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FY-BMS

             BALBHARTI’S
M. J. PANCHOLIA COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
Fundamentals of Computer
• Data, Information & EDP
    – Introduction
    – Need and Concept of Data
• Electronic Data Processing
    – Definition
    – History of EDP
• EDP in the Modern Era
• EDP and the Paperless Business
• Number System & Codes
    –   Binary Numbers System (Base 2)
    –   Decimal Number System (Base 10)
    –   Number Systems (Base N)
    –   Octal Numbers (Base 8)
    –   Hexadecimal Numbers (Base 16)
• BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System
• ASCII Code – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Fundamentals of Computer
                        Data, Information & EDP
• INTRODUCTION
  – Data are plain facts. The word “Data” is the plural for “datum”. Data are the
    pieces of information that represents the qualitative or quantitative attributes
    of a variable or set of variables. When data are processed, organized,
    structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are
    called Information. Information is more meaningful than data
• NEED AND CONCEPT OF DATA
  – Collection of facts, figures and statistics
  – Process to create useful Information
  – Valuable asset for organization
  – Perform effective and successful Operations of Management
  – View of past activities, rise and fall of an organization
  – Better decision for future
  – Generate Reports, Graphs & Statistics
  – Data is viewed from the lowest level of abstraction from which information
    and knowledge is derived.
  – Data is raw material to create information.
Fundamentals of Computer
                        Electronic Data Processing
• Electronic Data Processing (EDP) can refer to the use of automated methods
  to process commercial data. Typically, this uses relatively simple, repetitive
  activities to process large volumes of similar information. For example:
  stock updates applied to an inventory, banking transactions applied to
  account and customer master files, booking and ticketing transactions to an
  airline's reservation system, billing for utility services.

• EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is
  today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS"
  (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by
  a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic
  communication. EDP evolved from "DP" (data processing), a term that was
  created when most computing input was physically put into the computer
  in punched card form and output as punched cards or paper reports.
Fundamentals of Computer
                                  Electronic Data Processing
History

The first commercial business computer was developed in the United Kingdom in 1951, by the J. Lyons and Co.
catering organization. This was known as the 'Lyons Electronic Office' - or LEO for short. It was developed
further and used widely during the 1960s and early 1970s. (Joe Lyons formed a separate company to develop
the LEO computers and this subsequently merged to form English Electric Leo Marconi and then International
Computers Ltd.)[1] Early commercial systems were installed exclusively by large organizations. These could
afford to invest the time and capital necessary to purchase hardware, hire specialist staff to develop bespoke
software and work through the consequent (and often unexpected) organizational and cultural changes.

At first, individual organizations developed their own software, including data management utilities,
themselves. Different products might also have 'one-off' bespoke software. This fragmented approach led to
duplicated effort and the production of management information needed manual effort. High hardware costs
and relatively slow processing speeds forced developers to use resources 'efficiently'. Data storage formats
were heavily compacted, for example. A common example is the removal of the century from dates, which
eventually led to the 'millennium bug'.

Data input required intermediate processing via punched paper tape or punched card and separate input to a
repetitive, labor intensive task, removed from user control and error-prone. Invalid or incorrect data needed
correction and resubmission with consequences for data and account reconciliation. Data storage was strictly
serial on paper tape, and then later to magnetic tape: the use of data storage within readily accessible memory
was not cost-effective.
Introduction to Computers
•   What is a Computer?
•   Advantages/Features of Computer
•   Definition of Computer
•   History of Computer
•   Generations of Computers
•   Types of Computer
•   Hardware & Software
•   Parts of Computer (Block Diagram)
•   Storage (I/O) Devices
•   Software – System Software & Application Software
•   Operating Software
Introduction to Computers
What is a Computer?


The computer is one of the greatest
inventions in the history of humankind.
Computers have applications in all fields
of knowledge and therefore touch all
aspect of our life whatever may be our
field of activity.

The computer can be defined as a
machine that can do calculations,
comparisons, reading and writing on a
given set of data at a very high speed,
logically and intelligently in a desired
manner.
Introduction to Computers
Advantages / Features of Computers


Speed – A computer performs operations with great
speed.
Accuracy – The computer gives accurate results
according to the instruction provided.
Storage – The storage capacity of the computer is
very large
Versatility – Computers are used in vide areas of
human activities.
Automatic – The computer performs all the
instructions provided to it automatically.
Diligence – After long hours of work human being
gets tired but a computer never gets tired.
Introduction to Computers
Definition of a Computer


A computer is an electronic device,
which can perform arithmetic and
logical operations with a high speed
as per instructions given.
Introduction to Computers
History of Computer


• 1642 – Pascal built Mechanical
  Calculating Machine
     – mechanical gears, hand-crank,
       dials and knobs
     – other similar machines followed

• 1805 – First Programmable
  device, Jacquard Loom
      wove tapestries with elaborate,
       programmable patterns
      pattern represented by metal punch-cards,
       fed into loom
      could mass-produce tapestries, reprogram
       with new cards
Introduction to Computers
History of Computer


• Mid 1800's – Babbage designed
  "analytical engine"
        expanded upon mechanical calculators, but
         programmable via punch-cards
        described general layout of modern computers
        never functional, beyond technology of the day

