Stress is upcoming major disease initiator be it Diabetes, Hypertension or even Cancers. Indian life style has been known to avert all these state by Yoga, Less use of Physical modes and a restricted diet.
A Condition in which the person responds to change in normal balanced state. Its non specific response of body to a DEMAND. Its NON-SPECIFIC because body goes through a number of biochemical changes & readjustments without regards to the nature of stress producing agents. Stress is the “WEAR AND TEAR” experience of our mind and body as we attempt to cope with our continually changing environment.
Stress is not synonymous with Nervous tension or Anxiety. STRESSORS may be any event or stimulus which may neither POSITIVE nor NEGATIVE but they have POSITIVE or NEGATIVE effects i.e. FIGHT OR FLIGHT. S=P>R Stress occurs when the Pressure is greater than the Resource.
STRESS is not necessarily bad or harmful.POSITIVE stress is EUSTRESS i.e. degree of stress, necessary to sustain and improve tolerance to stress without overdoing the stress expenditure.
COPING : It is a problem-solving process that the person uses to manage the stress or out of ordinary events or situations with which he is presented i.e. successfully dealing with the problem.
ADAPTATION : Process by which human system modifies itself to make suitable to the environment. It is a change that results from response to stress.
Characteristics of Stress: Universal Phenomenon Its an Individual experience It provides stimulus for Growth & Change. It affects all dimensions of life. Its not a nervous energy
EFFECTS OF STRESS ON BODY: Physical Emotional Intellectual Spiritual Social
EMOTIONS BEHAVIOR Loss of Confidence Accident Prone More fussy Loss of Appetite Irritability Loss of Sex Drive Depression More Drinking R-OH Apathy Insomnia Alienation Restlessness Apprehension More Smoking
Hypo/Hyperthyroidism CVD Diabetes GI Disorders Accident Proneness Menstrual Irregularities Skin Diseases Misc: Respiratory Diseases RA Migraine Ms Tension Low BP Cancer
PHYSICAL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ▪ HEAT,COLD,WETNESS ▪ SLEEP DEBT ▪ VOBRATION,NOISE. ▪ DEHYDRATION ▪ IONIZING RADIATION ▪ MALNUTRTION ▪ SKIN IRRITANTS OR ▪ POOR HYGIENE CORROSIVES ▪ MUSCULAR FATIGUE ▪ PHYSICAL WORK ▪ IMPAIRED IMMUNE ▪ BRIGHT LIGHT,DARKNESS SYSTEM ▪ DIFFICULT OR ARDUOUS ▪ OVERUSE OR UNDERUSE TERRAIN OF MUSCLES,ORGAN SYSTEMS ▪ ILLNESS OR INJURY
MENTAL MENTAL COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL(Feelings) (Process of Learning) ▪ FEAR & ANXIETY ▪ INFORMATION-TOO MUCH PRODUCING THREATS OF OR TOO LITTLE INJURY,PAIN,DISEASE,FAIL URE OR LOSS ▪ SENSORY OVERLOAD OR DEPRIVATION ▪ GRIEF PRODUCING LOSSES ▪ AMBIGUITY,UNCERTAINTY, ▪ RESENTMENT,ANGER,RAG ISOLATION E PRODUCING FRUSTRATION,LOSS, GUILT ▪ TIME PRESSURE V/s WAITING ▪ BOREDOM PRODUCING INACTIVITY ▪ UNPREDICTABILITY ▪ CONFLICTING MOTIVES ▪ DIFFICULT JUDGEMENT ▪ SPIRITUAL ▪ HARD CHOICES V/s NO CONFRONTATION CHOICES
(A) G.A.S- General Adaptation Syndrome It gets Physiologic responses of whole of the body to stressors. It involves Autonomic Nervous System & Endocrine System. (B) L.A.S- Local Adaptation Syndrome: Localized responses to stress e.g. Wound Healing, Blood clotting, Vision, Response to pressure Short term Adaptive Restorative
A-R-E which stands for: ALARM- Sympathetic system is mobilized. RESISTANCE- Adaptation takes place. EXHAUSTION- Adaptation can not be maintained.
ALARM Reaction: Fear, Fight & Flight Mobilizing defense mechanism of body and mind to cope with stressors. Shock: A.N.S reacts, Release of Epinephrine & Cortisone Counter Shock Phase: Reversal of changes produced in shock phase
STAGE OF RESISTANCE: Body stabilizes, Hormone Level returns to normal, Heart rate, Blood Pressure & Cardiac Output return to normal. 2 things may occur:- Either person adapts to stressors successfully & returns to normal or stressor remains present & adaptation fails.
STAGE OF EXHAUSTION: Occurs when body can no longer resists stress & body energy is depleted. The body energy level is compromised & adaptation diminishes. Body may not be able to defend that may end to disease or death.
