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Commercial Art


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Art history From 1960s to 1980s.

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Commercial Art

  1. 1. Group Members Zainab Iftikhar Mizhgan Afzaal Awais Jahangir Akbar Maqsood Kayani Abeer Khalid
  2. 2. Commercial Art Commercial art is the art of creative services, referring to art created for commercial purposes, primarily advertising. Commercial art, often called advertising art, is used to sell goods and services. It is different from fine art, which exists for its own sake. We just see the world objectively in commercial art.
  3. 3. Art movements 1960-1980 • Mail art • Hippie movement • Conceptualism • Performance • Installation art • Psychedelic art • Minimalism • Photo-realism • Environmental Earthworks • Post-Minimalism
  4. 4. • Graffiti Art • Neo-Expressionism • Pop-art • Neo-pop art • Op-Art
  5. 5. Mail Art (1960’s) Mail art I the world wide cultural movement that began in the early 1960s. It involves sending visual art through postal system. Mail art was created because many artists thought the commercial gallery system is limited and turned to exhibiting work through postal system. The work was usually lightweight and humorous. Mail art is significant for complete openness, absence of hierarchy, and disregard for rules of traditional art system.
  6. 6. Hippie movement(1960’s) Their belief was that life was about being happy, not about what others thought you should be. Hippies believed the dominant mainstream culture was corrupt and inherently flawed and sought to replace it with a Utopian society. Hippies were often vegetarian and believed in eco friendly environmental practices. Hippies participated in alternative arts and street theater and listened to folk music and psychedelic rock. Hippie dress, which they believed was part of the statement of who you were, included brightly colored, ragged clothes, tie-dyed t-shirts, beads, sandals (or barefoot), and jewelry. Hippies often drove VW buses painted with colorful graphics.
  7. 7. Conceptualism (1960’s) Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concepts or ideas involved in the work take priority over traditional artistic and material concerns. Many works of conceptual art, sometimes called installations, may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions. In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art.
  8. 8. Performance (Early 1960s onwards) Emerging in America and Europe in the early 1960s, Performance was an experimental art form inspired by Conceptual art, as well as Dada, Futurism, the Bauhaus and the Black Mountain College. Performance Art is generally supposed to be characterized by: its "live" nature; and its impact - that is, it may be amusing or shocking but it must be memorable. The late-1960s and 1970s also witnessed the appearance of "Body Art", a type of Performance in which the artist's own flesh becomes the canvas. During the 1980s, Performance Art has increasingly relied on technology (video and computers) to deliver its "artistic" message.
  9. 9. Installation Art(1970s) Installation art came into prominence during the 1970s. It is often temporary. It is an artistic genre of 3D works that I site specific and designed to transform the perception of space. It invites the viewers to enter into the art work and appeals to not only sense of sight but also to hearing and smell. Installations demand the spectator’s active engagement. It is a part of movement to try and undermine the idea of art being collectable object, which is also seen in conceptual art.
  10. 10. Psychedelic art The discovery of LSD and its subsequent popularity as an agent that produces altered states of consciousness was at the core of the Psychedelic Art movement; however, other drugs were also used as a means of inducing certain types of artistic expressions. Many works, especially evident in concert and event posters, depicted a strong color palette—usually of contrasting colors. The art of this period also reflected Art Nouveau and Victorian influences. The Psychedelic movement had a strong influence on comic book artists who created an underground genre of comic book art known as “underground comix.”
  11. 11. Minimalism(1960s-70s) Minimalism was used to show the identity of the subject by dumping all unneeded features. Minimalism is characterized by extreme simplicity of form and a deliberate lack of expressive content. Objects are presented in their elemental, geometric form, wholly devoid of emotion. Minimalist works (of sculpture and painting) are often composed of bare uniform elements making up some type of a grid or pattern. Regularity is almost essential to minimize any glint of expressionism. Along the way it gradually threw away all feeling and emotion, until it arrived at a severe and impersonal form of so-called artistic purity or truth.
  12. 12. Photo-realism( Late 1960s) All these terms denote a style of painting which appeared in the late 1960s, in which are painted in a highly detailed manner which resembles photographs. Most practitioners work directly from photographs or digital computer imagery, and the subject matter is quite banal and of no special interest. Instead the real focus is on the precision and detail achieved by the artist, and its impact on the viewer. It was largely inspired by Pop-Art.
