Akbar Maqsood Kayani
Commercial art is the art of creative services, referring to
art created for commercial purposes, primarily advertising.
Commercial art, often called advertising art, is used to sell
goods and services. It is different from fine art, which
exists for its own sake. We just see the world objectively in
Art movements 1960-1980
• Mail art
• Hippie movement
• Installation art
• Psychedelic art
• Environmental Earthworks
• Graffiti Art
• Neo-pop art
Mail Art (1960’s)
Mail art I the world wide cultural movement that began in the early
1960s. It involves sending visual art through postal system.
Mail art was created because many artists thought the commercial
gallery system is limited and turned to exhibiting work through postal
The work was usually lightweight and humorous. Mail art is
significant for complete openness, absence of hierarchy, and disregard
for rules of traditional art system.
Their belief was that life was about being happy, not about what others
thought you should be. Hippies believed the dominant mainstream
culture was corrupt and inherently flawed and sought to replace it with
a Utopian society. Hippies were often vegetarian and believed in eco
friendly environmental practices. Hippies participated in alternative
arts and street theater and listened to folk music and psychedelic rock.
Hippie dress, which they believed was part of the statement of who
you were, included brightly colored, ragged clothes, tie-dyed t-shirts,
beads, sandals (or barefoot), and jewelry. Hippies often drove VW
buses painted with colorful graphics.
Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in
which the concepts or ideas involved in the work take priority over
traditional artistic and material concerns. Many works of conceptual
art, sometimes called installations, may be constructed by anyone
simply by following a set of written instructions.
In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of
the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that
all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the
execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that
makes the art.
Performance (Early 1960s onwards)
Emerging in America and Europe in the early 1960s, Performance was
an experimental art form inspired by Conceptual art, as well as Dada,
Futurism, the Bauhaus and the Black Mountain College.
Performance Art is generally supposed to be characterized by: its "live"
nature; and its impact - that is, it may be amusing or shocking but it
must be memorable.
The late-1960s and 1970s also witnessed the appearance of "Body
Art", a type of Performance in which the artist's own flesh becomes the
During the 1980s, Performance Art has increasingly relied on
technology (video and computers) to deliver its "artistic" message.
Installation art came into prominence during the 1970s. It is often
temporary. It is an artistic genre of 3D works that I site specific
and designed to transform the perception of space.
It invites the viewers to enter into the art work and appeals to not
only sense of sight but also to hearing and smell. Installations
demand the spectator’s active engagement. It is a part of
movement to try and undermine the idea of art being collectable
object, which is also seen in conceptual art.
The discovery of LSD and its subsequent popularity as an agent
that produces altered states of consciousness was at the core of
the Psychedelic Art movement; however, other drugs were also
used as a means of inducing certain types of artistic expressions.
Many works, especially evident in concert and event posters,
depicted a strong color palette—usually of contrasting colors. The
art of this period also reflected Art Nouveau and Victorian
The Psychedelic movement had a strong influence on comic book
artists who created an underground genre of comic book art
known as “underground comix.”
Minimalism was used to show the identity of the subject by
dumping all unneeded features. Minimalism is characterized by
extreme simplicity of form and a deliberate lack of expressive
content. Objects are presented in their elemental, geometric form,
wholly devoid of emotion. Minimalist works (of sculpture and
painting) are often composed of bare uniform elements making up
some type of a grid or pattern. Regularity is almost essential to
minimize any glint of expressionism.
Along the way it gradually threw away all feeling and emotion,
until it arrived at a severe and impersonal form of so-called artistic
purity or truth.
Photo-realism( Late 1960s)
All these terms denote a style of painting which appeared in the late
1960s, in which are painted in a highly detailed manner which
resembles photographs. Most practitioners work directly from
photographs or digital computer imagery, and the subject matter is
quite banal and of no special interest. Instead the real focus is on
the precision and detail achieved by the artist, and its impact on the
It was largely inspired by Pop-Art.
Environmental earthworks form of contemporary art which
emerged in the 1960s, largely in the United States, which uses or
interacts with the landscape to create artistic shapes or "events."
