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FY - BAF
BALBHARTI’S
M. J. PANCHOLIA COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
   What is a Computer?
   Advantages/Features of Computer
   Definition of Computer
   History of Computer
   Generations of Computers
   Types of Computer
   Hardware & Software
   Parts of Computer (Block Diagram)
   Storage (I/O) Devices
   Software – System Software & Application Software
   Operating Software
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
What is a Computer?


The computer is one of the greatest
inventions in the history of
humankind.         Computers      have
applications      in   all fields   of
knowledge and therefore touch all
aspect of our life whatever may be
our field of activity.

The computer can be defined as a
machine that can do calculations,
comparisons, reading and writing on
a given set of data at a very high
speed, logically and intelligently in a
desired manner.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Advantages / Features of Computers


Speed – A computer performs operations with
great speed.
Accuracy – The computer gives accurate
results according to the instruction provided.
Storage – The storage capacity of the
computer is very large
Versatility – Computers are used in vide areas
of human activities.
Automatic – The computer performs all the
instructions provided to it automatically.
Diligence – After long hours of work human
being gets tired but a computer never gets tired.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Definition of a Computer


A computer is an electronic
device, which can perform
arithmetic and logical operations
with a high speed as per
instructions given.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
History of Computer


   1642 – Pascal built Mechanical
    Calculating Machine
     mechanical gears, hand-crank, dials and
      knobs
     other similar machines followed


   1805 – First Programmable device,
    Jacquard Loom
        wove tapestries with elaborate,
         programmable patterns
        pattern represented by metal punch-
         cards, fed into loom
        could mass-produce tapestries,
         reprogram with new cards
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
History of Computer


   Mid 1800's – Babbage designed
    "analytical engine"
      expanded upon mechanical calculators, but
       programmable via punch-cards
      described general layout of modern
       computers
      never functional, beyond technology of the
       day


   1890 – Hollerith invented tabulating
    machine
     used for 1890 U.S. Census
     stored data on punch-cards, could sort and
      tabulate using electrical pins
     finished census in 6 weeks (vs. 7 years)
     Hollerith's company would become IBM
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
History of Computer


   1930's – several engineers
    independently built "computers" using
    electromagnetic relays
       physical switch, open/close via electrical
        current
       Zuse (Nazi Germany) – destroyed in
        WWII
       Atanasoff (Iowa State) – built with grad
        student
       Stibitz (Bell Labs) – followed design of
        Babbage
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Generations of Computers


Generation 1: Vacuum Tubes (1945-1954)
 mid 1940's – vacuum tubes replaced relays
    glass tube w/ partial vacuum to speed electron
     flow
    faster than relays since no moving parts
    invented by de Forest in 1906

   1940's – hybrid computers using vacuum tubes and
    relays were built
                                                       COLOSSUS (1943)
                                                           built by British govt.
                                                            (Alan Turing)
                                                           used to decode
                                                            Nazi
                                                            communications
                                                       ENIAC (1946)
                                                            built by Eckert &
                                                             Mauchly at UPenn
                                                            18,000 vacuum
                                                             tubes, 1,500 relays
                                                            weighed 30 tons,
                                                             consumed 140
                                                             kwatts
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Generations of Computers


Generation 2: Transistors (1954-1963)
   mid 1950's – transistors began to replace tubes
      piece of silicon whose conductivity can be turned on
        and off using an electric current
      smaller, faster, more reliable, cheaper to mass
        produce
      invented by Bardeen, Brattain, & Shockley in 1948
        (won 1956 Nobel Prize in physics)

   computers became commercial as cost dropped high-
    level languages were designed to make programming
    more natural

        FORTRAN (1957, Backus at IBM)
        LISP (1959, McCarthy at MIT)
        BASIC (1959, Kemeny at Dartmouth)
        COBOL (1960, Murray-Hopper at DOD)

the computer industry grew as businesses could
buy
          Eckert-Mauchly (1951), DEC (1957)
          IBM became market force in 1960's
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Generations of Computers