• 1890 – Hollerith invented tabulating
  machine
     – used for 1890 U.S. Census
     – stored data on punch-cards, could
       sort and tabulate using electrical pins
     – finished census in 6 weeks (vs. 7
       years)
     – Hollerith's company would become
       IBM
Introduction to Computers
History of Computer


• 1930's – several engineers
  independently built
  "computers" using
  electromagnetic relays
      physical switch, open/close via electrical
       current
      Zuse (Nazi Germany) – destroyed in WWII
      Atanasoff (Iowa State) – built with grad
       student
      Stibitz (Bell Labs) – followed design of
       Babbage
Introduction to Computers
Generations of Computers


 Generation 1: Vacuum Tubes (1945-1954)
• mid 1940's – vacuum tubes replaced relays
    – glass tube w/ partial vacuum to speed electron flow
    – faster than relays since no moving parts
    – invented by de Forest in 1906

•   1940's – hybrid computers using vacuum tubes and relays
    were built

                                                              COLOSSUS (1943)
                                                                   built by British govt.
                                                                     (Alan Turing)
                                                                   used to decode Nazi
                                                                     communications
                                                              ENIAC (1946)
                                                                   built by Eckert &
                                                                      Mauchly at UPenn
                                                                   18,000 vacuum
                                                                      tubes, 1,500 relays
                                                                   weighed 30 tons,
                                                                      consumed 140
                                                                      kwatts
Introduction to Computers
Generations of Computers


 Generation 2: Transistors (1954-1963)
• mid 1950's – transistors began to replace tubes
     – piece of silicon whose conductivity can be turned on and
        off using an electric current
     – smaller, faster, more reliable, cheaper to mass produce
     – invented by Bardeen, Brattain, & Shockley in 1948 (won
        1956 Nobel Prize in physics)

•     computers became commercial as cost dropped high-level
      languages were designed to make programming more natural

          FORTRAN (1957, Backus at IBM)
          LISP (1959, McCarthy at MIT)
          BASIC (1959, Kemeny at Dartmouth)
          COBOL (1960, Murray-Hopper at DOD)

    the computer industry grew as businesses could buy
            Eckert-Mauchly (1951), DEC (1957)
            IBM became market force in 1960's
Introduction to Computers
Generations of Computers


 Generation 3: Integrated Circuits (1963-1973)
• integrated circuit (IC)
    – as transistor size decreased, could package many
       transistors with circuitry on silicon chip
    – mass production further reduced prices

    1971 – Intel marketed first microprocessor, a chip w/ all the
    circuitry for a calculator

•     1960's saw the rise of Operating Systems
        an operating system is a collection of programs that
          manage peripheral devices and other resources

         allowed for time-sharing, where multiple users share
          a computer by swapping jobs in and out

         as computers became affordable to small businesses,
          specialized programming languages were developed
          Pascal (1971, Wirth) C (1972, Ritche)
Introduction to Computers
Generations of Computers

Generation 4: VLSI (1973-1985)
•       Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)
         – by mid 1970's, could fit hundreds of thousands of transistors w/
             circuitry on a chip
         – could mass produce powerful microprocessors and other useful
             IC's
         – computers finally affordable to individuals

• Late 1970's saw rise of personal computing
         Gates & Allen founded Microsoft in 1975 Gates wrote BASIC
          compiler for personal computer would grow into software giant,
          Gates richest in world
          http://www.webho.com/WealthClock

         Wozniak and Jobs founded Apple in 1977 went from garage to $120
          million in sales by 1980

         IBM introduced PC in 1980 Apple countered with Macintosh in 1984
Introduction to Computers
Generations of Computers


Generation 5: Parallelism & Networking (1985-????)

In this generation the computers are supposed to use
Artificial Intelligence.

Japan initiated the fifth generation computer project it
was also known as knowledge processing system. It used
a very large scale parallel processing technologies and
incorporated Artificial Intelligence.
Introduction to Computers
Types of Computer


Computers can be classifies as follows:

Analog Computers: are used for
processing    data    that   vary
continuously such as speed,
humidity etc. in such computers
data is given in continuous form.
These computers are not capable
of taking decisions but still are
used in scientific and industrial
establishments.
Introduction to Computers
Types of Computer


Digital Computers: Digital computers perform
calculations by counting and are used for
manipulating data with great accuracy. Digital
computers are further classified into:
a) General Purpose – computers are able to
     handle many complicated problems by using
     programs which are specially prepared for
     solving complicated problems
b) Special Purpose – computers are found in
     various consumer appliances, these are
     different from the computers used by business
     organization e.g. computers to identify mobile
     problems.
Introduction to Computers
Types of Computer


Hybrid Computer: It is a combination of Analog and
Digital computers. Hybrid computer are used where
continuous and digital processing is required e.g. to
monitor weather the analog devices may measure
the humidity, temperature etc. the numbers are
further converted into numbers and supplied to
digital component of the system.
Introduction to Computers
Types of Computer


