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SEMINARIO DE BIOQUÍMICACARBOHIDRATOSFUNDACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA DE CIENCIAS DE LA SALUDNURY ESPERANZA VARGAS MSc CIENCIAS BÁSI...
TABLA PERIODICA DE LOS ELEMENTOS
ÁTOMOS de acuerdo con Dalton
J.J. Thomson               Rutherford     BÖHR
Dualidad onda-partícula de De Broglie                           (1924)De Broglie             Ecuación de Schrödinger      ...
ÓRBITALES
Principio de Exclusión de Pau
ENLACE QUÍMICO
Enlace iónico                Enlace covalente
ALGUNOS ENLACES
MOLÉCULAS
HIBRIDACIÓN SP3   HIBRIDACIÓN SP3HIBRIDACIÓN SP2
EXPERIMENTO     DE   MILLERCONCEPTO DE   OPARIN
IntroducciónSon polihidroxi aldehídos o cetonas ocompuestos que conducen a ellos porhidrólisis y sus derivados.Se denomina...
Se producen en la fotosíntesis. Las plantas verdes contienen clorofila quecapta de la luz solar la energía necesariapara r...
CLASIFICACIÓNCa                                Aldosasr                 Monosacáridb                 os    Azúcare        ...
IMPORTANCIA- Como principios inmediatos son soportes de lavida                   Alimento    Cultura    Alcohol-          ...
MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSASTres carbonos: Aldotriosas         CHO                        CHO   H     C        OH      HO       ...
MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSAS                   Cuatro carbonos: Aldotetrosas1DSt[14 I 1345 195220DStgr [0 II 1453 26061DSt Db I ...
MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSAS                   Cuatro carbonos: Aldotetrosas1DSt[14 I 1345 195220DStgr [0 II 1453 26061DSt Db I ...
erdict/chemdictmv0.6dictL/ie/ifelseb1pnegtype[]typedpdpetgray0L/mt/matrixlapdef}binda/pxL/mCopyRightOA}{1Prepfilldpfillnne...
MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSASgr 165 6 2850 1186 40 /bs[[1 123 3075 80 2589]]d end 759 2487 DSt [1 1663182962770 40 I 4010[1 [0881...
Monosacáridos                                Estructura 4 3339] 7981 4689 8282 4989]  5442/bs[[1 7842 7819 4562]   4632] 7...
MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSASTres carbonos: Cetotriosa           CH2   OH           C O           CH2 OH        Dihidroxiacetona
Monosacáridos         Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSASCuatro carbonos: Cetotetrosas  CH2 OH                 CH2 OH  C O  ...
Monosacáridos         Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSASCinco carbonos:Cetopentosas     CH2OH             CH2OH     C O    ...
Monosacáridos          Estructura      MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSAS    Cinco carbonos:    Cetopentosas  CH2OH          CH2OH    ...
MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS                                          OHH        O    C            +       R OH       H C OR    R...
Monosacáridos           Estructura         MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS                     H       OHO C H                      ...
