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“ Rapping, Reading and  Role-Playing”  by Keith Gilyard  A’Kena LongBenton, MA, PMC EDP 9310 9.8.11
Early Language  <ul><li>Black English* A.K.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Black English Vernacular or Ebonics </li></ul><ul><li>Oakl...
Smitherman’s Definition  <ul><li>“ Black Dialect is an Africanized form of English reflecting Black America’s linguistic-c...
Black English Example <ul><li>Incorrect Use of “To Be” Verb and Word Ending Omissions  </li></ul><ul><li>Example— “What is...
Zero Copula Rule  “To Be” Verb Omission <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Oh you so stupid Keith.” </li></ul></ul>...
Multiple Negations  <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ain’t no teacher can keep no class late like that.” </li></ul...
Two Languages Definition <ul><li>Bidialectical = Biloquialism = to speak two different languages, e.g., Black English and ...
Code-switching Definition <ul><li>“ Ability to move back and forth among languages, dialects, and registers with ease, as ...
Another Definition  <ul><li>“ A strategy by which the skilled speaker uses his knowledge of how language choices are inter...
Code-switching Made Easy <ul><li>Layman’s Terms—speaking appropriately to fit within a given social situation </li></ul><u...
Who’s more likely to use  code-switching? <ul><li>Younger or older adolescents? </li></ul><ul><li>Older  adolescents  </li...
The Reading Process <ul><li>Smith (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Not new and does not have to be l...
Types of Readers  <ul><li>Efficient Readers—do not decode words to sound </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled Readers—can read faster...
Varying Views of the  Reading Process <ul><li>McCracken & Walcutt (1963) and  </li></ul><ul><li>Spache ( 1964)  </li></ul>...
The Not-So Great Debate <ul><li>Phonics  </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolf Flesch (1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Code approach to reading...
Phonics Don’t Always Work Different Initial “ho” Sound  <ul><li>hot </li></ul><ul><li>hope </li></ul><ul><li>hook  </li></...
Moving Beyond Whole Language & Phonics <ul><li>Reading is developed when more reading strategies are utilized. </li></ul><...
Literature’s Impact on Reading <ul><li>When the imagination is not utilized reading is likened to “learning to walk with o...
Interesting  Literature Quotes  <ul><li>“ Life will never be a substitute for literature, it’s not long enough” (Rouse 197...
Literature’s Impact cont. <ul><li>There is an art in listening to someone read to you  </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from list...
Early Exposure  Leads to Awareness <ul><li>Early exposure to vocabulary  </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of prediction, contex...
Family’s Impact on Reading <ul><li>Competitive with older sister to show mom reading skills </li></ul><ul><li>If the famil...
Impression Management <ul><li>Role-playing = adapting to the situations </li></ul><ul><li>Learn cues from others (White, m...
Microscope Rap  <ul><li>Lyricist:  A’Kena Long (1988) </li></ul>Eyepiece  Course adjustments Fine adjustments
Rapping in Science Class <ul><li>Microscope Lyrics </li></ul><ul><li>With a microscope you can see things not seen with th...
Chorus  <ul><li>Go micro  </li></ul><ul><li>Get busy </li></ul><ul><li>Get busy microscope </li></ul><ul><li>(Repeat) </li...
Discussion Questions <ul><li>Why are there opposing views to Black English? </li></ul><ul><li>Is code-switching only preva...
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Reading, Rapping, & Codeswitching

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Having the ability to codeswitch from Ebonics to professional English is a skill set that many African Americans cannot afford to be without.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Please read my new book' The Unfinished Business of the Civil Rights Movement: Failure of America's Public Schools to Properly Educate its African American Student Populations..' The book describes in detail the only scientifically proven and tested dialect reading program for Black non-mainstream functionally illiterate students in grades 7-12..The book is currently available on Amazon.com, and Rosedogbooks.com..
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Reading, Rapping, & Codeswitching