Referred to by a variety of names, Environmental or Land Art
typically re-fashions natural forms or enhances them with man-
Post-Minimalism (1971 onwards)
When Minimalist artists began to take a more conceptual approach
to their art and focused on conveying a single truth, they gradually
crossed over into Post-Minimalism. Indeed many Conceptual
artists are often spoken of as Post-Minimalists.
Graffiti Art (1970s onwards)
During the 1970s and 1980s. B-boys, the first generation of hip-
hop voiced the frustrations of urban minorities in their attempt to
create their own form of art, a non-commercial one that did not
seek to please the general public. They employed stencils, marker
pens, and aerosol spray cans, and wrote with industrial spray paint
and acrylic on all types of support: stone, plaster, metal, wood, and
plastic. Their "canvases" were subway trains, walls in urban areas
and industrial wastelands, subways, roofs and billboards. During
the 1970s, Graffiti Art spread to Europe and Japan and eventually
crossed over from the street into the gallery. The heart of the
movement however, was New York City.
Neo-Expressionism (1980 onwards)
One of several styles of Postmodernism, Neo-Expressionism was a
broad painting movement that appeared around 1980. They use
sensuous colours, and incorporate themes associated with
numerous historical styles and movements, such as the
Renaissance, Mannerism, Cubism, Fauvism, Surrealism, Abstract
Expressionism and Pop-Art.
Not surprisingly, in Germany, Neo-Expressionism was strongly
influenced by earlier German Expressionist groups like Der Blaue
Reiter and Die Brucke.
Characterized by bold, simple, everyday imagery, and vibrant block
colours, it was interesting to look at and had a modern "hip" feel. The
bright colour schemes also enabled this form of avant-garde art to
emphasise certain elements in contemporary culture, and helped to
narrow the divide between the commercial arts and the fine arts. It
was the first Post-Modernist movement (where medium is as
important as the message) as well as the first school of art to reflect
the power of film and television, from which many of its most
famous images acquired their celebrity. Common sources of Pop
iconography were advertisements, consumer product packaging,
photos of film-stars, pop-stars and other celebrities, and comic strips.
Neo-pop art (1980s)
During the 1980s there was a revival of interest in Pop Art - a
phenomenon known as Neo-Pop (or "Shock Pop-Art"). It was not a
new art movement as such, rather a rebirth of artworks based on
popular culture - this time derived from the 1980s. While the
original Pop Art movement was totally avant garde, Neo-Pop Art is
more of a repetition. Thus Neo-Pop artists continue to employ
"ready mades" and pre-existing items in their works and also rely
heavily on celebrity icons. They also draw inspiration from
Minimalism, Conceptual Art, Photorealism,
Installation/Performance Art and more.
The Terra Foundation for American Art
The Terra Foundation for American Art was established in 1978 by
businessman and art collector Daniel J. Terra (1911–1996) who
believed that the art of the United States is a dynamic and
powerful expression of the nation’s history and identity. It is
dedicated to fostering exploration, understanding, and enjoyment
of the visual arts of the United States for national and international
audiences. Recognizing the importance of experiencing original
works of art, the foundation provides opportunities for interaction
and study, beginning with the presentation and growth of its own
art collection in Chicago.
The term referenced the fact that Op Art is comprised of illusion,
and often appears - to the human eye - to be moving or breathing due
to its precise, mathematically-based composition.
After a major 1965 exhibition of Op Art entitled The Responsive
Eye, the public became enraptured with the movement. As a result,
one began to see Op Art showing up everywhere: in print and
television advertising, as LP album art and as a fashion motif in
clothing and interior decoration. As an "official" movement, Op Art
has been given a life-span of around three years.
Art history in India 1960-80
Following the decades of the 40s and the 50s, dominated by the
aesthetic values of School of Paris, the Indian art scene in the 60s
witnessed a change in direction; artists actively entered into
dialogue with traditional visual language and reinvented their own
By the early 60s a strong feeling of nationhood was palpable. Artists
looked anew at traditional sources of imagery. The creative ferment
in Baroda urged experiments with the narrative mode and
figuration. Gulam Mohammed, Bhupen Khakhar, Jyoti Bhatt,
Neelima Sheikh, Laxma Goud and others charted a new course.