Based on the other features of the computer such
as speed, memory, processing power and cost
computers are classified as follows:
a) Micro Computer (Personal Computer)
b) Desktops
c) Workstations
d) Multimedia
e) Laptops
f) Palmtops
g) Servers
h) Mini Computers
i) Mainframe Computers
j) Super Computers
Introduction to Computers
Hardware & Software


i) Hardware : The hardware
    consist of the physical parts
    of the computer which can
    be touched, seen and felt.
ii) Software: The full set of
    instructions and procedures
    to be used on the computer
    is called software. Software’s
    can be classified into:
    i)    System Software (Operating System)
    ii)   Application Software
Introduction to Computers
Parts of Computer (Block Diagram)




                               ALU
                      Arthematic & Logical Unit




INPUT                                             OUTPUT
                               CU
                            Control Unit




                               MU
                            Memory Unit
                            RAM & ROM
Introduction to Computers
Input Devices


• You use an input device, such as a
  keyboard or a mouse, to input data and
  issue commands
     –   Keyboard
     –   Mouse
     –   Game Controller (Joystick)
     –   Bar Code Reader
     –   Scanner
     –   Trackball
     –   Touch Screen
     –   Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
     –   Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
     –   Pen Input
     –   POS Terminals (Point of Sales)
     –   Digital Camera
     –   OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
     –   Microphone
Introduction to Computers
CPU – Central Processing Unit

Data which is entered in the computer is processed in a component of the
system unit called Microprocessor.

The CPU consist of ALU (Arthematic & Logical Section which is used for
computations, CU (Control Unit for monitoring the sequence of
instructions or programs and controlling the other devices connected to
the computer.

The CPU also consist of MU (Memory Unit) which is used to store data as
well as the results given by the computer. The memory unit is classified
into two types:

RAM (Random Access Memory)
   Volatile Memory
   Data is lost when the lost is switched off.

ROM (Read Only Memory)
   Permanent Memory
   BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
   CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
Introduction to Computers
Output Devices

•   Output devices show you the results of processing data
     – VDU (Visual Display Unit) or CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) or
        Monitor
     – LCD
     – Sound System
     – Printer
          • Impact Printers
               – Dot Matrix
          • Non-Impact Printers
               – Laser
               – Inkjet / Bubble Jet
          • Computer Output Microfilm(Com) Devices
               – Plotters
     – LCD Projectors
     – Communication Device
          • Modems
          • ISDN
          • Broadband Services (Cable Modems)
PROCESSORS
A Silicon Chip that contains in the CPU. Microprocessor also control the logic of almost all
digital devices.

Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessor:

a) Instruction Set
    a) The set of instructions that microprocessor can execute
b) Bandwidth
    a) The number of Bits processed in a single instruction.
c) Clock Speed
    i) Given in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz), the clock speed determines how
         many instructions per second the processor can execute.
    ii) Also called as clock rate, the speed at which the microprocessor executes
         instructions
    iii) CPU requires a fixed number of clock ticks (or clock cycles)
PROCESSORS
Different kinds of Processors:

1) AMD (ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES) Inc.
    a) American semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California
    b) AMD is second largest global supplier of Microprocessor based on x86 architecture after Intel.
    c) AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon …….. are a few types of processors.
    d) K6 introduced in 1997
         i) Pentium Class Microprocessor
         ii) Co-developed by Vinod Dham lead designer for Pentium Processor
         iii) Compatible with INTEL Motherboards
    e) Athlon made its debut in June 23 1999, ancient Greek word for “Champion / trophy of games”.
        x86 Processors and first to lead over the performance of Intel’s Processor.

2) CYRIX
    a) Manufacturing of the CPU began in 1978 in Richardson, Texas
    b) Founder is Jerry Rogers
    c) High performance co-processors for 286 and 386 systems.
    d) FasMath was the fastest 386-compatible 50% more performance than Intel 387DX processor

3) CELERON
    a) x86 CPU from Intel
    b) Performance was lower compared to similar high priced Intel CPU brands.
    c) April 1998 – first Celeron branded CPU was based on Pentium II branded core.
    d) 25% as much cache memory
PROCESSORS
Different kinds of Processors:

4) PENTIUM
    a) Intel single-core x86 microprocessor based on P5.
    b) Derived from Greek word “pent” meaning “five” and the Latin ending “ium”
    c) Pentium succeeded the Intel486 – fourth generation
    d) 1996, the original Pentium was succeeded by Pentium MMX branded CPU
    e) 1995, Pentium registered trademark x86 processors branded as :
         i) Pentium Pro
         ii) Pentium II
         iii) Pentium III
         iv) Pentium IV
         v) I3
         vi) I7
    f) Vinod Dham father of Intel Pentium Processor, including many other people like
        John H. Crawford.
    g) Pentium were released at the clock speeds of 66MHz and 60MHz, later 75 – 300
        MHz were released
PROCESSORS
Different kinds of Processors:

5) Intel Core DUO
     a) A dual-core processors is a CPU with two processors
     b) They can perform operations upto twice as fast as a single processor can.
     c) Core brand refers to Intel 32-bit mobile dual core x86 CPUs that derived from the Pentium M branded
          processor
     d) Core brand comprises of two branches:
           i)   DUO (dual-core)
           ii) Solo (DUO with one disabled core)
     e) Core DUO is first Intel Processor used in Apple Macintosh.

