Application of Carbon
Nanotubes in
chromatography
By
Abdollah karim
golan
Instructor:
Dr.yadollah
yamini
What are Carbon Nanotubes ?
• Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of
carbon. These cylindrical carbon molecules
have in...
Discovery
They were discovered in
1991 by the Japanese
electron microscopist
Sumio Iijima who was
studying the material
de...
The way to find out how the carbon atoms
are arranged in a molecule can be done by
joining the vector coordinates of the a...
armchair
1
Zig zag
chiral
Nanotubes are
formed by rolling up
a graphene sheet
into a cylinder and
capping each end
with half of a
fullerene molecule...
•
Arc discharge method
Connect two graphite rods to a power supply,
place them millimeters apart, and throw
switch. At 100...
Chemical vapor deposition
Place substrate in oven, heat to 600 C, and
slowly add a carbon-bearing gas such as
methane. As ...
Laser ablation (vaporization)
Blast graphite with intense laser pulses; use the laser
pulses rather than electricity to ge...
Properties
Electrical
Thermal
Strength Properties
• carbon nanotubes have the strongest tensile
strength of any material known.
• it also has the highes...
Electrical Properties
• If the nanotube structure is armchair then the
electrical properties are metallic
• If the nanotub...
Thermal Properties
• All nanotubes are expected to be very good thermal
conductors along the tube, but good insulators lat...
Some applications of Carbon
Nanotubes include the following
• Micro-electronics /
semiconductors
Conducting Composites
Con...
applicationapplication
 In gas chromatographyIn gas chromatography
 In HPLCIn HPLC
Gas-Liquid ChromatographyGas-Liquid Chromatography
Oven
Detector
Injection
port
Nitrogen
cylinder
Column
Recorder
•SWCNTs
with a diluted solution of IL under controlled temperature. In this
way, when IL is immobilized on the inner wall ...
application
• Seprate alkyl benzenes from alkane
• analysis of esters and C1–C4 alcoholic
Compounds
• allowing separation ...
MWCNTs-R-NH2 proved to be better performing than nonderivatized
ones also for separation of a number of alcohols
and ester...
SEM images of (a) original steel tubing surface, (b) surface
after air oxidation at 550 ◦C, (c) CNT-coating after ethanol
...
GC chromatograms obtained on a SWCNT-bonded capillary column (A), column
temperature 30 ◦C, linear velocity 15.5 cm s−1; I...
Separation of test mixtures: naphthalene (1),
fluorene
(2), phenanthrene (3), and fluoranthene (4). Mobile
phase:
acetonit...
Separation of test mixtures: naphthalene
(1), fluorene
(2), phenanthrene (3), and fluoranthene
(4). Mobile phase:
acetonit...
Separation of test mixtures:
naphthalene (1), fluorene
(2), phenanthrene (3), and fluoranthene
(4). Mobile phase:
acetonit...
Separation of test mixture of sulfanilic
acid (1),
p-amino benzoic acid (2), phenol (3),
benzene (4), benzaldehyde
(5), ac...
Thank
you
for attention
Thank
you
for attention
application of carbon nano tube in chromatography
application of carbon nano tube in chromatography
application of carbon nano tube in chromatography
application of carbon nano tube in chromatography
application of carbon nano tube in chromatography
application of carbon nano tube in chromatography
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application of carbon nano tube in chromatography

  1. 1. Application of Carbon Nanotubes in chromatography By Abdollah karim golan Instructor: Dr.yadollah yamini
  2. 2. What are Carbon Nanotubes ? • Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon. These cylindrical carbon molecules have interesting properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Their final usage, however, may be limited by their potential toxicity.
  3. 3. Discovery They were discovered in 1991 by the Japanese electron microscopist Sumio Iijima who was studying the material deposited on the cathode during the arc-evaporation synthesis of fullerenes. He found that the central core of the cathodic deposit contained a variety of closed graphitic structures including nanoparticles and nanotubes, of a type which had never previously been observed
  4. 4. The way to find out how the carbon atoms are arranged in a molecule can be done by joining the vector coordinates of the atoms. By this way it can be identified whether if the carbon atoms are arranged in a zig-zag, armchair or in a helical shape.
