofJAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, KAKINADA. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering by B. Santi Priya (07X41A0410) N. Jyothirmai (07X41A0424) Ch. Anusha (07X41A0403) V. N. Abhishek Kumar (07X41A0401) Under the Guidance of Sri B. Ravi Assistant Professor Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ENIKEPADU, VIJAYAWADA-521108 ANDHRA PRADESH 2011
  5. 5. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project report entitled “Implementation Of Traffic Light SignalController Using VHDL” is a bonafide record of work carried out by Ms. B. Santi Priya(04481D3802) under our guidance and supervision in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and CommunicationEngineering of Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada. B. Ravi Dr. S. Sri Gowry(Project Guide) (Head of the Department)
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe are glad to express our deep sense of gratitude to Mr. B. Ravi, Assistant Professor,Electronics and Communication Engineering for his guidance and cooperation incompleting this project. Through this we want to convey our sincere thanks to him forinspiring assistance during our project. We express our heartful gratitude and deep indebtedness to Dr. Sri Gowry,professor, and Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering forher great help and encouragement in doing our project successfully. We also express our gratitude to our principal Dr. S. Sri Gowry, for herencouragement and facilities provided during the course of project. We thank one and all who have rendered help to us directly or indirectly in thecompletion of this work. B. Santi Priya (07X41A0410) N. Jyothirmai (07X41A0424) Ch. Anusha (07X41A0403) V. N. Abhishek Kumar (07X41A0401)
  7. 7. CONTENTS Page No.List of Figures iList of Tables iiNomenclature iiiAbstract ivChapter 1: Introduction 01 1.1 Overview of the project 01 1.2 Requirements of the project 01 1.3 Why we are using 89S52 micro controller? 02Chapter 2: Block & Schematic Diagrams Explanation 03 2.1 Block diagram 03 2.2 Schematic diagram 04Chapter3: 89S52 Microcontroller 07 3.1 Introduction to Microcontroller 89S52 07 3.2 Features of Microcontroller 89S52 09 3.3 Description of Microcontroller 89S52 09 3.4 Pin Description of Microcontroller 89S52 11 3.5 Registers and Memory 15 3.6 Addressing Modes 15 3.7 Watchdog Timer 17 3.8 Timers and Counters 17 3.9 Interrupts 22Chapter 4: Programmable Peripheral Interface (82C55A) 23 4.1 Features of 82C55A 24 4.2 Pin diagram 25 4.3 8255 Basic Operation 25 4.4 Pin description 27 4.5 Control word 28
  8. 8. Chapter 5: RF Transmitter and Receiver 30 5.1 MICRF102 Transmitter 30 5.2 MICRF007 Receiver 33Chapter 6: Other Important Components 38 6.1 MAX 232 IC 38 6.2 RS232 Standards 41 6.3 74ABT573 41 6.4 74AC541 44 6.5 74AC245 . 74ACT245 46 6.6 74AC138 . 74ACT138 47 6.7 Thermal Printer 49 6.7.1 Characteristics 50 6.8 Liquid Crystal Display 52 6.9 16C452 UART 53Chapter 7: Software Section 58Chapter 8: Results and Conclusion 73 8.1 Results 73 8.2 Conclusion 77 8.3 Applications 77 8.4 Future Scope 77Appendices: 78 Appendix A: Data Sheets 78 Appendix B: Microcontroller Code 79References 80
  9. 9. LIST OF FIGURESFigure No. Figure Name Page No. 2.1 Block Diagram of Online Handheld Billing Terminal 3 2.2 Schematic Diagram of Online Handheld Billing Terminal 4 3.1 Pin Diagram of 89S52 10 3.2 Oscillator Connections 14 4.1 Pin configuration of 8255 25 4.2 Block Diagram of 8255 2 4.3 Control Word of 8255 28 5.1 Pin Diagram of RF Transmitter 31 5.2 Functional Diagram of RF Transmitter 32 6.1 Pin Diagram of MAX232 38 6.2 Connection Diagram of MAX232 40 LIST OF TABLES
  10. 10. Table No. Name of the Table Page No. 2.1 Truth table of 8255 selection pins 06 3.1 Port 1 Pin Details 12 3.2 Port 3 Pin Details 13 3.3 Timer 2 operating modes 20 4.1 Operation of 8255 25 4.2 Pin Description of 8255 27 5.1 Pin Description of RF Transmitter 32 NOMENCLATURE
  11. 11. CDMA Code Division Multiple AccessFDMA Frequency Division Multiple AccessTDMA Time Division Multiple AccessDS-CDMA Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access ABSTRACT
  12. 12. (Keywords: CDMA, Spread Spectrum, Transmitter, Receiver)This project work undertaken, aims at developing CDMA receiver base station, whichmainly focuses on wireless communications. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is amultiple access technique supporting a large number of users on the same frequency all thetime. Direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) employs spreadspectrum technique which converts a narrow band signal in to wide band and so the powerlevel of the signal falls below the noise and is difficult to jam and interrupt. In this project the input to the receiver is the modulated signal coming from thetransmitter through a channel and this signal is demodulated .The demodulated signal isdistorted due to noise present in the channel .This noise is eliminated by using a low passfilter .It is then de-spreaded by the signature sequence like PN sequence. CHAPTER 1
  13. 13. INTRODUCTIONIn the present world of automation, handheld billing machine is playing a vital role in thedepartment of electricity. Present handheld billing machine contains a memory chip whereprevious readings are stored. When present reading is entered, subtraction of previous andpresent readings takes place and then amount is calculated based upon slab rates. After theamount is calculated the handheld billing machine is brought to the substation for loadingthe details of customer into a server or a data book. Imagine a case if the machine getscrashed under various circumstances all the previous readings will be lost due to loss ofmemory chip, then the department officials have to record all the database from the serveror any database management system into a new handheld billing machine for the previousreadings, or recollect the readings from the customers. It is a very time consuming, needsextra man power and wastes a lot of money. Violating the above problems the further version developed is ‘Online handheldbilling terminal’. It does not require any internal memory to store the previous and presentreadings. This online terminal will be in direct pace with the database server throughwireless communication. When the present readings are calculated the whole data will betransmitted to the central database server on this spot. So extra man power or excess moneycan be avoided as the total process is being done automatically1.1 Requirements of Project. • MICRO CONTROLLER (89S52). • MAX 232. • RF TRANSRECEIVER. • THERMAL PRINTER. • LCD. • PPI (8255). • KEYBOARD