Monosacáridos         Estructura         MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS                 HOCH 2       OHO C CH 2OH                  ...
Monosacáridos               Estructura        MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS                                    CH 2OH      HO C H ...
Monosacáridos                Estructura        MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS                                    CH 2OH      HO C H...
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
Carbohidratos
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Carbohidratos

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Carbohidratos

  1. 1. SEMINARIO DE BIOQUÍMICACARBOHIDRATOSFUNDACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA DE CIENCIAS DE LA SALUDNURY ESPERANZA VARGAS MSc CIENCIAS BÁSICAS
  2. 2. TABLA PERIODICA DE LOS ELEMENTOS
  3. 3. ÁTOMOS de acuerdo con Dalton
  4. 4. J.J. Thomson Rutherford BÖHR
  5. 5. Dualidad onda-partícula de De Broglie (1924)De Broglie Ecuación de Schrödinger (1926)Schrödinger
  6. 6. ÓRBITALES
  7. 7. Principio de Exclusión de Pau
  8. 8. ENLACE QUÍMICO
  9. 9. Enlace iónico Enlace covalente
  10. 10. ALGUNOS ENLACES
  11. 11. MOLÉCULAS
  12. 12. HIBRIDACIÓN SP3 HIBRIDACIÓN SP3HIBRIDACIÓN SP2
  13. 13. EXPERIMENTO DE MILLERCONCEPTO DE OPARIN
  14. 14. IntroducciónSon polihidroxi aldehídos o cetonas ocompuestos que conducen a ellos porhidrólisis y sus derivados.Se denominan Hidratos de carbono porresponder muchos de ellos a la formulaempírica: C (H2O)n
  15. 15. Se producen en la fotosíntesis. Las plantas verdes contienen clorofila quecapta de la luz solar la energía necesariapara realizar el proceso: 6 CO2 + H2O C6(H2O)6 + 6 O2
  16. 16. CLASIFICACIÓNCa Aldosasr Monosacáridb os Azúcare Cetosasoh s -2 Dii Oligosacárid -3 Trid osr -4 tetra -5 pentt Polisacárid -6 Hexo os -7 Hepts
  17. 17. IMPORTANCIA- Como principios inmediatos son soportes de lavida Alimento Cultura Alcohol- Casa Higiene MedicinaProporcionan: Vestido Comodidad Decoración- Muchas Polímero Furfural Políesteresaplicaciones s Sintesis Conserva Farmaciaen la industriaQuímica Quiral Celulosa Bebidas
  18. 18. MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSASTres carbonos: Aldotriosas CHO CHO H C OH HO C H CH2 OH CH2 OH D (+) L (-) currentpoint 19 Gliceraldéhido
  19. 19. MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSAS Cuatro carbonos: Aldotetrosas1DSt[14 I 1345 195220DStgr [0 II 1453 26061DSt Db I I 13451714 20DStgrI [0 II 1453 2606 DStIDb I 43703122 2580 4882 3125]1822 2606 4352 3105]4513 2756 3845 1904]4352 2736 4921 1878]4214 1904 1427 2455]4552 1878 1952 2416]1796 2086 4370 1714]2095 2047 2464 2580 c hemdict 1952 SP 2 DSt 54 50I3122 1952 DSt [2 1952 2416 DSt [3 4370 241952 134540 80 40 DSt4370 [12 I3122 3425 1714] [13 begin 1714 120 1952 4370803425 1714] [13 begin 1714 DSt [1d 1 1952 1453 2606] 20 59 50 3122 2580] dL 1033 3425] gr 1796 2086 1427 2416] 26062095 2047 1952 1714] ]d end 1 [1 [1 gs1952 1345 4370 2580 chemdict 1952 SP /bs[[1DS t[14 2464 40 DSt 211 4370 [12 40 3122 2580 3122 2606] 1822 2606 1453 3125] 4513 2756 