6)   CORE 2 DUO
      a) 2 x 2 MCM (Multi Chip Module)
      b) Quad Core CPUs
      c) Introduced in July 27 2006, comprising of following:
           i)   Solo (Single Core)
           ii) DUO (Dual Core)
           iii) Quad (Quad Core)

7)   CENTRINO
      a) Technology package from Intel
      b) Wireless support for Laptop with full day running without battery recharge.
      c) The Centrino package consists of:
          i)   The Pentium Processor
          ii) 855 Chipset Family
          iii) The Pro Wireless Network connection
Introduction to Computers
Data Representation


Computer understands only one language i.e.            8 Bits = 1 Byte
machine language. It is made up of Binary Digits (0
& 1).                                                  1024 Bytes = 1 KB

                                                       1024 KB = 1 MB
The computer stores data in form of Binary Digits,
each digit is known as Bit. Each character stored in   1024 MB = 1 GB
computer is a combination of 8 Bits (see the table
below for example)                                     1024 GB = 1 TB

                                                       ASCII
                                                       American Standard Code for
                                                       Information Interchange
Introduction to Computers
Storage Devices


The device on which is stored permanently,
which can be used as future reference. Storage
devices are Input / Output devices. The devices
are:
•Magnetic Tapes
•Magnetic Disk
    –Floppy Disk
    –Hard Disk
•Optical Storage device
    –CD
    –DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)
•Flash Memory
•Memory Card
Introduction to Computers
PRINTERS




              Printer Technologies
Introduction to Computers
PRINTERS


Printers are used to create a hard copy of a document or image. Printers vary by
speed, quality, and price.

The most popular types of printers are

1) Impact Printers

2) Non-Impact Printers
Introduction to Computers
PRINTERS – IMPACT PRINTERS


Impact printers leave an image on the paper by
 physically striking an inked ribbon against the
 surface of the paper
  Used for multipart forms
  Relatively slow and noisy
Daisy-wheel and dot-matrix are two prominent
 types of impact printers
Introduction to Computers
PRINTERS – DOT MATRIX PRINTERS


Dot-matrix printers

More flexibility than daisy-wheel printers

Use an array of pins known as printwires to strike an inked printer ribbon and
produce images on paper.

The case that holds the print wires is called the printhead

Use either 9-pin (draft quality) or 24-pin (letter or near-letter quality)
Introduction to Computers
PRINTERS – INKJET PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER)


Inkjet printers are simple devices that consist of the printhead
mechanism, support electronics, a transfer mechanism, and a
paper feed component

Work by ejecting ink through tiny tubes

Ink is heated by tiny resistors or electroconductive plates at the
end of each tube

The resistors or plates boil the ink which creates a tiny air bubble
that ejects a droplet of ink on the paper

Ink inside the jets tend to dry out when not used

Most color printers are ink-jet and produce a high-quality image
Introduction to Computers
PRINTERS – THERMAL PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER)


Thermal printers

Two types: Direct thermal and Thermal wax

Use a heated print head to burn dots into the surface of
special heat-sensitive paper

Still used for receipts at some businesses
Introduction to Computers
PRINTERS – LASER PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER)


 Laser printers use a mechanism called electro-photographic
 imaging, to produce a high quality and high-speed output of
 both text and graphics

 More expensive than ink-jet or impact printers

 Use lasers as a light source

 The toner cartridge contains the parts that suffer the most
 wear and tear
Introduction to Computers
Definition of Software


• Instructions and associated data,
  stored in electronic format, that
  direct the computer to accomplish
  a task.
Introduction to Computers
  Software


                      SOFTWARE

             Classification of Software




        System                            Application



Hardware cannot work without a Software. System software
is used by the computer to interact with hardware.
Application Software (e.g. MS-Office) cannot be executed
without the installation of system software. An operating
system is system software.
Introduction to Computers                 Components of OS
System Software                           File Manager
                                                Stores information on

• An Operating System (OS) is the               various       secondary
                                                storage devices e.g.
  master controller within a                    FDD, HDD…. etc
                                          Process Manager
  computer.                                     To     share     several
                                                programs / processes to
    EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS (Disk               run at the same time
      Operating System), UNIX, Linux            the operating system
                                                has to share out
• An operating system interacts                 microprocessor time.
                                          Device Manager
  with:                                         The device manager
    – All hardware installed in or              handles communication
                                                between             the
      connected to a computer system.           peripherals and the
    – All software installed or running         microprocessor.
                                          Memory Manager
      from a storage device on a                Various programs are
      computer system.                          allocated memory in
                                                such a manner that no
                                                clash occurs.
Introduction to Computers
System Software


• Types of Operating System
   – CUI (Character User Interface) Based
     Operating System
   – GUI (Graphics User Interface) Based
     Operating System
   – Single Task Operating System
   – Multitasking Operating System
   – Single User Operating System
   – Multi User Operating System
Introduction to Computers
    System Software - OS
•   DOS (Disk Operating System)
     – Developed by IBM
•   Windows 95/98/XP/VISTA
     – GUI
•   Windows NT
     – Multiuser
     – Multitasking
     – Networking
     – Available in different languages
•   Windows 2000
     – Windows NT 5.0 – Windows 2000
     – Provided more Security
     – Available in different local languages.
•   UNIX
     – Developed by Bell Labs in 1969 – Dennis Ritchie & Ken
        Thompson rewrote in C language
     – CUI
     – UNIX interface is called as Shell
Introduction to Computers
     System Software - OS