  5. 5. armchair 1
  6. 6. Zig zag
  7. 7. chiral
  8. 8. Nanotubes are formed by rolling up a graphene sheet into a cylinder and capping each end with half of a fullerene molecule. Shown here is a (5, 5) armchair nanotube (top), a (9, 0) zigzag nanotube (middle) and a (10, 5) chiral nanotube. The diameter of the nanotubes depends on the values of n and m. armchairzigzagchiral
  9. 9. • Arc discharge method Connect two graphite rods to a power supply, place them millimeters apart, and throw switch. At 100 amps, carbon vaporizes in a hot plasma. Can produce SWNT and MWNTs with few structural defects Tubes tend to be short with random sizes and directions
  10. 10. Chemical vapor deposition Place substrate in oven, heat to 600 C, and slowly add a carbon-bearing gas such as methane. As gas decomposes it frees up carbon atoms, which recombine in the form of NTs Easiest to scale to industrial production; long length NTs are usually MWNTs and often riddled with defects
  11. 11. Laser ablation (vaporization) Blast graphite with intense laser pulses; use the laser pulses rather than electricity to generate carbon gas from which the NTs form; try various conditions until hit on one that produces prodigious amounts of SWNTs Primarily SWNTs, with a large diameter range that can be controlled by varying the reaction temperature By far the most costly, because requires expensive lasers
  12. 12. Properties Electrical Thermal
  13. 13. Strength Properties • carbon nanotubes have the strongest tensile strength of any material known. • it also has the highest modulus of elasticity. Material Young's Modulus (TPa) Tensile Strength (GPa) Elongation at Break (%) SWNT ~1 (from 1 to 5) 13-53E 16 Armchair SWNT 0.94T 126.2T 23.1 Zigzag SWNT 0.94T 94.5T 15.6-17.5 Chiral SWNT 0.92 MWNT 0.8-0.9E 150 Stainless Steel ~0.2 ~0.65-1 15-50 Kevlar ~0.15 ~3.5 ~2 KevlarT 0.25 29.6
  14. 14. Electrical Properties • If the nanotube structure is armchair then the electrical properties are metallic • If the nanotube structure is chiral then the electrical properties can be either semiconducting with a very small band gap, otherwise the nanotube is a moderate semiconductor • In theory, metallic nanotubes can carry an electrical current density of 4×109 A/cm2 which is more than 1,000 times greater than metals such as copper
  15. 15. Thermal Properties • All nanotubes are expected to be very good thermal conductors along the tube, but good insulators laterally to the tube axis. • It is predicted that carbon nanotubes will be able to transmit up to 6000 watts per meter per Kelvin at room temperature; compare this to copper, a metal well-known for its good thermal conductivity, which transmits 385 watts per meter per K. • The temperature stability of carbon nanotubes is estimated to be up to 2800o C in vacuum and about 750o C in air.
  16. 16. Some applications of Carbon Nanotubes include the following • Micro-electronics / semiconductors Conducting Composites Controlled Drug Delivery/release Artificial muscles Supercapacitors Batteries Field emission flat panel displays Field Effect transistors and Single electron transistors Nano lithography Nano electronics Doping Nano balance Nano tweezers Data storage Magnetic nanotube Nanogear • Nanotube actuator Molecular Quantum wires Hydrogen Storage Noble radioactive gas storage Solar storage Waste recycling Electromagnetic shielding Dialysis Filters Thermal protection Nanotube reinforced composites Reinforcement of armour and other materials Reinforcement of polymer Avionics Collision-protection materials Fly wheels"
  17. 17. applicationapplication  In gas chromatographyIn gas chromatography  In HPLCIn HPLC
  18. 18. Gas-Liquid ChromatographyGas-Liquid Chromatography
  19. 19. Oven Detector Injection port Nitrogen cylinder Column Recorder
  20. 20. •SWCNTs with a diluted solution of IL under controlled temperature. In this way, when IL is immobilized on the inner wall of the SWCNT capillary column, the nanotubes assist IL forming a network-like structure. This improves the column chromatographic properties due to the higher surface area available to analytes
  21. 21. application • Seprate alkyl benzenes from alkane • analysis of esters and C1–C4 alcoholic Compounds • allowing separation of primary and secondary alcohol isomers
  22. 22. MWCNTs-R-NH2 proved to be better performing than nonderivatized ones also for separation of a number of alcohols and esters [29], with good reproducibility in retention time (RSDs < 1.5%)
  23. 23. SEM images of (a) original steel tubing surface, (b) surface after air oxidation at 550 ◦C, (c) CNT-coating after ethanol CVD, and (d) CNT-coating after functionalization.
  24. 24. GC chromatograms obtained on a SWCNT-bonded capillary column (A), column temperature 30 ◦C, linear velocity 15.5 cm s−1; IL capillary column (B), column temperature 90 ◦C, linear velocity 13.8 cm s−1; IL + SWCNT capillary column (C), column temperature 110 ◦C, linear velocity 19.2 cm s−1.
  25. 25. Separation of test mixtures: naphthalene (1), fluorene (2), phenanthrene (3), and fluoranthene (4). Mobile phase: acetonitrile/water535:65 v/v. Conditions: ; flow-rate, 1.0 mL/min; temperature, 201C; injection volume, 20 mL, detection, UV at 254 nm. MWCNTs/SiO2-1 column
  26. 26. Separation of test mixtures: naphthalene (1), fluorene (2), phenanthrene (3), and fluoranthene (4). Mobile phase: acetonitrile/water535:65 v/v flow-rate, 1.0 mL/min; temperature, 201C; injection volume, 20 mL, detection, UV at 254 nm. MWCNTs/SiO2-3 column
  27. 27. Separation of test mixtures: naphthalene (1), fluorene (2), phenanthrene (3), and fluoranthene (4). Mobile phase: acetonitrile/water535:65 v/v. flow-rate, 1.0 mL/min; temperature, 201C; injection volume, 20 mL, detection, UV at 254 nm. MWCNTs/SiO2-5 column
  28. 28. Separation of test mixture of sulfanilic acid (1), p-amino benzoic acid (2), phenol (3), benzene (4), benzaldehyde (5), acetophenone (6), and ethyl benzenecarboxylate (7). Mobile phase: water (A); methanol/water560:40 v/v (B). Conditions: MWCNTs/SiO2-5 (A), commercial HPLC column (B); other
  29. 29. Thank you for attention Thank you for attention

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