4882 3105] 4352 2736 4352 1904] 4214 1904 3845 1878] 4552 1878 4921 2455] dL 1033 3425] 2580]mict/chemdict1190pyfillxpym1800s12gr}180neg}if/pxsmglp0setgraymvsbdc0fill}b/SA{aFpxcmpxZLBo/cX0wbegin1pxA-2grOswatOA}{1aR1aLne{bWaclxcp0c 360smLB25.8grOxfillmvgrmv1pymdupprOSacend6cpyx24.6fillb/AA{pxsmdict00 OrA{pybdtclip}lroixOB/bLmtDA}{cwcmpx-4.8OBpexec}{grlbWc145wmtsat14radrosetgrayixpx-4.82npxcmnpgs3116.r grestorenegpex1450.3n0lgrrot-1CAtpxsp lpbegin/versionpywgl1grsOBcounttomark{bs1cv0.5S}if/lp-21gsx{nHL/mt/m ransformL/gs/gs avepdpdp20dvbs0dv}sc5type[]typeSACAFifecm/gscmst}{AsmvCApxr}2scBdlp00currentmatrix0w{ cY dpnp-9.62.251ac xxDA}{dL{DS}ie s qrt2w0.5wdpx-1np5pp00mvaRradpyscx-1albsDA}{exec0nH2gsrssDne{0b/CS{ 2-1dvCAgr{gsmv1987,1pput 21.6xL/ix/indexiemvprlt{10pnega}c1p2.25ne{bWgralDA}{wnp-1round0.61wmpxp16dvbW vpx b/PT{arcnmv dp 0eq{DD}-1xl2.2 n/dx-1 0.6pp2{sqrts1.2paLcY1987,0t}120cp0sta/py8a40st}{1.0321.6rmvndef/c s2smexecs1986,st}{0m1p-1 mac2pymDLBsp%wD-9.6px16pgrlydp1roixro1end}rOstacdef/L{loadixgr}ie}1LBnp[{py1 9.6-.6 0pFl8laLt}b/HA{lWl}for-.6-8ne{bWarccwgsdvdppybdycpopxydivcmbLl}for0.4-8dvifpyg/cXrOol2.2rOxsfillxdp0 t{1x-1 na}{nppxbW end}b/Db{bs{dp 00gi rpydv-12eq{dpDSlm0sn/exxm1sst}]e0pcmst}{AslWrL/l/linetodvmvfillro 60mdv t1.2pmvfillPrepL/ie/ifelssm8np-1 rac12L/l/linetoc23dpfillpxfillpsmaLlromv25.81cpDT}]o0xdef}b/d/defFw0ppg }gr}{pp} L/xl/translatemrOchemdict{gsr gs2ChemDrawdef/b{bind27wplmn/eygrs8 L/m/mulCA-1lobalpppdpgrpp pexec}{alLasersgpx s 1.2L/Sglt{-1pypy gs us0CopyRightnerlinetoatcpsm8put18039 m}gb/WW{rOsdv-1gsL/np/ne A}{cwsc ngrwy bd DLBppl{sf sc124.6 -1180ixwgr}{pp}{gsacpyavesm0pxputlt{-1eq{dL}cppst}{0lolt{e}ifppsd pyRighte gsp gs gr -9.6n/ey dpp sg 16m L/tr/transformL/gsl16lp2m0n27011fillg dpac1 m}b/CB{np[{[{ 2plxsc1og emDrawe 2poslac SA neg cm/wetr/dy {bd}L/gr/grestorenegnpslst}{0pdpbdcm p a}ie}DLB180L/n/negn 23cmrlin 180py py neg}if/py py radro a}ie}b/WW{gslW1odvslp0aarcnw03.3751.2L/S{smOA}{131if1acapeq{DB}{DSp mvs12mv 0OBpyw cey mv0 0 m}b/dA{[3CBl16dvcWlx00m27w1pp}{2Cambridgemie2begin/versionc CS}{C ms{dpLB ms16.80.6 atbd py a}ie}b/BW{ serdicct/chemdictcmsteq{gspy2trdv/bd sc0 cp270gr}b/w-1sg 9.60cpw cm neg 5 cp0 12 -1 t8 px 1 p aAst} x/dx xlnegleq{DB}{pxmvxclippath4.8bdradopxne{sc0-1pyalpgcw2pxdp/clysm a} WI dL5lm0b/Ct{bs0s x cpt 1.5 3 {Asc0 dporev{dvetmvclip}b/Ct{bsmpg/bbdv0pscb/dA{[3dylW arcr Xrady1x dv 0 p p pp lp3.375 SA b1 OA}{1 pp1s2Facs{dpp{dL1w 12Prep0gifilll1r 180x -1dp14rsmpscD6lpr0.5180s 36 cmv 1 ex8counttomark{ rot 0 mvo alp190mSApymv g/wsgnelW1pm2lZLB2ap sat16rmvoLB25.8xl}-10mvsc dp b2 px at nr dv Cambridge Scientific816sbeginL/mt/matrixpxor{4 0grwyxL/ix/index09.6ppexec}0DA}p {sqrt mv -1 npro 120bW e SA 4 l0 3pComputing,Laserrac2L/mv/moveto2.2b/BW{wx FgieCA2dvrOd dv sm HA}{ c neg lp n/ex 8 sc px cv dic c 180 dx g DA}{cmlperOnpatOA}{ac3slSApOA}b1s lmcw 180s-1180Computing,t} 2 rad e 6 a SAt}{rpxs-.6lp-9.6 at lpbW 4xey ec1 lWgs 3 0OA}{1xl 12 OA}{11.5p l p RA}{61Dx}ifcmL/xl/trans bsSst 2pchemdictx/dx-1w0AA}{0cWaRAc 2 -1-1DA}{cw-1.6p ex0-10.6latedpb/Db{bs{ -0.4 p26ac DA}{ 1cX sm 5 st}b/OrA{begin {ex gspdpfillDA}{py-1x dv}{bd}iea/pxac py18npDS -1 -8gc2c-2HA}ndAn st}mWI1 x-9.6pySAtr/dy slneg arc33gspbeging/cY0 neg dpyfillmvcvDA}2 o 8np0.3scgrmt0dv 0 dp24.6wx lr2.251b/Cr{0acp x 0 0 CA al Inc. dv 0 pp py xl-1sqrt py xpxSA OA}{ In dv/bdx execst bs b-1 e-1 cpt 0 wb 4pp dv/bdpy l bs In w wc CB-2 arco p 5SA pydpAA}{1o dv asg e gs w x1mfill cY a py e xl}{xlnp{cw gs1 L/ie/ifelsepp p g rads ggrac d/wlpgr dy 5 dp mmv DA}{2.25mveq{DD}{DS} 5ientificR cCBs/wxa Y o 2.25a}b/PT{85 gs2cmx negAgibW1.5 py ro}ie} CBn/dyfillpy -1 e 0pp}px snegw lpp n1.6m DLBm/w f-1SA 0c5acgsneg16gsc cm CA fillac 180neg}c1986,pyggr}b/OB{/bSxlpy lpbWgimv dxaL0 ssetgra gsdy 2.2py bsp gsmlnmpx def}bind4 aAx} n/dx 12dp lp Dsg{xll ebs nprO n/dycXOA}{1 90acdictne{bWlt{ppm360 m/aL rev{neg}ifgr cpdp/cY0.5 LB neg}if/py ste cpp21.612s mvlW0-0.4S]}b/dL{dAs pybW2c-1sc sdvac0 p eb/HA{lW{px{1.5 2 gr}b/In{px 90 SA esgnpcm sl pA m 12 e g gr s -1 s 0 x m2 w m 1 grgs S]}b/dL{ dL 1 fill dv rnp[{py c}b/Ov{OrA 0 4 npSA 1 b2 WI sm 1 OB/bLrot dL etdash}d/c w Ac}{0.5 -1 8 16.8 sc 1.5 lpx gr}{gs pp}ifelse rO px gr cv }ie g cpt dx p m 360e eq{-1.6 gs e g gs OB x}if m rO rot DA}{dL cvDA}{ -.6 3 type[]type 5 L/a/a ac Sc cm 0.5 s1 ne neg}if/px -2 arc 0 4 SA Enantiómeros Enantiómeros CHO CHO CHO CHO H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH HO C H CH2 OH CH2 OH currentpointCH2 OH 192837465 CH2 OH currentpo D-eritrosa L-eritrosa D-treosa L-treosa DIASTEROISOMEROS
  20. 20. MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSAS Cuatro carbonos: Aldotetrosas1DSt[14 I 1345 195220DStgr [0 II 1453 26061DSt Db I I 13451714 20DStgrI [0 II 1453 2606 DStIDb I 43703122 2580 4882 3125]1822 2606 4352 3105]4513 2756 3845 1904]4352 2736 4921 1878]4214 1904 1427 2455]4552 1878 1952 2416]1796 2086 4370 1714]2095 2047 2464 2580 c hemdict 1952 SP 2 DSt 54 50I3122 1952 DSt [2 1952 2416 DSt [3 4370 241952 134540 80 40 DSt4370 [12 I3122 3425 1714] [13 begin 1714 120 1952 4370803425 1714] [13 begin 1714 DSt [1d 1 1952 1453 2606] 20 59 50 3122 2580] dL 1033 3425] gr 1796 2086 1427 2416] 26062095 2047 1952 1714] ]d end 1 [1 [1 gs1952 1345 4370 2580 chemdict 1952 SP /bs[[1DS t[14 2464 40 DSt 211 4370 [12 40 3122 2580 3122 2606] 1822 2606 1453 3125] 4513 2756 4882 3105] 4352 2736 4352 1904] 4214 1904 3845 1878] 4552 1878 4921 2455] dL 1033 3425] 2580]mict/chemdict1190pyfillxpym1800s12gr}180neg}if/pxsmglp0setgraymvsbdc0fill}b/SA{aFpxcmpxZLBo/cX0wbegin1pxA-2grOswatOA}{1aR1aLne{bWaclxcp0c 360smLB25.8grOxfillmvgrmv1pymdupprOSacend6cpyx24.6fillb/AA{pxsmdict00 OrA{pybdtclip}lroixOB/bLmtDA}{cwcmpx-4.8OBpexec}{grlbWc145wmtsat14radrosetgrayixpx-4.82npxcmnpgs3116.r grestorenegpex1450.3n0lgrrot-1CAtpxsp lpbegin/versionpywgl1grsOBcounttomark{bs1cv0.5S}if/lp-21gsx{nHL/mt/m ransformL/gs/gs avepdpdp20dvbs0dv}sc5type[]typeSACAFifecm/gscmst}{AsmvCApxr}2scBdlp00currentmatrix0w{ cY dpnp-9.62.251ac xxDA}{dL{DS}ie s qrt2w0.5wdpx-1np5pp00mvaRradpyscx-1albsDA}{exec0nH2gsrssDne{0b/CS{ 2-1dvCAgr{gsmv1987,1pput 21.6xL/ix/indexiemvprlt{10pnega}c1p2.25ne{bWgralDA}{wnp-1round0.61wmpxp16dvbW vpx b/PT{arcnmv dp 0eq{DD}-1xl2.2 