  13. 13. Environmental Earthworks(1960s) Environmental earthworks form of contemporary art which emerged in the 1960s, largely in the United States, which uses or interacts with the landscape to create artistic shapes or "events." Referred to by a variety of names, Environmental or Land Art typically re-fashions natural forms or enhances them with man- made materials.
  14. 14. Post-Minimalism (1971 onwards) When Minimalist artists began to take a more conceptual approach to their art and focused on conveying a single truth, they gradually crossed over into Post-Minimalism. Indeed many Conceptual artists are often spoken of as Post-Minimalists.
  15. 15. Graffiti Art (1970s onwards) During the 1970s and 1980s. B-boys, the first generation of hip- hop voiced the frustrations of urban minorities in their attempt to create their own form of art, a non-commercial one that did not seek to please the general public. They employed stencils, marker pens, and aerosol spray cans, and wrote with industrial spray paint and acrylic on all types of support: stone, plaster, metal, wood, and plastic. Their "canvases" were subway trains, walls in urban areas and industrial wastelands, subways, roofs and billboards. During the 1970s, Graffiti Art spread to Europe and Japan and eventually crossed over from the street into the gallery. The heart of the movement however, was New York City.
  16. 16. Neo-Expressionism (1980 onwards) One of several styles of Postmodernism, Neo-Expressionism was a broad painting movement that appeared around 1980. They use sensuous colours, and incorporate themes associated with numerous historical styles and movements, such as the Renaissance, Mannerism, Cubism, Fauvism, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism and Pop-Art. Not surprisingly, in Germany, Neo-Expressionism was strongly influenced by earlier German Expressionist groups like Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brucke.
  17. 17. Pop-art (1950s-60s) Characterized by bold, simple, everyday imagery, and vibrant block colours, it was interesting to look at and had a modern "hip" feel. The bright colour schemes also enabled this form of avant-garde art to emphasise certain elements in contemporary culture, and helped to narrow the divide between the commercial arts and the fine arts. It was the first Post-Modernist movement (where medium is as important as the message) as well as the first school of art to reflect the power of film and television, from which many of its most famous images acquired their celebrity. Common sources of Pop iconography were advertisements, consumer product packaging, photos of film-stars, pop-stars and other celebrities, and comic strips.
  18. 18. Neo-pop art (1980s) During the 1980s there was a revival of interest in Pop Art - a phenomenon known as Neo-Pop (or "Shock Pop-Art"). It was not a new art movement as such, rather a rebirth of artworks based on popular culture - this time derived from the 1980s. While the original Pop Art movement was totally avant garde, Neo-Pop Art is more of a repetition. Thus Neo-Pop artists continue to employ "ready mades" and pre-existing items in their works and also rely heavily on celebrity icons. They also draw inspiration from Minimalism, Conceptual Art, Photorealism, Installation/Performance Art and more.
  19. 19. The Terra Foundation for American Art The Terra Foundation for American Art was established in 1978 by businessman and art collector Daniel J. Terra (1911–1996) who believed that the art of the United States is a dynamic and powerful expression of the nation’s history and identity. It is dedicated to fostering exploration, understanding, and enjoyment of the visual arts of the United States for national and international audiences. Recognizing the importance of experiencing original works of art, the foundation provides opportunities for interaction and study, beginning with the presentation and growth of its own art collection in Chicago.
  20. 20. Op-Art(1960s) The term referenced the fact that Op Art is comprised of illusion, and often appears - to the human eye - to be moving or breathing due to its precise, mathematically-based composition. After a major 1965 exhibition of Op Art entitled The Responsive Eye, the public became enraptured with the movement. As a result, one began to see Op Art showing up everywhere: in print and television advertising, as LP album art and as a fashion motif in clothing and interior decoration. As an "official" movement, Op Art has been given a life-span of around three years.