•   LINUX
     – Alternate to UNIX
     – GUI
     – Created by Linus Torvalds – University of Helsinki – 1991.
     – Vendors are Red Hat, Caldera Systems, Mandarake … etc.
•   SOLARIS
     – Sun Micro Systems deleoped in 1991
     – Features of UNIX
     – LINUX & Java are also Compatible
•   MAC Operating System
     – Introduced in 1983 by Apple
     – GUI
     – Used in Creative Works
Introduction to Computers
Application Software



• Accomplishes specific tasks for             Application Software
                                              is further Classified
  users.                                      into:
• Enables a computer to become a
                                              1) Propriety
  multi-purpose machine.
                                              2) Off the Shelf
 Produce               Create flow charts
  worksheets and         and graphic
  reports.               organizers.
 Automate record       Communicate
  keeping like           worldwide.
  attendance and
  grades.
Introduction to Computers
Personal Operating Software


•   Word Processor
•   Spreadsheet
•   Presentation
•   Financial Management
•   ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
     – Raw Material Planning
     – Checking Stock & Inventory
     – Production & Planning
     – Finished Goods Planning
     – Sales
     – Delivery

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Fundamentals of Computer - Data, Information, Number Systems & EDP

  • 1. FY-BMS BALBHARTI’S M. J. PANCHOLIA COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
  • 2. Fundamentals of Computer • Data, Information & EDP – Introduction – Need and Concept of Data • Electronic Data Processing – Definition – History of EDP • EDP in the Modern Era • EDP and the Paperless Business • Number System & Codes – Binary Numbers System (Base 2) – Decimal Number System (Base 10) – Number Systems (Base N) – Octal Numbers (Base 8) – Hexadecimal Numbers (Base 16) • BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System • ASCII Code – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
  • 3. Fundamentals of Computer Data, Information & EDP • INTRODUCTION – Data are plain facts. The word “Data” is the plural for “datum”. Data are the pieces of information that represents the qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. When data are processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information. Information is more meaningful than data • NEED AND CONCEPT OF DATA – Collection of facts, figures and statistics – Process to create useful Information – Valuable asset for organization – Perform effective and successful Operations of Management – View of past activities, rise and fall of an organization – Better decision for future – Generate Reports, Graphs & Statistics – Data is viewed from the lowest level of abstraction from which information and knowledge is derived. – Data is raw material to create information.
  • 4. Fundamentals of Computer Electronic Data Processing • Electronic Data Processing (EDP) can refer to the use of automated methods to process commercial data. Typically, this uses relatively simple, repetitive activities to process large volumes of similar information. For example: stock updates applied to an inventory, banking transactions applied to account and customer master files, booking and ticketing transactions to an airline's reservation system, billing for utility services. • EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication. EDP evolved from "DP" (data processing), a term that was created when most computing input was physically put into the computer in punched card form and output as punched cards or paper reports.
  • 5. Fundamentals of Computer Electronic Data Processing History The first commercial business computer was developed in the United Kingdom in 1951, by the J. Lyons and Co. catering organization. This was known as the 'Lyons Electronic Office' - or LEO for short. It was developed further and used widely during the 1960s and early 1970s. (Joe Lyons formed a separate company to develop the LEO computers and this subsequently merged to form English Electric Leo Marconi and then International Computers Ltd.)[1] Early commercial systems were installed exclusively by large organizations. These could afford to invest the time and capital necessary to purchase hardware, hire specialist staff to develop bespoke software and work through the consequent (and often unexpected) organizational and cultural changes. At first, individual organizations developed their own software, including data management utilities, themselves. Different products might also have 'one-off' bespoke software. This fragmented approach led to duplicated effort and the production of management information needed manual effort. High hardware costs and relatively slow processing speeds forced developers to use resources 'efficiently'. Data storage formats were heavily compacted, for example. A common example is the removal of the century from dates, which eventually led to the 'millennium bug'. Data input required intermediate processing via punched paper tape or punched card and separate input to a repetitive, labor intensive task, removed from user control and error-prone. Invalid or incorrect data needed correction and resubmission with consequences for data and account reconciliation. Data storage was strictly serial on paper tape, and then later to magnetic tape: the use of data storage within readily accessible memory was not cost-effective.
  • 6. Introduction to Computers • What is a Computer? • Advantages/Features of Computer • Definition of Computer • History of Computer • Generations of Computers • Types of Computer • Hardware & Software • Parts of Computer (Block Diagram) • Storage (I/O) Devices • Software – System Software & Application Software • Operating Software
  • 7. Introduction to Computers What is a Computer? The computer is one of the greatest inventions in the history of humankind. Computers have applications in all fields of knowledge and therefore touch all aspect of our life whatever may be our field of activity. The computer can be defined as a machine that can do calculations, comparisons, reading and writing on a given set of data at a very high speed, logically and intelligently in a desired manner.