n/dx-1 0.6pp2{sqrts1.2paLcY1987,0t}120cp0sta/py8a40st}{1.0321.6rmvndef/c s2smexecs1986,st}{0m1p-1 mac2pymDLBsp%wD-9.6px16pgrlydp1roixro1end}rOstacdef/L{loadixgr}ie}1LBnp[{py1 9.6-.6 0pFl8laLt}b/HA{lWl}for-.6-8ne{bWarccwgsdvdppybdycpopxydivcmbLl}for0.4-8dvifpyg/cXrOol2.2rOxsfillxdp0 t{1x-1 na}{nppxbW end}b/Db{bs{dp 00gi rpydv-12eq{dpDSlm0sn/exxm1sst}]e0pcmst}{AslWrL/l/linetodvmvfillro 60mdv t1.2pmvfillPrepL/ie/ifelssm8np-1 rac12L/l/linetoc23dpfillpxfillpsmaLlromv25.81cpDT}]o0xdef}b/d/defFw0ppg }gr}{pp} L/xl/translatemrOchemdict{gsr gs2ChemDrawdef/b{bind27wplmn/eygrs8 L/m/mulCA-1lobalpppdpgrpp pexec}{alLasersgpx s 1.2L/Sglt{-1pypy gs us0CopyRightnerlinetoatcpsm8put18039 m}gb/WW{rOsdv-1gsL/np/ne A}{cwsc ngrwy bd DLBppl{sf sc124.6 -1180ixwgr}{pp}{gsacpyavesm0pxputlt{-1eq{dL}cppst}{0lolt{e}ifppsd pyRighte gsp gs gr -9.6n/ey dpp sg 16m L/tr/transformL/gsl16lp2m0n27011fillg dpac1 m}b/CB{np[{[{ 2plxsc1og emDrawe 2poslac SA neg cm/wetr/dy {bd}L/gr/grestorenegnpslst}{0pdpbdcm p a}ie}DLB180L/n/negn 23cmrlin 180py py neg}if/py py radro a}ie}b/WW{gslW1odvslp0aarcnw03.3751.2L/S{smOA}{131if1acapeq{DB}{DSp mvs12mv 0OBpyw cey mv0 0 m}b/dA{[3CBl16dvcWlx00m27w1pp}{2Cambridgemie2begin/versionc CS}{C ms{dpLB ms16.80.6 atbd py a}ie}b/BW{ serdicct/chemdictcmsteq{gspy2trdv/bd sc0 cp270gr}b/w-1sg 9.60cpw cm neg 5 cp0 12 -1 t8 px 1 p aAst} x/dx xlnegleq{DB}{pxmvxclippath4.8bdradopxne{sc0-1pyalpgcw2pxdp/clysm a} WI dL5lm0b/Ct{bs0s x cpt 1.5 3 {Asc0 dporev{dvetmvclip}b/Ct{bsmpg/bbdv0pscb/dA{[3dylW arcr Xrady1x dv 0 p p pp lp3.375 SA b1 OA}{1 pp1s2Facs{dpp{dL1w 12Prep0gifilll1r 180x -1dp14rsmpscD6lpr0.5180s 36 cmv 1 ex8counttomark{ rot 0 mvo alp190mSApymv g/wsgnelW1pm2lZLB2ap sat16rmvoLB25.8xl}-10mvsc dp b2 px at nr dv Cambridge Scientific816sbeginL/mt/matrixpxor{4 0grwyxL/ix/index09.6ppexec}0DA}p {sqrt mv -1 npro 120bW e SA 4 l0 3pComputing,Laserrac2L/mv/moveto2.2b/BW{wx FgieCA2dvrOd dv sm HA}{ c neg lp n/ex 8 sc px cv dic c 180 dx g DA}{cmlperOnpatOA}{ac3slSApOA}b1s lmcw 180s-1180Computing,t} 2 rad e 6 a SAt}{rpxs-.6lp-9.6 at lpbW 4xey ec1 lWgs 3 0OA}{1xl 12 OA}{11.5p l p RA}{61Dx}ifcmL/xl/trans bsSst 2pchemdictx/dx-1w0AA}{0cWaRAc 2 -1-1DA}{cw-1.6p ex0-10.6latedpb/Db{bs{ -0.4 p26ac DA}{ 1cX sm 5 st}b/OrA{begin {ex gspdpfillDA}{py-1x dv}{bd}iea/pxac py18npDS -1 -8gc2c-2HA}ndAn st}mWI1 x-9.6pySAtr/dy slneg arc33gspbeging/cY0 neg dpyfillmvcvDA}2 o 8np0.3scgrmt0dv 0 dp24.6wx lr2.251b/Cr{0acp x 0 0 CA al Inc. dv 0 pp py xl-1sqrt py xpxSA OA}{ In dv/bdx execst bs b-1 e-1 cpt 0 wb 4pp dv/bdpy l bs In w wc CB-2 arco p 5SA pydpAA}{1o dv asg e gs w x1mfill cY a py e xl}{xlnp{cw gs1 L/ie/ifelsepp p g rads ggrac d/wlpgr dy 5 dp mmv DA}{2.25mveq{DD}{DS} 5ientificR cCBs/wxa Y o 2.25a}b/PT{85 gs2cmx negAgibW1.5 py ro}ie} CBn/dyfillpy -1 e 0pp}px snegw lpp n1.6m DLBm/w f-1SA 0c5acgsneg16gsc cm CA fillac 180neg}c1986,pyggr}b/OB{/bSxlpy lpbWgimv dxaL0 ssetgra gsdy 2.2py bsp gsmlnmpx def}bind4 aAx} n/dx 12dp lp Dsg{xll ebs nprO n/dycXOA}{1 90acdictne{bWlt{ppm360 m/aL rev{neg}ifgr cpdp/cY0.5 LB neg}if/py ste cpp21.612s mvlW0-0.4S]}b/dL{dAs pybW2c-1sc sdvac0 p