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Presenting E-Learning and Design Concepts


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Presenting E-Learning and Design Concepts

  1. 1. Presenting E-Learning and Design Concepts Suzanne Sannwald Ashford University Instructional Design & Delivery EDU 652 Dr. Kathy Zientek April 7, 2013
  2. 2. Defining E-Learning “E-learning is the use of electronic technologies to create learning experiences” (Horton, 2012, p. 1). E-Learning is simply learning with technology integration.
  3. 3. Varieties of E-Learning E-Learning Varieties Outlined by Horton (2012): • Standalone Courses – Independent, self-paced learning – Example: Using Gantt Charts (Examples, 2011) • Learning Games and Simulations – Discovery learning through game and simulation activities – Example: Interview Simulation (Examples, 2011) The Crimescene Game Learning Simulation
  4. 4. Varieties of E-Learning E-Learning Varieties Outlined by Horton (2012): • Mobile Learning – Learning on the move with mobile devices – Example: Architectural Tour (Examples, 2011) • Social Learning – Online, community-based learning – Example: Chronicle Forums (Examples, 2011) • Virtual-Classroom Courses – Structured, online courses – Example: EDU 652 eCollege Course
  5. 5. Creating E-Learning E-Learning creation depends on DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT What is the difference between design and development?
  6. 6. Design vs. Development DESIGN DEVELOPMEN T Is about decisions Is about construction “Governs what we do” “Governs how we carry out those decisions” (Horton, 2012, p. 3). (Horton, 2012, p. 3). Planning Implementation
  7. 7. Defining E-Learning Design E-Learning is simply learning with technology integration. E-Learning design is simply instructional design for learning with technology integration.
  8. 8. Defining Instructional Design Instructional design is “the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation” (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p.4). Instructional design is simply the process of thoughtfully creating plans for learning. *Instructional design applies generally to planning of any type of learning.
  9. 9. Instructional Design Advice Instructional Design Advice from Horton (2012): “Apply just enough instructional design” (p. 3) “Instructional design determines everything else” (p. 3) “Good design can prevent common failures” (p. 3) Apply principles of instructional design to as great a degree as time and resources allow. Instructional design, or the lack thereof, directly affects all decisions made regarding instruction. Nearly all learning failures may be traced back to the root cause of failures in instructional design.
  10. 10. Design Perspectives & Influences WARNING Some of the most commonly influential instructional models provide highly ineffective perspectives for learning.
  11. 11. Design Perspectives & Influences Horton (2012) warns about the non-design perspectives and influences described below. RAPRAPRAPAWAP This perspective translates into “read a paper, read a paper, read a paper, and write a paper” (p. 4). Learning is designed to occur mostly or entirely through straightforward reading and writing assignments. Pack ‘em, yak ‘em, rack ‘em, and track ‘em This perspective addresses instruction which involves teaching large masses of students through lecture-style delivery and with standard, objective-based assessments that conform directly with lectures. Warn and scorn (AKA Cover This perspective involves the forcing of learners through a sequence of material that they are required to acknowledge as received. The the Corporate Assets) purpose of such compliance-based instruction is likely legal protection. Fill in the blanks Wouldn’t it be cool if… (AKA Fad-chasing) This perspective approaches the development of instruction as if learning is a simple equation. Planning of learning is plugged into a template-like format out of convenience rather than best practice. This perspective for planning learning is based upon following the latest trends and trying to impress or keep up with others rather than upon applying actual instructional design principles.
  12. 12. Learning Goal Alignment Actual instructional design starts with identifying the LEARNING GOAL Developing an aligned learning goal requires (2) steps. Step 1 Step 2 Identify organizational goals. Identify how learning will contribute to organizational goals.
  13. 13. Learning Goal Alignment Throughout the instructional design process, keep the goal in mind with the questions below. What must my design accomplish? = What is the goal? “How am I helping achieve that goal?” (Horton, 2012, p. 10)
  14. 14. Defining Learning Objectives After defining the learning goal, determine a LEARNING OBJECTIVE What are learning objectives? – “They define where you’re going” (Newby et al, 2011, p. 78). – They describe how learners will change as a result of instruction. – They describe what learning will occur as a result of instruction.
  15. 15. Learning Objective Alignment Goals Learning objectives should align with Make sure objectives align with identified goals. Learners Assessment Design objectives considering capabilities and traits of learners. Assessment criteria and methods should align with objectives.
  16. 16. Planning Learning Sequences Bottom Up • Most common sequence • Prerequisite objectives are taught first Top Down • Assume prerequisites are met • Start at the top objective • Address learners without prerequisites, as necessary Sideways • Allow learners to explore in own sequence • Learners satisfy prerequisites as approached (Horton, 2012, p. 43)
  17. 17. Selecting Learning Sequences Learning Sequence When Appropriate? Bottom Up • “Often necessary where safety is a concern” (Horton, 2012, p. 47). • Appropriate for novices and those conditioned by traditional educational methods. Top Down • “For efficiency of learning” (Horton, 2012, p. 47). • Appropriate for experts or self-directed learners. • Good for need-based just-in-time learning. Sideways • To “add excitement to the learning process” (Horton, 2012, p. 47). • Appropriate for discovery learning and
  18. 18. Selection of Learning Activities “People learn by considering, researching, analyzing, evaluating, organizing, synthesizing, discussing, testing, deciding, and applying ideas” (Horton, 2012, p. 51). What learning activities will best help learners meet objectives?
  19. 19. Selecting Learning Activities 3 Types of Learning Activities Do Activities: • Practicing • Game playing • Discovery learning Absorb Activities: • Reading • Watching • Listening • Field trips Goal = 50% of learner time Goal = 40% of learner time Connect Activities: • Asking questions • Conducting research • Creating original work Goal = 10% of learner time (Horton, 2012, p. 51-58)
  20. 20. Selecting Learning Activities Tips when selecting learning activities: • Match learning activities with objective types. • Plan learning activities in combination. • Keep activities simple when they can be. • Cascade related activities for efficiency. • Vary the sequence of activities when appropriate. • Plan activities with discovery in mind. (Horton, 2012, p. 59-61)
  21. 21. References Examples from e-learning by design. (2011). Horton, W. (2012). E-Learning by design (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Wiley. Newby, T. J., Stepich, D. A., Lehman, J. D., Russell, J. D., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2011). Educational technology for teaching and learning (4th ed.). [VitalSource version]. Retrieved from Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons/Jossey-Bass.