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Two-Earner Families on the Rise

(Moen, 2001)
In 2011
married-couple families
with both parents working

= 58.5 %
(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012)
“Not only has the number of women in the
labor force tripled in the last 40 years,

the proportion of working mothers of
y...
Time Crunch
• “Parents of both sexes are spending
an average of ten or twelve hours
less per week with their children
than...
What is
Spillover?
Spillover
Home

Work

Stress and conflict
at home, including
stressful parentchild interactions

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Greater ...
Spillover
Home

Work

Positive family
events and absence • Improved job performance
• Increased job satisfaction
of stress...
Spillover
Home

Work

More ineffective
parenting practices

Work-related stress

(Sanders, Stallman, & McHale, 2011)
Work Challenge Level & Parenting
Work Challenge
Level, Complexity
& Variation
Parenting Style

Low

Harsher
discipline

Hi...
Manage Work-Home Demands
• Reduce personal stress
• Improve parent-child relationships
• Improve work capacity
(Sanders, S...
References
• Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Employment characteristics of
families summary. Retrieved from
http://www...
Work-Life Balance
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Work-Life Balance

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Work-Life Balance

  1. 1. Two-Earner Families on the Rise (Moen, 2001)
  2. 2. In 2011 married-couple families with both parents working = 58.5 % (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012)
  3. 3. “Not only has the number of women in the labor force tripled in the last 40 years, the proportion of working mothers of young children has more than quadrupled ... today, almost two-thirds of mothers of preschoolers, and even more strikingly, married mothers of children under age 1, are in the work force” (Moen, 2001, Para. 12).
  4. 4. Time Crunch • “Parents of both sexes are spending an average of ten or twelve hours less per week with their children than they did in 1960” (“Working family,” 1998). • “Forty-two percent of working parents are spending less time with their spouses” (“Working family,” 1998).
  5. 5. What is Spillover?
  6. 6. Spillover Home Work Stress and conflict at home, including stressful parentchild interactions • • • • • • • • Greater irritability and impatience Lower energy levels Impaired attention span Poor health outcomes Poor organizational commitment Poorer job performance Job dissatisfaction High rates of staff turnover (Sanders, Stallman, & McHale, 2011)
  7. 7. Spillover Home Work Positive family events and absence • Improved job performance • Increased job satisfaction of stress and conflict at home (Sanders, Stallman, & McHale, 2011)
  8. 8. Spillover Home Work More ineffective parenting practices Work-related stress (Sanders, Stallman, & McHale, 2011)
  9. 9. Work Challenge Level & Parenting Work Challenge Level, Complexity & Variation Parenting Style Low Harsher discipline High • • • Greater parental warmth More responsiveness Higher quality explanations provided to children *Note: Research differences exist by gender of parent and child. *Time urgency at work does not correlate with parenting style. (Greenberger, O’Neil, & Nagel, 1994)
  10. 10. Manage Work-Home Demands • Reduce personal stress • Improve parent-child relationships • Improve work capacity (Sanders, Stallman, & McHale, 2011)
  11. 11. References • Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Employment characteristics of families summary. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/famee.nr0.htm • Greenberger, E., O’Neil, R., & Nagel, S. (1994, November). Linking workplace and homeplace: Relations between the nature of adults’ work and their parenting behaviors []. Developmental Psychology, 30(6), 990-1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.30.6.990 • Moen, P. (2001). The career quandary. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/Publications/ReportsOnAmerica/2001/TheCar eerQuandary.aspx • Sanders, M. R., Stallman, H. M., & McHale, M. (2011, August). Workplace Triple P: A controlled evaluation of a parent intervention for working parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(4), 581-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024148 • Working family value factoids. (1998). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/livelyhood/workingfamily/familytrends.html

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