Chap. 38 (plant reproduction)

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Chap. 38 (plant reproduction)

  1. 1. Chapter 38. Plant ReproductionAP Biology 2005-2006
  2. 2. Animal vs. Plant life cycle Animal Plant multicellular multicellular sporophyte 2n 2n gametes spores 1n 2n unicellular multicellular gametes gametophyte 1n 1nAP Biology alternation of generations 2005-2006
  3. 3. Alternation of generations diploid haploidAP Biology 2005-2006
  4. 4. Alternation of generationsAP Biology 2005-2006
  5. 5. Alternation of generations  Fern sporophyte  leafy plant you are familiar with  Fern spores  haploid cells that will sprout into gametophyteAP Biology 2005-2006
  6. 6. Alternation of generations  Fern gametophyte  small diploid plant which produces gametesAP Biology 2005-2006
  7. 7. AP Biology 2005-2006
  8. 8. Alternation of generations  Archegonium  female gamete-producing structure  produces a single egg cell in a vase-shaped organAP Biology 2005-2006
  9. 9. Alternation of generations  Antheridia  male gamete-producing structure  produces many sperm cells that are released to the environment flagella = swimming spermAP Biology 2005-2006
  10. 10. Evolutionary trends  Alternation of generations  dominant haploid plant  bryophytes - mosses  dominant diploid plant  pteridophytes - ferns  gymnosperm - conifers  angiosperm - flowering plants  Evolutionary advantage?  reduction of gametophyte protects delicate egg & embryo in protective sporophyteAP Biology 2005-2006
  11. 11. Moss sporophytesAP Biology 2005-2006
  12. 12. Reduction of gametophyteAP Biology 2005-2006
  13. 13. Gametophytes of seed plants Gymnosperm Angiosperm  male gametophyte  male gametophyte  pollen in male cone  pollen in anthers of flower  female gametophyte  female gametophyte  develops in female  develops in ovaries cone of flower  seed  seed  naked in cone  protected in ovary  ovary wall can develop into fruitAP Biology 2005-2006
  14. 14. Gymnosperm life cycle female gametophyte in cone male gametophyte in pollen sporophyte in seedAP Biology 2005-2006
  15. 15. Angiosperm life cycle male gametophyte in pollen female gametophyte in ovary sporophyte in seedAP Biology 2005-2006
  16. 16. FlowersAP Biology 2005-2006
  17. 17. Flower  Modified shoot with 4 rings of modified leaves  sepals  petals  stamens  male  carpals  femaleAP Biology 2005-2006
  18. 18. pistilAP Biology 2005-2006
  19. 19. Male & female parts of flowerAP Biology 2005-2006
  20. 20. Parts of flower  Male  stamens = male reproductive organs  stamens have stalks (filament) & terminal anthers which carry pollen sacs  pollen sacs produce pollen  pollen grain = gametophyte  sperm-producing structureAP Biology 2005-2006
  21. 21. Parts of flower  Female  carpels = female reproductive organs  ovary at the base  slender neck = style  within the ovary are 1 or more ovules  within ovules are embryo sacs  female gametophyte = embryo sac  egg-producing structureAP Biology 2005-2006
  22. 22. AP Biology 2005-2006
  23. 23. AP Biology 2005-2006
  24. 24. Fertilization  Pollination  pollen released from anthers is carried by wind or animals to land on stigma  pollen grain produces a pollen tube  pollen tube grows down style into ovary & discharges 2 sperm into the embryo sac  1 sperm fertilizes egg = zygote  zygote develops into embryo  ovule develops into a seed  ovary develops into a fruit containing 1 or more seedsAP Biology 2005-2006
  25. 25. Preventing self-pollination  Various mechanisms  stamens & carpels may mature at different times  arranged so that animal pollinator won’t transfer pollen from anthers to stigma of same flower  biochemical self-incompatibility = block pollen tube growthAP Biology 2005-2006
  26. 26. Fertilization in flowering plants  Double fertilization  2 sperm from pollen  1 sperm fertilizes egg = diploid zygote  1 sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei to form 3n endosperm  endosperm = food tissue in seed  coconut milk  grainsAP Biology 2005-2006
  27. 27. Fertilization in flowering plants  Development of the new sporophyteAP Biology 2005-2006
  28. 28. Plant embryo endosperm seed coat cotyledons ovary wall embryoAP Biology 2005-2006
  29. 29. Fruit  Fruit is a mature ovary  seeds develop from ovules  wall of ovary thickens to form fruit  fruits protect dormant seeds & aid in their dispersalAP Biology 2005-2006
  30. 30. Fruit development  peach  1 flower : 1 carpel : 1 ovary : 1 seedAP Biology 2005-2006
  31. 31. Fruit development  apple  1 flower : 5 carpels : many ovaries : many seedsAP Biology 2005-2006
  32. 32. Fruit development  Citrus fruit  1 flower : many carpels : many ovaries : many seedsAP Biology 2005-2006
  33. 33. Fruit development  Raspberry  1 flower : many ovaries : many seedsAP Biology 2005-2006
  34. 34. Reproduction in angiosperm  Sporophyte plant produces unique reproductive structure = the flower  male gametophyte = pollen grain  develop within anthers of flower  female gametophyte = embryo sac  develop within ovaries of flower  pollination by wind or animals brings pollen grain to female gametophyte  fertilization takes place within ovary  double fertilization = embryo & endosperm  seeds contain sporophyte embryo  development of seeds in ovary  ovary develops into fruit around the seedAP Biology 2005-2006
  35. 35. Coevolution of plants & animals  Angiosperms & animals have shaped one another’s evolution  Natural selection reinforced the interactions because they improved the reproductive success of both partnersAP Biology 2005-2006
  36. 36. Seed dispersal  Plants produce enormous numbers of seeds to compensate for low survival rate  a lot of genetic variation for natural selection to screenAP Biology 2005-2006
  37. 37. Any Questions??AP Biology 2005-2006
  38. 38. Aaaaah… Structure-Function yet again!AP Biology 2005-2006

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