  • 8. Introduction to Computers Advantages / Features of Computers Speed – A computer performs operations with great speed. Accuracy – The computer gives accurate results according to the instruction provided. Storage – The storage capacity of the computer is very large Versatility – Computers are used in vide areas of human activities. Automatic – The computer performs all the instructions provided to it automatically. Diligence – After long hours of work human being gets tired but a computer never gets tired.
  • 9. Introduction to Computers Definition of a Computer A computer is an electronic device, which can perform arithmetic and logical operations with a high speed as per instructions given.
  • 10. Introduction to Computers History of Computer • 1642 – Pascal built Mechanical Calculating Machine – mechanical gears, hand-crank, dials and knobs – other similar machines followed • 1805 – First Programmable device, Jacquard Loom  wove tapestries with elaborate, programmable patterns  pattern represented by metal punch-cards, fed into loom  could mass-produce tapestries, reprogram with new cards
  • 11. Introduction to Computers History of Computer • Mid 1800's – Babbage designed "analytical engine"  expanded upon mechanical calculators, but programmable via punch-cards  described general layout of modern computers  never functional, beyond technology of the day • 1890 – Hollerith invented tabulating machine – used for 1890 U.S. Census – stored data on punch-cards, could sort and tabulate using electrical pins – finished census in 6 weeks (vs. 7 years) – Hollerith's company would become IBM
  • 12. Introduction to Computers History of Computer • 1930's – several engineers independently built "computers" using electromagnetic relays  physical switch, open/close via electrical current  Zuse (Nazi Germany) – destroyed in WWII  Atanasoff (Iowa State) – built with grad student  Stibitz (Bell Labs) – followed design of Babbage
  • 13. Introduction to Computers Generations of Computers Generation 1: Vacuum Tubes (1945-1954) • mid 1940's – vacuum tubes replaced relays – glass tube w/ partial vacuum to speed electron flow – faster than relays since no moving parts – invented by de Forest in 1906 • 1940's – hybrid computers using vacuum tubes and relays were built COLOSSUS (1943)  built by British govt. (Alan Turing)  used to decode Nazi communications ENIAC (1946)  built by Eckert & Mauchly at UPenn  18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays  weighed 30 tons, consumed 140 kwatts
  • 14. Introduction to Computers Generations of Computers Generation 2: Transistors (1954-1963) • mid 1950's – transistors began to replace tubes – piece of silicon whose conductivity can be turned on and off using an electric current – smaller, faster, more reliable, cheaper to mass produce – invented by Bardeen, Brattain, & Shockley in 1948 (won 1956 Nobel Prize in physics) • computers became commercial as cost dropped high-level languages were designed to make programming more natural  FORTRAN (1957, Backus at IBM)  LISP (1959, McCarthy at MIT)  BASIC (1959, Kemeny at Dartmouth)  COBOL (1960, Murray-Hopper at DOD) the computer industry grew as businesses could buy Eckert-Mauchly (1951), DEC (1957) IBM became market force in 1960's
  • 15. Introduction to Computers Generations of Computers Generation 3: Integrated Circuits (1963-1973) • integrated circuit (IC) – as transistor size decreased, could package many transistors with circuitry on silicon chip – mass production further reduced prices 1971 – Intel marketed first microprocessor, a chip w/ all the circuitry for a calculator • 1960's saw the rise of Operating Systems  an operating system is a collection of programs that manage peripheral devices and other resources  allowed for time-sharing, where multiple users share a computer by swapping jobs in and out  as computers became affordable to small businesses, specialized programming languages were developed Pascal (1971, Wirth) C (1972, Ritche)
  • 16. Introduction to Computers Generations of Computers Generation 4: VLSI (1973-1985) • Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) – by mid 1970's, could fit hundreds of thousands of transistors w/ circuitry on a chip – could mass produce powerful microprocessors and other useful IC's – computers finally affordable to individuals • Late 1970's saw rise of personal computing  Gates & Allen founded Microsoft in 1975 Gates wrote BASIC compiler for personal computer would grow into software giant, Gates richest in world http://www.webho.com/WealthClock  Wozniak and Jobs founded Apple in 1977 went from garage to $120 million in sales by 1980  IBM introduced PC in 1980 Apple countered with Macintosh in 1984
  • 17. Introduction to Computers Generations of Computers Generation 5: Parallelism & Networking (1985-????) In this generation the computers are supposed to use Artificial Intelligence. Japan initiated the fifth generation computer project it was also known as knowledge processing system. It used a very large scale parallel processing technologies and incorporated Artificial Intelligence.
  • 18. Introduction to Computers Types of Computer Computers can be classifies as follows: Analog Computers: are used for processing data that vary continuously such as speed, humidity etc. in such computers data is given in continuous form. These computers are not capable of taking decisions but still are used in scientific and industrial establishments.
  • 19. Introduction to Computers Types of Computer Digital Computers: Digital computers perform calculations by counting and are used for manipulating data with great accuracy. Digital computers are further classified into: a) General Purpose – computers are able to handle many complicated problems by using programs which are specially prepared for solving complicated problems b) Special Purpose – computers are found in various consumer appliances, these are different from the computers used by business organization e.g. computers to identify mobile problems.
