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What you about_dcs_system (1)


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What you about_dcs_system (1)

  1. 1. www.efarabi.comWhat do you know about DCS System?By: A. AwadhiDCS (Distributed Control System) is a computerized control system used to control theproduction line in the industry.Why DCS System is required?While a product (Food, medicine, Oil..etc) passing through many stages in the factorybefore it reaches its final so the product can be sold out, during those stages it requires akind of control in order to adjust the quality of it. However, to adjust the quality it isrequired to control many physical quantities such as pressure, Temperature..etc.Further more, in some dangerous applications such as petrochemical factories and nuclearreactors the control will much critical, However, losing the control may lead to anexplosion of the plant.What does DCS System consists of?DCS System consists minimum of the following components.1. Field Control station (FCS): It consists of input/output modules, CPU andcommunication bus.2. Operator station: It is basically human interface machine with monitor, theoperator man can view the process in the plant and check if any alarm is presentsand he can change any setting, print reports..etc.3. Engineering station: It is used to configure all input & output and drawing and anythings required to be monitored on Operator station monitor.Fig (1): Basic configuration of a DCS SystemCPUData busOperator stationInput signalsfrom fieldI/O ModulesEngineering station
  2. 2. How does it work?asically, DCS system receives input signals from other devices, these signals will behere are many sensors and transducers inside the plant converts physical quantities suchhere could be thousand of transmitters in a factory sending signals to DCS. Theto 20mA, 1 to 5VDC or Resistance.ic 0 or logic 1.hen FCS receives the analog signals from different transmitters it will convert it toig (2) shows an example of simple control mechanism. The water in the tank is requiredBprocessed and analyzed by DCS CPU and based on the result an action will be taken.Tas pressure, temperature to an electrical quantity, these devices called Transmitters theytransmit the electrical signals represents physical quantities to DCS System.Telectrical signals could be either analog or digital, for analog signals they could be in oneof the following cases.4And for digital they would be either logWdigital via input module then passed to CPU for processing, the CPU will compare theprocess measured value (PV) with value sited by the operator (SV). If the both values arenot matched then DCS will generate an output called Manipulated value (MV) to the fieldvia output modules in order to adjust the physical quantity by operating a valve forexample.Fto be controlled, the level transmitter will measure the water level and send PV signal (4-20mA) to DCS. Input module in the FCS will receive this signal and pass it to CPU afterconverting it to digital signal. The PV data can be monitored on operator station screen insmall window called Faceplate, Fig (3) shows an example of faceplate.Fig (2): Example of simple control mechanismInput PVMV Output Set pointPumpWater to TankTankLevel sensortransmitter
  3. 3. On the faceplate the operator can see the three parameters reading SV, PV & MV at thelso the faceplate shows the status of this control process Normal or Alarm, the alarmFig (3): Example of a simple faceplatetop. The SV can be set to the required level by moving the yellow pointer. DCS systemwill operate the pump by sending MV Signal via output module to fill the tank andcontinue as long as PV signal received from the transmitter is less then SV, once thewater level reached to required level that means PV=SV the DCS will stop the pump andthis happen if faceplate mode is Auto, however in Manual mode, the operator can controlMV directly and SV pointer will be disabled.Astatus will be initiated if there is any problem in which PV is not able to equalize withSV.PV 35.02%SV 35.00%MV 35.03Status NRLow limitHigh limitscaleSet valuepointerProcessbarManipulatedAut/Man020406080100output valuepointervariablescale