These artists were inspired by the past practices and living
traditions. They looked a new at murals, miniature art, illuminated
manuscripts and texts. Their imagination absorbed the vitality of
decorative elements of tribal and folk arts.
Art in Pakistan 1960-1980
The art that emerged from the studios of the Modernists, because of
its economically advantaged status, came to dominate the national art
scene by the 1960s. The art of the East Pakistani painters had a
tremendous impact on their counterparts in Lahore, Karachi,
Rawalpindi and Peshawar, who had yet to reach that mature
understanding of the discipline.
it could become a cohesive movement its activities were disrupted by
political interference. After a gap, when they returned to mainstream
art activity, their will had been blunted and the spirit lost.
The 60s also saw the American cultural impact on Pakistani urban
centers. Films and publications were freely shown and distributed,
and media were used to promote United States’ first art movement –
Abstract Expressionism. Through visiting exhibitions and art
historians, Pakistani artists received considerable exposure to
abstract styles from America
Famous Pakistani artists
• Ali Imam
• Shakir Ali
Artist Gali Lahore
Artist gali was located in Lahore Pakistan where the entire artist
made handmade posters of films. But, after the emergence of
technology in Pakistan the film posters started to come in to a print
forms like posters and banners.
• 21st-century art is a burgeoning field of practice, research, and
publication, making it an incredibly dynamic field of study. Many
important topics have been resonating in the new century and
inspiring new thinking and scholarly debate.
• Other topics that were much-discussed in the late 20th century
remain vital for the analysis of 21st-century art and visual culture,
including semiotics, post-modernism, and feminism.
• Art of the 21st century emerges from a vast variety of materials
and means. These include the latest electronic technologies, such
as digital imaging and the internet.
• Activities vary from spectacular projects accomplished with
huge budgets and extraordinary production values and a do-it-
yourself approach. The notion of influences has also shifted
with changes in communications and technology.
• A key feature of the art scene in the 21st is the impact of
globalization – the accelerating interconnectivity of human
activity and information across time and spaceAnyone with
access to the internet can follow developments in Shanghai,
• Regarding globalization and art, do practices in Asia, Africa, the
Middle East, and elsewhere challenge the traditional
assumptions and value judgments that are the basis of the
• Activities vary from spectacular projects accomplished with huge
budgets and extraordinary production values and a do-it-yourself
approach. The notion of influences has also shifted with changes in
communications and technology.
• A key feature of the art scene in the 21st is the impact of
globalization – the accelerating interconnectivity of human activity
and information across time and spaceAnyone with access to the
internet can follow developments in Shanghai, Sydney.
• Regarding globalization and art, do practices in Asia, Africa, the
Middle East, and elsewhere challenge the traditional assumptions
and value judgments that are the basis of the Western canon.
• The expanding art market and the proliferation of biennials and art
fairs helped a select group of artists from every continent to gain an
international presence and the underlying structure and values of
the art market changed.
• In the 21st century visual culture has grown as a recognized
interdisciplinary field of study, taking a multi-faceted approach to
understanding how images of all types communicate and
participate in the construction of identity, gender, class, power
relationships, and other social and political meanings and values.
Medicine, science, politics, consumer culture, and religion and
spirituality are some of the arenas that visual culture studies
examine along with art. Just as visual culture scholars are
examining images and media of all types so, too, are 21st-century
artists drawing inspiration, imagery, materials, and concepts from
diverse areas of culture, moving well beyond influences from the
history of fine art and design.
• Public art was a well-established genre by the late 20th century,
attracting both traditional and experimental practitioners. Public
art in the 21st century has expanded even more as a field of
activity in which creative investigation can take place. Public
artists in the 21st century might use established approaches such
as installation and performance but introduce new variations.
For instance, it is now common for artists to hire other people,
sometimes with special skills, to undertake performances on
• A pronounced tendency in the 21st century has been art that is
participatory, in which the social interactions prompted by a
work become its content. The 21st century is just beginning –
issues and ideas are evolving rapidly and new artists are
constantly gaining attention and influence.