eb/HA{lW{px{1.5 2 gr}b/In{px 90 SA esgnpcm sl pA m 12 e g gr s -1 s 0 x m2 w m 1 grgs S]}b/dL{ dL 1 fill dv rnp[{py c}b/Ov{OrA 0 4 npSA 1 b2 WI sm 1 OB/bLrot dL etdash}d/c w Ac}{0.5 -1 8 16.8 sc 1.5 lpx gr}{gs pp}ifelse rO px gr cv }ie g cpt dx p m 360e eq{-1.6 gs e g gs OB x}if m rO rot DA}{dL cvDA}{ -.6 3 type[]type 5 L/a/a ac Sc cm 0.5 s1 ne neg}if/px -2 arc 0 4 SA D-gliceraldehido CHO CHO CHO CHO H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH HO C H CH2 OH CH2 OH currentpointCH2 OH 192837465 CH2 OH currentpo D-eritrosa L-eritrosa D-treosa L-treosa L-gliceraldehido
  21. 21. erdict/chemdictmv0.6dictL/ie/ifelseb1pnegtype[]typedpdpetgray0L/mt/matrixlapdef}binda/pxL/mCopyRightOA}{1Prepfilldpfillnne{bW0lstdx300pxe-10.5eq{dpbegincpst}]emfillst}{pxx}ifxZLBgr}bChemDrawspxexfilldvradlp0.6dictscp0165a21.5m5gmDA}{dLDA}{2.25fill}b/SA{aFradlWm-13g-16pxpix2-1mvpp}{sqrtscOA}{1ml}forldpst}{Asdv}{bd}ie0.5wyL/mt/matrix27pxg/bbgsetgray02lpeq{dL1p-9.6HA}{dLlform8bdatldp8SApybs180-1gr0ac121OBgidys0lxrlinetogetgrayL/mv/movetogrsetgray-1p8r/gresdp-9.6HA}{dLfilln145px0dp2OA}{1arc0sceq{DB}{DS}iearc0bWcmne{bWmaceq{dL}ift}{1scrlt{1cwpyat0npmv1987,90PrepchemdictxxsnpSAL/l/lineto23acp0cY2edef/b{bindpeOA}{1.5-0.4-2cmp/cYdpfill-2dpp-1nrix0.3omvput0c180L/S{sdprot-1CB01801Computing,st04gr}b/OB{/bS3lt{ppCAacrd1r/transb2LBlL/gs/gsavexrsdvradgrrot0maApyDLBarc0l0cmmvpm1dpDA}{2.25dp25.8AA}{1porO3gg/cwl-2s{dpl2-1dppsl12wx2.25pac0DLBdxcn/dxsgr}{gsrev{neg}ifooOA}{1acclippathlmvppDA}{2701Cb/OrA{py2grOmvppy00sl12wxm1L/ie/ifelseet}{Asclpofillac-1pcpInc.lnpoocmpgrbd1smfillrap-11r}ifgr2ZLcmpxrO2r1.2parcn145px0counttomark{bssqrt2161me3scwFlsmsSA27fillsInc.rO3sSsenddpsendpyx}if360 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gs-1 0 0WIsbdaLoacbWex -1grcptpxxcpt0cpp25.8acx12m1w rObscmclippath eq{gs exec8S}if/lpo/cX xlx8p pst gsatla}{ex8SAOB/bLe2pya}ie}b/WW{gs90neenp[{pyl tlW mxtput1g1at ro}ie}b/AA L/tr/trans16.8een1aL ne{bW8p0crochemdict Computing,pg/wbgsslnp2 39or{42setdash}d/cR L/gr/grestoreatLaser1 -1aLeyput-.6bs24.602 rneg}if/pxl0.50dpgsrOrost 0wydv/bdalpxoxldv0ppw us execc Laspy3.375pyrO-9.6p21.6SAscxpn/dx-1lLB0gsCBstwydiv pp}ifelsedv c1putcg180lW plp dv o dv0 neg 1 c CA pl 8 mt p ac mv 2 OA}{1 0.62.2527 5OB 1987, bd m/w p 1 gs lgr pycvDA}{cw c arc -4.8 negwD 27 x gr 1 180 -1 lW 2 begin -1 5 c 2.2 5 sg rO def/L{load w cpt pp sc t S s def/L{ s MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSAS Cinco carbonos: Aldopentosas D-eritrosa D-treosa CH O CH O CH O CH O H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH CH2 OH CH OH currentpoint 192837465 currentpoint2 192837465 C H OH 2 currentpoint OH CH curren 192837465 2 D-ribosa D-arabinosa D-xilosa D-lixosa
