• That is 2,267,233,742 (2.3 Billion) users
32.7% of the world population
How to identify these users ?
How do we name them?
That is where the IP – Internet
Protocol comes in !
Internet Protocol - Definition
The principal set of procedures used for
transferring data packets between
devices on a network-of-networks using
the Internet Protocol Suite.
• An IP is used to ,
• Address each device connected to
• Regulate data transfer between devices.
There are two commonly used IP versions at
IPv4 – Internet
Protocol version 4
IPv6 – Internet
Protocol version 6
• Uses 32bit addresses
• Which limits the address in to
4,294,967,296 (4.3 billion) addresses.
• Limited security
• No authentication or encryption at IP
• Most commonly used version.
However By 2014, expected number of
devices that are connected to the internet
is estimated as 50 Billions.
That is 12 times more than current IPv4 can
So what will happen ?
Do we find ourselves unable to connect to
the internet via new devices ?
The answer – NO!
Reason for developing IPv6 is to
address the IPv4 address exhaustion.
Designed to overcome limitations of
•Uses 128bit addresses
• 340 Undecilion (3.4x1038) addresses.
• Data encryption and authentication.
Features of IPv6
How do we start using IPv6 ?
Methods of IPv6 implementation
There are three main methods ,
•It operates both IPv4 and IPv6
simultaneously on the same
servers do not
• Converting IPv6 traffic into IPv4 traffic for
transportation and vice versa.
• Traffic is not encapsulated, it is directly
converted to the destination type.
• Two main methods are used in translate
• Network Address Translation Protocol
• NAT-PT method configure a translation
of an IPv4 address into an IPv6 address
and vise versa either statically or
• NAT64 mechanism allows IPv6 hosts to
communicate with IPv4 servers.
• The IPv6 client embeds the IPv4 address
it wishes to communicate with and
sends its packets to the resulting
Not a good
•Transporting IPv6 traffic through an
IPv4 network transparently.
•Few different tunneling methods
exists for IPv6.
• Manual IPv6 Tunnels
• Manually created IPv6 tunnel is configured
between two routers, that each must support
both IPv4 and IPv6.
• 6to4 Tunnels
• It is IPv6 to be tunneled via IPv4.
• 6to4 allows for automatic IPv6-to-IPv4 address
translation, and treats the underlying IPv4
network as one big Non-Broadcast Multi-
Used on top
of an existing
IPv4 & IPv6.
• Compatibility with IPv6 networking is a
software or firmware issue.
• The American Registry for Internet
Numbers (ARIN) suggests that all Internet
servers to be prepared to serve IPv6-only
clients by January 2012.
IPv6 Readiness - Software
• Most personal computers running
recent operating system versions are IPv6-
• Most popular applications with network
capabilities are ready, and most others
could be easily upgraded with support
from the developers.
• Java applications adhering to Java 1.4
(February 2002) standards have support
IPv6 Readiness - Hardware
• Low-level equipment like network
adapters and network switches may not
be affected by the change.
• since they transmit link-layer frames
without inspecting the contents.
• Networking devices that obtain IP
addresses or perform routing based on IP
address do need IPv6 support.
Now, as available IPv4 addresses are almost
over it is the time for ISPs, large and small
companies and universities to start migrating
Based on the results of this analysis of the
available technologies it is rewarding to
migrate from IPv4 to IPv6 based on user