Generation 3: Integrated Circuits (1963-1973)
   integrated circuit (IC)
       as transistor size decreased, could package many
        transistors with circuitry on silicon chip
       mass production further reduced prices


 1971 – Intel marketed first microprocessor, a chip w/ all
 the circuitry for a calculator

    1960's saw the rise of Operating Systems
       an operating system is a collection of programs
        that manage peripheral devices and other
        resources

         allowed for time-sharing, where multiple users
          share a computer by swapping jobs in and out

         as computers became affordable to small
          businesses, specialized programming languages
          were developed Pascal (1971, Wirth) C (1972,
          Ritche)
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Generations of Computers

Generation 4: VLSI (1973-1985)
   Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)
      by mid 1970's, could fit hundreds of thousands of transistors
        w/ circuitry on a chip
      could mass produce powerful microprocessors and other
        useful IC's
      computers finally affordable to individuals


   Late 1970's saw rise of personal computing
       Gates & Allen founded Microsoft in 1975 Gates wrote BASIC
        compiler for personal computer would grow into software giant,
        Gates richest in world
        http://www.webho.com/WealthClock

       Wozniak and Jobs founded Apple in 1977 went from garage to
        $120 million in sales by 1980

       IBM introduced PC in 1980 Apple countered with Macintosh in
        1984
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Generations of Computers


Generation 5:     Parallelism & Networking (1985-
????)


In this generation the computers are supposed to use
Artificial Intelligence.


Japan initiated the fifth generation computer project it
was also known as knowledge processing system. It
used a very large scale parallel processing
technologies and incorporated Artificial Intelligence.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Types of Computer


Computers can be classifies as
follows:

Analog Computers: are used for
processing data that vary continuously
such as speed, humidity etc. in such
computers data is given in continuous
form. These computers are not capable
of taking decisions but still are used in
scientific and industrial establishments.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Types of Computer


Digital Computers: Digital computers perform
calculations by counting and are used for
manipulating data with great accuracy. Digital
computers are further classified into:
a)  General Purpose – computers are able to
    handle many complicated problems by
    using programs which are specially
    prepared for solving complicated problems
b)  Special Purpose – computers are found in
    various consumer appliances, these are
    different from the computers used by
    business organization e.g. computers to
    identify mobile problems.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Types of Computer


Hybrid Computer: It is a combination of
Analog and Digital computers. Hybrid computer
are used where continuous and digital
processing is required e.g. to monitor weather
the analog devices may measure the humidity,
temperature etc. the numbers are further
converted into numbers and supplied to digital
component of the system.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Types of Computer


Based on the other features of the computer
such as speed, memory, processing power and
cost computers are classified as follows:
a)  Micro Computer (Personal Computer)
b)  Desktops
c)  Workstations
d)  Multimedia
e)  Laptops
f)  Palmtops
g)  Servers
h)  Mini Computers
i)  Mainframe Computers
j)  Super Computers
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Hardware & Software


i)          Hardware : The hardware consist
            of the physical parts of the
            computer which can be touched,
            seen and felt.
ii)         Software:      The    full  set  of
            instructions and procedures to be
            used on the computer is called
            software.     Software’s   can  be
            classified into:
      i)      System Software (Operating System)
      ii)     Application Software
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Parts of Computer (Block Diagram)




                           ALU
                   Arthematic & Logical Unit




INPUT                                          OUTPUT
                            CU
                         Control Unit




                            MU
                         Memory Unit
                         RAM & ROM
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Input Devices

   You use an input device, such as a keyboard
    or a mouse, to input data and issue commands
       Keyboard
       Mouse
       Game Controller (Joystick)
       Bar Code Reader
       Scanner
       Trackball
       Touch Screen
       Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
       Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
       Pen Input
       POS Terminals (Point of Sales
       Digital Camera
       OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
       Microphone
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
CPU – Central Processing Unit

Data which is entered in the computer is processed in a component
of the system unit called Microprocessor.