  22. 22. MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSASgr 165 6 2850 1186 40 /bs[[1 123 3075 80 2589]]d end 759 2487 DSt [1 1663182962770 40 I 4010[1 [0881 4010 746 4010] [03321 2589 3218I2397] chemdict DSt [2 I/bs[[1 1 420040 804505]I end1 3182 begin SP 20 3218 DSt [3 I 328 4010 2589 DSt [3 I 3145 4456 I 746 5070 1 746 759 2181 759 75 1 3218 209240 [23182 3075] 2397begin SP3626DSt [4 I 742 3155 DSt [5DSt [4 I 638 4662 333 3825] 3033 4720 2727 3775] 864 4641 1169 4010] 3280 3961 3585 5026] 762 3520 762 3349] 3145 4150 3145 3961] 742 3349 742 5075] chemdict 3626 4456] 633 4770 328 3155] 746 4505 DSt DSt1186 I 2669 100 2669] 3162 4591 3162 4613] 4662] 3073 3470 2768 4591] 2669] 3344 4641] 3038 3271 2732 [1 3349] 3264 4613 3569 3271] 20 2487] gr Db ]d I [1 3064 2759 3649x o a}b/PT{8 lexn dpfill1mputsmpst0scx/dxm oatne{bWbsdxbW1menepywdef}bindwbss-1gwap o/cXpyxfillwIn ix dv exec 5OB 1987,DA}{cwbdaLSA3.37516S]}b/dL{dA-4.8acsl01L/l/linetogrnpxpxsmeq{gslAA}{1scwy m2 dv0neg 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L/ix/index 0 b1 1 bs DLB-1 4.8 gsZLB bsmv sm m grtr LB acmv 5 2 pp}{s torep 6 0 py ro 1.2p pbW sgrL/ix/index 25.839 pp DT}]ofillSA l aLxpp0-1 o bWps DA}{cwm120.3neg -1 s0x pcm m py r begin x L/mt/matrix gilp202gsAc e g8SA 0-.6 cplnp 0 sbdend}b/Db{bs{dp-1 s 0 p wD sDA}{cwppa/px0 dvarcw0 se fill at 180pywF mv lp Prep dp lmvp sc ne{bW3t}{0 p 1 cp4 0 ix ro}ie}b/AA{np x at gs 1.2smmbWxl 5cm 1987,CB 0-.6c 0 prOdpcp cpysglfill 1 a rO1 S}if/lp 1.5g/bb o1 np neg21-1dv dpcp-1g dp sc rgsCBaAp pp pp}ifelse trev{neg}ifowL/m/mul owcp4 0pd cp end}b/Db{bs{dp-1x 2 DA}{dLgr6ac grn-1s 2.25smrad gso gsdp ne g 4 palgs8 1w pyCopyRight pywy sqrt02.2 x -1.6cpgr}{gsgi 2CBrO1 S dvnpbspx st}{Asc1ne{pyC dpChemDraw m180begin/versionarc3Scientificdv/bdrO0 DA}{2.25 bsxdxal pxcvr -8-1o mv2WI1f arcn/gsacm1Cambridge16-1wgs st}{As dveq{dpmvix xlrO g pxput 24.6 st}b/OrA{pyat L/xl/translate lSA -8dprotsc smr 3ro e2 0.5pp acbWn2px wp def}bindD -11pixpxdvnpgr m}b/dA{[3bd1rO 180 pyp sc}b/Ov{OrA0 npfills m}b/CB{np[{[{CS} RA}{6m-.6 -8e51986, st}{0lW sgxl}{xl scgs0 sqrtmvS]}b/dL{dA eq{dL}ifAc}{0.5 epp SA0p L/ie/ifelsenpn/dxs1 eq{DD}{DS}ie 5 41x0gs ln/dym gr0 cml 0gssc3nHZLB 1DA} lSA0eygr}{pp}{gs8lp4-1rOL/ie/ifelse0cmpys0.6x2.2bLopgsgrx cppy0 cm125.839e grgdv pperdict/chemdictgsrpx dysComputing,mvbegin/versionmv0.53 gm4.8nst}{pxr gsst}s 0 082-121.6 aA n2DLBwxmvpyn/eyx xl sm-1a pxmsc grtrrO SA23pys-0.40ppac360s{nHpy xl pydppcmg1800gr}{gsOB/bLmacdvmvp1 2sarc12fill}b/SA{aFdpgrca ne{bW1r1200rcY gr mt x ac ppx sc DLB 1CA -1 exec}{al s atn SA8 mt s a}ie}b/WW{gs r cX e -1 4 21.6 l9.6l pp ro dv mvt OB145 1 90 -2 a}ie}b/BW{wD sc a}b/PT{8 p2 p pypp m/w px 1 m/w p a}ie}b/BW{wD1 ro tr/dy x/dx p lW s tr/dy n/ex m DA}{cw 0 ac gi SA st}]e cpt Computing, c l 0 rad g/cY 90 1 27dvsetgray0 2 currentmatrix x}if begin gr}ie}b/Cr{0 m s cm p 0 -1 360 Seis carbonos: Aldohexosas D-ribosa D-arabinosa CH O CH O CH O CH O H C OH HO C H H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH CH2 OH currentpoint 192837465 currentpoint 192837465currentpoint 192837465 CH2 OH CH2 OH CH2 OH currentpoinD-alosa D-altrosa D-glucosa D-manosa