ADRENAL CORTEX- ADRENAL MEDULLA-CORTISOL DEPENDENT CATECHOLAMINE DEPENDENT INCREASED INCREASED FAT & PROTEIN Release of glucose from Liver BREAKDOWN Release of Fatty Acids from BLOOD GLUCOSE fat stores ANTI – INFLAMMATORY Heart Rate EFFECTS Blood Pressure Metabolic Rate Decreased function of visceral organs
Localized responses to stress. e.g. Wound Healing delayed. Blood Clotting Impaired Vision
I. PHYSIOLOGICAL: Dilated Pupils, Increased HR, RR, BP, Blood flow to Muscles & Blood Clotting, Bronchodilatation, Skin Pallor, Oliguria, Water Retention, Dry Mouth, Decreased Peristalsis, Hyperglycemia, Diaphoresis and above all Enhanced mental alertness
MILD: Increased Alertness, Motivation & attentiveness. MODERATE: Perception narrowed, selective in attention & Physical discomfort. SEVERE: Impaired Learning ability, Very Narrow focus, Behavior becomes automatic, Senses reduced drastically. PANIC: Unable to function or communicate with possible bodily harm to self or others, loss of strong displeasure.
False Expectations Appearing Real. It is mild to severe feeling of apprehension about some perceived threat. Object of fear may or may not be based on reality
ANXIETY FEAR: State of Mental Emotion of uneasiness. Apprehension Source may not be Source is Identifiable. identifiable. Related to Future. Related to the present. Vague. Definite. Result of Psychological Result of Discrete or emotional conflict. Physical/Psychological entity.
A-B-C STRATEGY A = AWARENESS What causes you stress? How do you react?
A-B-C STRATEGY B = BALANCE There is a fine line between Positive (FIGHT)or Negative (FLIGHT) stress How much can you cope with before it becomes negative ?
A-B-C STRATEGY C = CONTROL What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress ?
“I N S A D C A G E S ” Loss of Interest in pleasurable activities, Suicidal Ideation Activity Decreased Depressed Feeling Concentration Decreased Appetite decreased Guilt feelings Energy decreased Sleep decreased
Change your THINKING Change your BEHAVIOUR Change your LIFESTYLE
Re-framing is a technique to change theway you look at things in order to feel betterabout them. There are many ways tointerpret the same situation so pick the oneyou like. Re-framing does not change theexternal reality, but helps you view things in adifferent light and less stressfully.
POSITIVE THINKING: Forget - powerlessness, dejection, despair, failure. Focus on positives as Stress leaves us vulnerable to negative suggestion; Focus on your strengths; Learn from the stress you are under; Look for opportunities; Seek out the positive - make a change.
Be assertive (Clear in State), Get organised, Ventilation, Humour, Diversion and distraction,
1. BE ASSERTIVE ( Behaving in such a positive & confident way that people notice you)Assertiveness helps to manage stressful situations, and will , in time, help to reduce their frequency. Lack of assertiveness often shows low self - esteem and low self - confidence. The key to assertiveness is verbal and non - verbal communication. Extending our range of communication skills will improve our assertiveness.
BEING ASSERTIVE:Being assertive involves standing up for yourpersonal rights and expressing your thoughts,feelings and beliefs directly, honestly andspontaneously in ways that don’t infringe therights of others.
ASSERTIVE POEPLE: Respect themselves and others, Take responsibility for actions and choices, Ask openly for what they want, Disappointed if ‘want’ is denied, Self - confidence remains intact, Not reliant on the approval of others.
ASSERTIVE SKILLS- Establish good eye contact / don’t stare. Stand or sit comfortably - don’t fidget. Talk in a firm, steady voice. Use body language. ‘I think’ / ‘I feel’. ‘What do you think?’ ‘How do you feel ?’ Concise and to the point
BENEFITS OF BEING ASSERTIVE: Higher self-esteem Less self-conscious Less anxious Manage stress more successfully Appreciate yourself and others more easily Feeling of self-control
2. GET ORGANIZED: Poor organisation is one of the most common causes of stress. Structured approaches offer security against ‘out of the blue’ problems. Prioritising objectives, duties and activities makes them manageable and achievable. Don’t overload your mind. Organisation will help avoid personal and professional chaos.
GET ORGANISED: Time Management Make a list Plan your day What MUST be done Set achievable goals What SHOULD be done Don’t waste time making What would you LIKE to do excuses for not doing Cut out time wasting something Learn to drop unimportant activities Say no or delegate
3. VENTILATION: ‘A problem shared is a problem halved’ Develop a support network through friends or colleagues to talk with. It’s not always events that are stressful but how we perceive them. Writing a diary or notes may help release feelings but do not re-read what has been written.
4. HUMOUR: Good stress – reducer, Applies at home and work, Relieves muscular tension, Improves breathing, Pumps endorphins into the bloodstream - the body’s natural painkillers.
5. DIVERSION AND DISTRACTION Take time out, Get away from things that bother you, Doesn’t solve the problem, Reduce stress level, Calm down , Think logically.
Uses up excess energy released by the ‘Fight or Flight’ reaction. Improves blood circulation Lowers blood pressure Clears the mind of worrying thoughts Improves self image Makes you feel better about yourself Increases social contact
Good stress reducer Difficult to cope when tired Wake refreshed after night’s sleep Plenty of daytime energy
Interest Gives you a ‘break’ from stresses Provides outlet for relief Provides social contact