The CPU consist of ALU (Arthematic & Logical Section which is
used for computations, CU (Control Unit for monitoring the sequence
of instructions or programs and controlling the other devices
connected to the computer.


The CPU also consist of MU (Memory Unit) which is used to store
data as well as the results given by the computer. The memory unit
is classified into two types:


RAM  (Random Access Memory)
    Volatile Memory
    Data is lost when the lost is switched off.


ROM  (Read Only Memory)
    Permanent Memory
    BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
    CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Output Devices

   Output devices show you the results of processing data
      VDU (Visual Display Unit) or CRT (Cathode Ray
       Tube) or Monitor
      LCD
      Sound System
      Printer
         Impact Printers

            Dot Matrix

         Non-Impact Printers

            Laser

            Inkjet / Bubble Jet

         Computer Output Microfilm(Com) Devices

            Plotters

      LCD Projectors
      Communication Device
         Modems

         ISDN

         Broadband Services (Cable Modems)
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Data Representation


Computer understands only one language i.e.     8 Bits = 1 Byte
machine language. It is made up of Binary
Digits (0 & 1).                                 1024 Bytes = 1 KB

                                                1024 KB = 1 MB
The computer stores data in form of Binary
Digits, each digit is known as Bit. Each        1024 MB = 1 GB
character stored in computer is a combination
of 8 Bits (see the table below for example)     1024 GB = 1 TB

                                                ASCII
                                                American Standard Code for
                                                Information Interchange
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Storage Devices


The device on which is stored permanently,
which can be used as future reference.
Storage devices are Input / Output devices.
The devices are:
Magnetic Tapes
Magnetic Disk
   Floppy Disk
   Hard Disk
Optical Storage device
   CD
   DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)
Flash Memory
Memory Card
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Definition of Software


 Instructions    and associated
   data, stored in electronic format,
   that direct the computer to
   accomplish a task.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
  Software


                      SOFTWARE

             Classification of Software




       System                         Application



Hardware cannot work without a Software. System
software is used by the computer to interact with
hardware. Application Software (e.g. MS-Office) cannot
be executed without the installation of system software.
An operating system is system software.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS                         Components of OS
System Software                                   File Manager
                                                       Stores information on
                                                       various     secondary
   An Operating System (OS) is the                    storage devices e.g.
                                                       FDD, HDD…. etc
    master controller within a computer.          Process Manager
    EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS (Disk                      To    share    several
                                                       programs / processes
      Operating System), UNIX, Linux                   to run at the same
                                                       time the operating
   An operating system interacts with:                system has to share
     All hardware installed in or connected to        out    microprocessor
                                                       time.
      a computer system.                          Device Manager
     All software installed or running from a         The device manager
                                                       handles
      storage device on a computer system.             communication
                                                       between            the
                                                       peripherals and the
                                                       microprocessor.
                                                  Memory Manager
                                                       Various programs are
                                                       allocated memory in
                                                       such a manner that
                                                       no clash occurs.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
System Software


   Types of Operating System
      CUI (Character User Interface)
       Based Operating System
      GUI (Graphics User Interface)
       Based Operating System
      Single Task Operating System
      Multitasking Operating System
      Single User Operating System
      Multi User Operating System
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
    System Software - OS
   DOS (Disk Operating System)
      Developed by IBM
   Windows 95/98/XP/VISTA
     GUI
   Windows NT
     Multiuser
     Multitasking
     Networking
     Available in different languages
   Windows 2000
     Windows NT 5.0 – Windows 2000
     Provided more Security
     Available in different local languages.
   UNIX
      Developed by Bell Labs in 1969 – Dennis Ritchie &
       Ken Thompson rewrote in C language
      CUI
      UNIX interface is called as Shell
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
     System Software - OS


   LINUX
      Alternate to UNIX
      GUI
      Created by Linus Torvalds – University of Helsinki –
       1991.
      Vendors are Red Hat, Caldera Systems, Mandarake …
       etc.
   SOLARIS
      Sun Micro Systems deleoped in 1991
      Features of UNIX
      LINUX & Java are also Compatible
   MAC Operating System
      Introduced in 1983 by Apple
      GUI
      Used in Creative Works
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Application Software