  23. 23. Monosacáridos Estructura 4 3339] 7981 4689 8282 4989] 5442/bs[[1 7842 7819 4562] 4632] 7918 4583 7396 3262] 4611] 7819 4562 8219 4583] [1[1 7697 3262 8298 2622] 20 3155] I gr Db 7723 3095 7842 I ]d 7998 2622 7422 MONOSACARIDOS: ALDOSASDSt4070 1 7835 213140 I80 402460chemdict begin [2 DSt [4 I 5920 3995 DSt I 8282 3962 DSt [6 II5441 50 802662]5898I26624127[2 SP 2431]7835[3 I 5441 4477 I 7802 4428 DSt [3 [5 I 5044 3995 DSt [4 7406 2 3808] 7707 3459 7406 3759] 0 5038] 161 784299 7802 3962] 1 3995] chemdict begin DSt 3095] 3 4477] end 1356DSt27905473[120 8 2460] [07802 3962 7835 4428] DSt 2431 DS t 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n/dy dp b2 st 2.25 ro dp ro m neg bW s 8sc 0 p dup -1 m 4 -1 1 px pp x dA gs 2 pp 0 rO CA wy mv ne arc fill}b/SA{ 1 eq{ lp-1180 o w e st}b/DS{np pp cm 0 SA S -1p0 lx 2 scpy t} 9.6 p 0 mA S Seis carbonos: Aldohexosas D-xilosa D-lixosa CH O CH O CH O CH O H C OH HO C H OH HO C H H C H C OH HO H H C OH C HO C H HO C H HO C H HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH C H 2OH currentpoint 192837465 currentpoint 192837465 C H OH C H OH currentpoi 2 C H OH 2 currentpoint 192837465 2 D-gulosa D-idosa D-galactosa D-talosa
  24. 24. MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSASTres carbonos: Cetotriosa CH2 OH C O CH2 OH Dihidroxiacetona
  25. 25. Monosacáridos Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSASCuatro carbonos: Cetotetrosas CH2 OH CH2 OH C O C OH C OH HO C H CH2 OH CH2 OHD-eritrulosa L-eritrulosa
  26. 26. Monosacáridos Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSASCinco carbonos:Cetopentosas CH2OH CH2OH C O C O H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH CH2OH CH2OH D-ribulosa D-xilulosa
  27. 27. Monosacáridos Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CETOSAS Cinco carbonos: Cetopentosas CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH C O C O C O C OH C OH HO C H H C OH HO C HH C OH H C OH HO C H HO C HH C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OHD-psicosa D-fructosa D-Sorbosa D-tagatosa D-ribulosa D-xilulosa
  28. 28. MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS OHH O C + R OH H C OR R´ R´Aldehido + Alcohol Hemiacetal OHR´ O C + R OH R´ C OR R´ R´ Cetona + Alcohol Hemicetal
  29. 29. Monosacáridos Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS H OHO C H H C OH C H C OH H C OH H C OH O O HO C HHO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C H C H C OH CH 2OH CH 2OH CH 2OHb-D-glucopiranosa D-glucosa a-D-glucopiranosa Anillo de 6 miembros Como el del pirano O piranosas
  30. 30. Monosacáridos Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS HOCH 2 OHO C CH 2OH HOCH2 C OH CHO C H O HO C H O HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C H C H C OH CH2OH CH 2OH CH 2OHb-D-fructofuranosa D-fructosa a-D-fructofuranosa Anillo de 5 miembros Como el del furano furanosas O
  31. 31. Monosacáridos Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS CH 2OH HO C H O H C OH H H OH O HO C H OH H H HO H C OH H C H OH CH 2OHEstructura en proyección deEstructura en proyección deFischer Haworth
  32. 32. Monosacáridos Estructura MONOSACARIDOS: CICLOS CH 2OH HO C H O H C OH H H OH O HO C H OH H H HO H C OH HOCH2 C H OH HEstructura en proyección deEstructura en proyección deFischer Haworth Una permutación Inversión en C5

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