  • 20. Introduction to Computers Types of Computer Hybrid Computer: It is a combination of Analog and Digital computers. Hybrid computer are used where continuous and digital processing is required e.g. to monitor weather the analog devices may measure the humidity, temperature etc. the numbers are further converted into numbers and supplied to digital component of the system.
  • 21. Introduction to Computers Types of Computer Based on the other features of the computer such as speed, memory, processing power and cost computers are classified as follows: a) Micro Computer (Personal Computer) b) Desktops c) Workstations d) Multimedia e) Laptops f) Palmtops g) Servers h) Mini Computers i) Mainframe Computers j) Super Computers
  • 22. Introduction to Computers Hardware & Software i) Hardware : The hardware consist of the physical parts of the computer which can be touched, seen and felt. ii) Software: The full set of instructions and procedures to be used on the computer is called software. Software’s can be classified into: i) System Software (Operating System) ii) Application Software
  • 23. Introduction to Computers Parts of Computer (Block Diagram) ALU Arthematic & Logical Unit INPUT OUTPUT CU Control Unit MU Memory Unit RAM & ROM
  • 24. Introduction to Computers Input Devices • You use an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse, to input data and issue commands – Keyboard – Mouse – Game Controller (Joystick) – Bar Code Reader – Scanner – Trackball – Touch Screen – Optical Mark Reader (OMR) – Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – Pen Input – POS Terminals (Point of Sales) – Digital Camera – OCR (Optical Character Recognition) – Microphone
  • 25. Introduction to Computers CPU – Central Processing Unit Data which is entered in the computer is processed in a component of the system unit called Microprocessor. The CPU consist of ALU (Arthematic & Logical Section which is used for computations, CU (Control Unit for monitoring the sequence of instructions or programs and controlling the other devices connected to the computer. The CPU also consist of MU (Memory Unit) which is used to store data as well as the results given by the computer. The memory unit is classified into two types: RAM (Random Access Memory) Volatile Memory Data is lost when the lost is switched off. ROM (Read Only Memory) Permanent Memory BIOS (Basic Input Output System) CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
  • 26. Introduction to Computers Output Devices • Output devices show you the results of processing data – VDU (Visual Display Unit) or CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) or Monitor – LCD – Sound System – Printer • Impact Printers – Dot Matrix • Non-Impact Printers – Laser – Inkjet / Bubble Jet • Computer Output Microfilm(Com) Devices – Plotters – LCD Projectors – Communication Device • Modems • ISDN • Broadband Services (Cable Modems)
  • 27. PROCESSORS A Silicon Chip that contains in the CPU. Microprocessor also control the logic of almost all digital devices. Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessor: a) Instruction Set a) The set of instructions that microprocessor can execute b) Bandwidth a) The number of Bits processed in a single instruction. c) Clock Speed i) Given in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. ii) Also called as clock rate, the speed at which the microprocessor executes instructions iii) CPU requires a fixed number of clock ticks (or clock cycles)
  • 28. PROCESSORS Different kinds of Processors: 1) AMD (ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES) Inc. a) American semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California b) AMD is second largest global supplier of Microprocessor based on x86 architecture after Intel. c) AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon …….. are a few types of processors. d) K6 introduced in 1997 i) Pentium Class Microprocessor ii) Co-developed by Vinod Dham lead designer for Pentium Processor iii) Compatible with INTEL Motherboards e) Athlon made its debut in June 23 1999, ancient Greek word for “Champion / trophy of games”. x86 Processors and first to lead over the performance of Intel’s Processor. 2) CYRIX a) Manufacturing of the CPU began in 1978 in Richardson, Texas b) Founder is Jerry Rogers c) High performance co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. d) FasMath was the fastest 386-compatible 50% more performance than Intel 387DX processor 3) CELERON a) x86 CPU from Intel b) Performance was lower compared to similar high priced Intel CPU brands. c) April 1998 – first Celeron branded CPU was based on Pentium II branded core. d) 25% as much cache memory
  • 29. PROCESSORS Different kinds of Processors: 4) PENTIUM a) Intel single-core x86 microprocessor based on P5. b) Derived from Greek word “pent” meaning “five” and the Latin ending “ium” c) Pentium succeeded the Intel486 – fourth generation d) 1996, the original Pentium was succeeded by Pentium MMX branded CPU e) 1995, Pentium registered trademark x86 processors branded as : i) Pentium Pro ii) Pentium II iii) Pentium III iv) Pentium IV v) I3 vi) I7 f) Vinod Dham father of Intel Pentium Processor, including many other people like John H. Crawford. g) Pentium were released at the clock speeds of 66MHz and 60MHz, later 75 – 300 MHz were released
  • 30. PROCESSORS Different kinds of Processors: 5) Intel Core DUO a) A dual-core processors is a CPU with two processors b) They can perform operations upto twice as fast as a single processor can. c) Core brand refers to Intel 32-bit mobile dual core x86 CPUs that derived from the Pentium M branded processor d) Core brand comprises of two branches: i) DUO (dual-core) ii) Solo (DUO with one disabled core) e) Core DUO is first Intel Processor used in Apple Macintosh. 6) CORE 2 DUO a) 2 x 2 MCM (Multi Chip Module) b) Quad Core CPUs c) Introduced in July 27 2006, comprising of following: i) Solo (Single Core) ii) DUO (Dual Core) iii) Quad (Quad Core) 7) CENTRINO a) Technology package from Intel b) Wireless support for Laptop with full day running without battery recharge. c) The Centrino package consists of: i) The Pentium Processor ii) 855 Chipset Family iii) The Pro Wireless Network connection