 Accomplishes specific tasks for users.      Application
                                              Software is further
 Enables a computer to become a              Classified into:
  multi-purpose machine.
                                              1) Propriety

 Produce               Create flow charts   2) Off the Shelf
  worksheets and         and graphic
  reports.               organizers.
 Automate record       Communicate
  keeping like           worldwide.
  attendance and
  grades.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Personal Operating Software


 Word Processor
 Spreadsheet

 Presentation

 Financial Management

 ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)

   Raw Material Planning
   Checking Stock & Inventory
   Production & Planning
   Finished Goods Planning
   Sales
   Delivery

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Introduction to computers

  • 1. FY - BAF BALBHARTI’S M. J. PANCHOLIA COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS  What is a Computer?  Advantages/Features of Computer  Definition of Computer  History of Computer  Generations of Computers  Types of Computer  Hardware & Software  Parts of Computer (Block Diagram)  Storage (I/O) Devices  Software – System Software & Application Software  Operating Software
  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS What is a Computer? The computer is one of the greatest inventions in the history of humankind. Computers have applications in all fields of knowledge and therefore touch all aspect of our life whatever may be our field of activity. The computer can be defined as a machine that can do calculations, comparisons, reading and writing on a given set of data at a very high speed, logically and intelligently in a desired manner.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Advantages / Features of Computers Speed – A computer performs operations with great speed. Accuracy – The computer gives accurate results according to the instruction provided. Storage – The storage capacity of the computer is very large Versatility – Computers are used in vide areas of human activities. Automatic – The computer performs all the instructions provided to it automatically. Diligence – After long hours of work human being gets tired but a computer never gets tired.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Definition of a Computer A computer is an electronic device, which can perform arithmetic and logical operations with a high speed as per instructions given.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS History of Computer  1642 – Pascal built Mechanical Calculating Machine  mechanical gears, hand-crank, dials and knobs  other similar machines followed  1805 – First Programmable device, Jacquard Loom  wove tapestries with elaborate, programmable patterns  pattern represented by metal punch- cards, fed into loom  could mass-produce tapestries, reprogram with new cards
  • 7. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS History of Computer  Mid 1800's – Babbage designed "analytical engine"  expanded upon mechanical calculators, but programmable via punch-cards  described general layout of modern computers  never functional, beyond technology of the day  1890 – Hollerith invented tabulating machine  used for 1890 U.S. Census  stored data on punch-cards, could sort and tabulate using electrical pins  finished census in 6 weeks (vs. 7 years)  Hollerith's company would become IBM
  • 8. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS History of Computer  1930's – several engineers independently built "computers" using electromagnetic relays  physical switch, open/close via electrical current  Zuse (Nazi Germany) – destroyed in WWII  Atanasoff (Iowa State) – built with grad student  Stibitz (Bell Labs) – followed design of Babbage
  • 9. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Generations of Computers Generation 1: Vacuum Tubes (1945-1954)  mid 1940's – vacuum tubes replaced relays  glass tube w/ partial vacuum to speed electron flow  faster than relays since no moving parts  invented by de Forest in 1906  1940's – hybrid computers using vacuum tubes and relays were built COLOSSUS (1943)  built by British govt. (Alan Turing)  used to decode Nazi communications ENIAC (1946)  built by Eckert & Mauchly at UPenn  18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays  weighed 30 tons, consumed 140 kwatts
  • 10. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Generations of Computers Generation 2: Transistors (1954-1963)  mid 1950's – transistors began to replace tubes  piece of silicon whose conductivity can be turned on and off using an electric current  smaller, faster, more reliable, cheaper to mass produce  invented by Bardeen, Brattain, & Shockley in 1948 (won 1956 Nobel Prize in physics)  computers became commercial as cost dropped high- level languages were designed to make programming more natural  FORTRAN (1957, Backus at IBM)  LISP (1959, McCarthy at MIT)  BASIC (1959, Kemeny at Dartmouth)  COBOL (1960, Murray-Hopper at DOD) the computer industry grew as businesses could buy Eckert-Mauchly (1951), DEC (1957) IBM became market force in 1960's