  21. 21. Art history in India 1960-80 Following the decades of the 40s and the 50s, dominated by the aesthetic values of School of Paris, the Indian art scene in the 60s witnessed a change in direction; artists actively entered into dialogue with traditional visual language and reinvented their own contexts. By the early 60s a strong feeling of nationhood was palpable. Artists looked anew at traditional sources of imagery. The creative ferment in Baroda urged experiments with the narrative mode and figuration. Gulam Mohammed, Bhupen Khakhar, Jyoti Bhatt, Neelima Sheikh, Laxma Goud and others charted a new course. These artists were inspired by the past practices and living traditions. They looked a new at murals, miniature art, illuminated manuscripts and texts. Their imagination absorbed the vitality of decorative elements of tribal and folk arts.
  22. 22. Art in Pakistan 1960-1980 The art that emerged from the studios of the Modernists, because of its economically advantaged status, came to dominate the national art scene by the 1960s. The art of the East Pakistani painters had a tremendous impact on their counterparts in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi and Peshawar, who had yet to reach that mature understanding of the discipline. it could become a cohesive movement its activities were disrupted by political interference. After a gap, when they returned to mainstream art activity, their will had been blunted and the spirit lost.
  23. 23. The 60s also saw the American cultural impact on Pakistani urban centers. Films and publications were freely shown and distributed, and media were used to promote United States’ first art movement – Abstract Expressionism. Through visiting exhibitions and art historians, Pakistani artists received considerable exposure to abstract styles from America
  24. 24. Famous Pakistani artists • Ali Imam • Sadequain • Shakir Ali
  25. 25. Artist Gali Lahore Artist gali was located in Lahore Pakistan where the entire artist made handmade posters of films. But, after the emergence of technology in Pakistan the film posters started to come in to a print forms like posters and banners.
  26. 26. Comparison • 21st-century art is a burgeoning field of practice, research, and publication, making it an incredibly dynamic field of study. Many important topics have been resonating in the new century and inspiring new thinking and scholarly debate. • Other topics that were much-discussed in the late 20th century remain vital for the analysis of 21st-century art and visual culture, including semiotics, post-modernism, and feminism. • Art of the 21st century emerges from a vast variety of materials and means. These include the latest electronic technologies, such as digital imaging and the internet.
  27. 27. • Activities vary from spectacular projects accomplished with huge budgets and extraordinary production values and a do-it- yourself approach. The notion of influences has also shifted with changes in communications and technology. • A key feature of the art scene in the 21st is the impact of globalization – the accelerating interconnectivity of human activity and information across time and spaceAnyone with access to the internet can follow developments in Shanghai, Sydney. • Regarding globalization and art, do practices in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere challenge the traditional assumptions and value judgments that are the basis of the Western canon.
  28. 28. • Activities vary from spectacular projects accomplished with huge budgets and extraordinary production values and a do-it-yourself approach. The notion of influences has also shifted with changes in communications and technology. • A key feature of the art scene in the 21st is the impact of globalization – the accelerating interconnectivity of human activity and information across time and spaceAnyone with access to the internet can follow developments in Shanghai, Sydney. • Regarding globalization and art, do practices in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere challenge the traditional assumptions and value judgments that are the basis of the Western canon. • The expanding art market and the proliferation of biennials and art fairs helped a select group of artists from every continent to gain an international presence and the underlying structure and values of the art market changed.
  29. 29. • In the 21st century visual culture has grown as a recognized interdisciplinary field of study, taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding how images of all types communicate and participate in the construction of identity, gender, class, power relationships, and other social and political meanings and values. Medicine, science, politics, consumer culture, and religion and spirituality are some of the arenas that visual culture studies examine along with art. Just as visual culture scholars are examining images and media of all types so, too, are 21st-century artists drawing inspiration, imagery, materials, and concepts from diverse areas of culture, moving well beyond influences from the history of fine art and design.
  30. 30. • Public art was a well-established genre by the late 20th century, attracting both traditional and experimental practitioners. Public art in the 21st century has expanded even more as a field of activity in which creative investigation can take place. Public artists in the 21st century might use established approaches such as installation and performance but introduce new variations. For instance, it is now common for artists to hire other people, sometimes with special skills, to undertake performances on their behalf. • A pronounced tendency in the 21st century has been art that is participatory, in which the social interactions prompted by a work become its content. The 21st century is just beginning – issues and ideas are evolving rapidly and new artists are constantly gaining attention and influence.
  31. 31. Conclusion