  • 31. Introduction to Computers Data Representation Computer understands only one language i.e. 8 Bits = 1 Byte machine language. It is made up of Binary Digits (0 & 1). 1024 Bytes = 1 KB 1024 KB = 1 MB The computer stores data in form of Binary Digits, each digit is known as Bit. Each character stored in 1024 MB = 1 GB computer is a combination of 8 Bits (see the table below for example) 1024 GB = 1 TB ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
  • 32. Introduction to Computers Storage Devices The device on which is stored permanently, which can be used as future reference. Storage devices are Input / Output devices. The devices are: •Magnetic Tapes •Magnetic Disk –Floppy Disk –Hard Disk •Optical Storage device –CD –DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) •Flash Memory •Memory Card
  • 33. Introduction to Computers PRINTERS Printer Technologies
  • 34. Introduction to Computers PRINTERS Printers are used to create a hard copy of a document or image. Printers vary by speed, quality, and price. The most popular types of printers are 1) Impact Printers 2) Non-Impact Printers
  • 35. Introduction to Computers PRINTERS – IMPACT PRINTERS Impact printers leave an image on the paper by physically striking an inked ribbon against the surface of the paper  Used for multipart forms  Relatively slow and noisy Daisy-wheel and dot-matrix are two prominent types of impact printers
  • 36. Introduction to Computers PRINTERS – DOT MATRIX PRINTERS Dot-matrix printers More flexibility than daisy-wheel printers Use an array of pins known as printwires to strike an inked printer ribbon and produce images on paper. The case that holds the print wires is called the printhead Use either 9-pin (draft quality) or 24-pin (letter or near-letter quality)
  • 37. Introduction to Computers PRINTERS – INKJET PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER) Inkjet printers are simple devices that consist of the printhead mechanism, support electronics, a transfer mechanism, and a paper feed component Work by ejecting ink through tiny tubes Ink is heated by tiny resistors or electroconductive plates at the end of each tube The resistors or plates boil the ink which creates a tiny air bubble that ejects a droplet of ink on the paper Ink inside the jets tend to dry out when not used Most color printers are ink-jet and produce a high-quality image
  • 38.
  • 39. Introduction to Computers PRINTERS – THERMAL PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER) Thermal printers Two types: Direct thermal and Thermal wax Use a heated print head to burn dots into the surface of special heat-sensitive paper Still used for receipts at some businesses
  • 40. Introduction to Computers PRINTERS – LASER PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER) Laser printers use a mechanism called electro-photographic imaging, to produce a high quality and high-speed output of both text and graphics More expensive than ink-jet or impact printers Use lasers as a light source The toner cartridge contains the parts that suffer the most wear and tear
  • 41. Introduction to Computers Definition of Software • Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task.
  • 42. Introduction to Computers Software SOFTWARE Classification of Software System Application Hardware cannot work without a Software. System software is used by the computer to interact with hardware. Application Software (e.g. MS-Office) cannot be executed without the installation of system software. An operating system is system software.
  • 43. Introduction to Computers Components of OS System Software File Manager Stores information on • An Operating System (OS) is the various secondary storage devices e.g. master controller within a FDD, HDD…. etc Process Manager computer. To share several programs / processes to EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS (Disk run at the same time Operating System), UNIX, Linux the operating system has to share out • An operating system interacts microprocessor time. Device Manager with: The device manager – All hardware installed in or handles communication between the connected to a computer system. peripherals and the – All software installed or running microprocessor. Memory Manager from a storage device on a Various programs are computer system. allocated memory in such a manner that no clash occurs.
  • 44. Introduction to Computers System Software • Types of Operating System – CUI (Character User Interface) Based Operating System – GUI (Graphics User Interface) Based Operating System – Single Task Operating System – Multitasking Operating System – Single User Operating System – Multi User Operating System
  • 45. Introduction to Computers System Software - OS • DOS (Disk Operating System) – Developed by IBM • Windows 95/98/XP/VISTA – GUI • Windows NT – Multiuser – Multitasking – Networking – Available in different languages • Windows 2000 – Windows NT 5.0 – Windows 2000 – Provided more Security – Available in different local languages. • UNIX – Developed by Bell Labs in 1969 – Dennis Ritchie & Ken Thompson rewrote in C language – CUI – UNIX interface is called as Shell
  • 46. Introduction to Computers System Software - OS • LINUX – Alternate to UNIX – GUI – Created by Linus Torvalds – University of Helsinki – 1991. – Vendors are Red Hat, Caldera Systems, Mandarake … etc. • SOLARIS – Sun Micro Systems deleoped in 1991 – Features of UNIX – LINUX & Java are also Compatible • MAC Operating System – Introduced in 1983 by Apple – GUI – Used in Creative Works
  • 47. Introduction to Computers Application Software • Accomplishes specific tasks for Application Software is further Classified users. into: • Enables a computer to become a 1) Propriety multi-purpose machine. 2) Off the Shelf  Produce  Create flow charts worksheets and and graphic reports. organizers.  Automate record  Communicate keeping like worldwide. attendance and grades.
  • 48. Introduction to Computers Personal Operating Software • Word Processor • Spreadsheet • Presentation • Financial Management • ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) – Raw Material Planning – Checking Stock & Inventory – Production & Planning – Finished Goods Planning – Sales – Delivery