  • 11. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Generations of Computers Generation 3: Integrated Circuits (1963-1973)  integrated circuit (IC)  as transistor size decreased, could package many transistors with circuitry on silicon chip  mass production further reduced prices 1971 – Intel marketed first microprocessor, a chip w/ all the circuitry for a calculator  1960's saw the rise of Operating Systems  an operating system is a collection of programs that manage peripheral devices and other resources  allowed for time-sharing, where multiple users share a computer by swapping jobs in and out  as computers became affordable to small businesses, specialized programming languages were developed Pascal (1971, Wirth) C (1972, Ritche)
  • 12. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Generations of Computers Generation 4: VLSI (1973-1985)  Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)  by mid 1970's, could fit hundreds of thousands of transistors w/ circuitry on a chip  could mass produce powerful microprocessors and other useful IC's  computers finally affordable to individuals  Late 1970's saw rise of personal computing  Gates & Allen founded Microsoft in 1975 Gates wrote BASIC compiler for personal computer would grow into software giant, Gates richest in world http://www.webho.com/WealthClock  Wozniak and Jobs founded Apple in 1977 went from garage to $120 million in sales by 1980  IBM introduced PC in 1980 Apple countered with Macintosh in 1984
  • 13. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Generations of Computers Generation 5: Parallelism & Networking (1985- ????) In this generation the computers are supposed to use Artificial Intelligence. Japan initiated the fifth generation computer project it was also known as knowledge processing system. It used a very large scale parallel processing technologies and incorporated Artificial Intelligence.
  • 14. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Types of Computer Computers can be classifies as follows: Analog Computers: are used for processing data that vary continuously such as speed, humidity etc. in such computers data is given in continuous form. These computers are not capable of taking decisions but still are used in scientific and industrial establishments.
  • 15. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Types of Computer Digital Computers: Digital computers perform calculations by counting and are used for manipulating data with great accuracy. Digital computers are further classified into: a) General Purpose – computers are able to handle many complicated problems by using programs which are specially prepared for solving complicated problems b) Special Purpose – computers are found in various consumer appliances, these are different from the computers used by business organization e.g. computers to identify mobile problems.
  • 16. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Types of Computer Hybrid Computer: It is a combination of Analog and Digital computers. Hybrid computer are used where continuous and digital processing is required e.g. to monitor weather the analog devices may measure the humidity, temperature etc. the numbers are further converted into numbers and supplied to digital component of the system.
  • 17. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Types of Computer Based on the other features of the computer such as speed, memory, processing power and cost computers are classified as follows: a) Micro Computer (Personal Computer) b) Desktops c) Workstations d) Multimedia e) Laptops f) Palmtops g) Servers h) Mini Computers i) Mainframe Computers j) Super Computers
  • 18. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Hardware & Software i) Hardware : The hardware consist of the physical parts of the computer which can be touched, seen and felt. ii) Software: The full set of instructions and procedures to be used on the computer is called software. Software’s can be classified into: i) System Software (Operating System) ii) Application Software
  • 19. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Parts of Computer (Block Diagram) ALU Arthematic & Logical Unit INPUT OUTPUT CU Control Unit MU Memory Unit RAM & ROM
  • 20. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Input Devices  You use an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse, to input data and issue commands  Keyboard  Mouse  Game Controller (Joystick)  Bar Code Reader  Scanner  Trackball  Touch Screen  Optical Mark Reader (OMR)  Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)  Pen Input  POS Terminals (Point of Sales  Digital Camera  OCR (Optical Character Recognition)  Microphone