  1. 1. “ Rapping, Reading and Role-Playing” by Keith Gilyard A’Kena LongBenton, MA, PMC EDP 9310 9.8.11
  2. 2. Early Language <ul><li>Black English* A.K.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Black English Vernacular or Ebonics </li></ul><ul><li>Oakland, CA—1990’s national story* </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate Linguistic System </li></ul><ul><li>Research Dating Back 3 Decades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smitherman (1977) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dillard (1973) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haskins & Burts (1973) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Smitherman’s Definition <ul><li>“ Black Dialect is an Africanized form of English reflecting Black America’s linguistic-cultural heritage and the conditions of servitude, oppression and life in America” (1977). </li></ul><ul><li>Layman’s term—Black English dates all the way back to slavery and reflects its effects </li></ul>
  4. 4. Black English Example <ul><li>Incorrect Use of “To Be” Verb and Word Ending Omissions </li></ul><ul><li>Example— “What is they doin Sherry?” </li></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you notice the improper verb conjugation and word ending omission? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Zero Copula Rule “To Be” Verb Omission <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Oh you so stupid Keith.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Then why you laughin?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It gon be more fun too.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Which helping verb is missing in the above sentences ? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Multiple Negations <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ain’t no teacher can keep no class late like that.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Can you determine the three negations? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the sentence be improved? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Two Languages Definition <ul><li>Bidialectical = Biloquialism = to speak two different languages, e.g., Black English and Standard English </li></ul>
  8. 8. Code-switching Definition <ul><li>“ Ability to move back and forth among languages, dialects, and registers with ease, as demanded by the social situation.” </li></ul><ul><li>Elgin (1979) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Another Definition <ul><li>“ A strategy by which the skilled speaker uses his knowledge of how language choices are interpreted in his community to structure the interaction so as to maximize outcomes favorable to himself.” </li></ul><ul><li>Penalosa (1981) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Code-switching Made Easy <ul><li>Layman’s Terms—speaking appropriately to fit within a given social situation </li></ul><ul><li>Key Concepts—social awareness and skill set </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who’s more likely to use code-switching? <ul><li>Younger or older adolescents? </li></ul><ul><li>Older adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Younger are capable and understand it, but have little desire to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Older adolescents are more aware of “the social sensitivities associated with different kinds of languages and dialects” (Smitherman 1977). </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Reading Process <ul><li>Smith (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Not new and does not have to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Our natural way of making sense of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Making Sense” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most Important Factor of Reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Reason We Read </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Readers <ul><li>Efficient Readers—do not decode words to sound </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled Readers—can read faster than they speak </li></ul><ul><li>Fluent Readers—requires the least graphics </li></ul><ul><li>“ Meaningful language is transparent; we look through words for the meaning beyond” (Smith 1979). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Varying Views of the Reading Process <ul><li>McCracken & Walcutt (1963) and </li></ul><ul><li>Spache ( 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>View reading as a linear, cumulative process </li></ul><ul><li>Goodman (1967) views reading as a selective leap toward meaning </li></ul><ul><li>begin reading meaning </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Not-So Great Debate <ul><li>Phonics </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolf Flesch (1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Code approach to reading </li></ul><ul><li>180 Spelling-to-Sound Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Primary way many of us learned to read in school </li></ul><ul><li>Smith (1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Global—reading for meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Print is meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Print differs from speech </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to a variety of interesting and complex text </li></ul><ul><li>Reading will become natural like oral language </li></ul><ul><li>Whole Language </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phonics Don’t Always Work Different Initial “ho” Sound <ul><li>hot </li></ul><ul><li>hope </li></ul><ul><li>hook </li></ul><ul><li>hoot </li></ul><ul><li>house </li></ul><ul><li>hoist </li></ul><ul><li>horse </li></ul><ul><li>horizon </li></ul><ul><li>honey </li></ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul><ul><li>honest </li></ul>
  17. 17. Moving Beyond Whole Language & Phonics <ul><li>Reading is developed when more reading strategies are utilized. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be “tied” to solely whole language or phonics </li></ul>
  18. 18. Literature’s Impact on Reading <ul><li>When the imagination is not utilized reading is likened to “learning to walk with one leg” (Holdaway 1979). </li></ul><ul><li>Stories & poems—spur our curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Curious George text—adventurous encounters </li></ul><ul><li>Literature enlightens our lives </li></ul>
  19. 19. Interesting Literature Quotes <ul><li>“ Life will never be a substitute for literature, it’s not long enough” (Rouse 1978). </li></ul><ul><li>“ A common adage says, ‘Knowledge is power.’ Although this statement cannot be truer, the imagination is even more powerful” (Long 2003). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Literature’s Impact cont. <ul><li>There is an art in listening to someone read to you </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from listening to someone talk to you </li></ul><ul><li>Positive impact on reading skills especially reading to children before birth </li></ul>
  21. 21. Early Exposure Leads to Awareness <ul><li>Early exposure to vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of prediction, context clues, and plot </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of conventions, e.g., left to right, top to bottom, left page first… </li></ul>
  22. 22. Family’s Impact on Reading <ul><li>Competitive with older sister to show mom reading skills </li></ul><ul><li>If the family regards reading skills as a cherished possession, then the social value of reading is increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Homes should be enabling not disabling. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency is the key to communicative development. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Impression Management <ul><li>Role-playing = adapting to the situations </li></ul><ul><li>Learn cues from others (White, middle-class, Jewish) </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize those cues (grammar and nonverbal) to guide others’ impression of self </li></ul>
  24. 24. Microscope Rap <ul><li>Lyricist: A’Kena Long (1988) </li></ul>Eyepiece Course adjustments Fine adjustments
  25. 25. Rapping in Science Class <ul><li>Microscope Lyrics </li></ul><ul><li>With a microscope you can see things not seen with the human eye </li></ul><ul><li>The eyepiece on the microscope will let you find out why </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fine and course adjustments will better you to see </li></ul><ul><li>Because in the laboratory is the only place it be </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chorus <ul><li>Go micro </li></ul><ul><li>Get busy </li></ul><ul><li>Get busy microscope </li></ul><ul><li>(Repeat) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Why are there opposing views to Black English? </li></ul><ul><li>Is code-switching only prevalent in the Black community? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of code-switching? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you support whole language theory? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the disadvantages of phonics? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be the effects if our community focused on healthy academic competition? </li></ul>

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