  • 21. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS CPU – Central Processing Unit Data which is entered in the computer is processed in a component of the system unit called Microprocessor. The CPU consist of ALU (Arthematic & Logical Section which is used for computations, CU (Control Unit for monitoring the sequence of instructions or programs and controlling the other devices connected to the computer. The CPU also consist of MU (Memory Unit) which is used to store data as well as the results given by the computer. The memory unit is classified into two types: RAM (Random Access Memory) Volatile Memory Data is lost when the lost is switched off. ROM (Read Only Memory) Permanent Memory BIOS (Basic Input Output System) CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
  • 22. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Output Devices  Output devices show you the results of processing data  VDU (Visual Display Unit) or CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) or Monitor  LCD  Sound System  Printer  Impact Printers  Dot Matrix  Non-Impact Printers  Laser  Inkjet / Bubble Jet  Computer Output Microfilm(Com) Devices  Plotters  LCD Projectors  Communication Device  Modems  ISDN  Broadband Services (Cable Modems)
  • 23. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Data Representation Computer understands only one language i.e. 8 Bits = 1 Byte machine language. It is made up of Binary Digits (0 & 1). 1024 Bytes = 1 KB 1024 KB = 1 MB The computer stores data in form of Binary Digits, each digit is known as Bit. Each 1024 MB = 1 GB character stored in computer is a combination of 8 Bits (see the table below for example) 1024 GB = 1 TB ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
  • 24. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Storage Devices The device on which is stored permanently, which can be used as future reference. Storage devices are Input / Output devices. The devices are: Magnetic Tapes Magnetic Disk Floppy Disk Hard Disk Optical Storage device CD DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) Flash Memory Memory Card
  • 25. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Definition of Software  Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task.
  • 26. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Software SOFTWARE Classification of Software System Application Hardware cannot work without a Software. System software is used by the computer to interact with hardware. Application Software (e.g. MS-Office) cannot be executed without the installation of system software. An operating system is system software.
  • 27. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Components of OS System Software File Manager Stores information on various secondary  An Operating System (OS) is the storage devices e.g. FDD, HDD…. etc master controller within a computer. Process Manager EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS (Disk To share several programs / processes Operating System), UNIX, Linux to run at the same time the operating  An operating system interacts with: system has to share  All hardware installed in or connected to out microprocessor time. a computer system. Device Manager  All software installed or running from a The device manager handles storage device on a computer system. communication between the peripherals and the microprocessor. Memory Manager Various programs are allocated memory in such a manner that no clash occurs.
  • 28. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS System Software  Types of Operating System  CUI (Character User Interface) Based Operating System  GUI (Graphics User Interface) Based Operating System  Single Task Operating System  Multitasking Operating System  Single User Operating System  Multi User Operating System
  • 29. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS System Software - OS  DOS (Disk Operating System)  Developed by IBM  Windows 95/98/XP/VISTA  GUI  Windows NT  Multiuser  Multitasking  Networking  Available in different languages  Windows 2000  Windows NT 5.0 – Windows 2000  Provided more Security  Available in different local languages.  UNIX  Developed by Bell Labs in 1969 – Dennis Ritchie & Ken Thompson rewrote in C language  CUI  UNIX interface is called as Shell
  • 30. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS System Software - OS  LINUX  Alternate to UNIX  GUI  Created by Linus Torvalds – University of Helsinki – 1991.  Vendors are Red Hat, Caldera Systems, Mandarake … etc.  SOLARIS  Sun Micro Systems deleoped in 1991  Features of UNIX  LINUX & Java are also Compatible  MAC Operating System  Introduced in 1983 by Apple  GUI  Used in Creative Works
  • 31. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Application Software  Accomplishes specific tasks for users. Application Software is further  Enables a computer to become a Classified into: multi-purpose machine. 1) Propriety  Produce  Create flow charts 2) Off the Shelf worksheets and and graphic reports. organizers.  Automate record  Communicate keeping like worldwide. attendance and grades.
  • 32. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Personal Operating Software  Word Processor  Spreadsheet  Presentation  Financial Management  ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)  Raw Material Planning  Checking Stock & Inventory  Production & Planning  Finished Goods Planning  Sales  Delivery