“ Hines is committed to ongoing product innovation in the built environment. As such, our membership in the U.S. Green Building Council and our participation on LEED Product Committees signals our continued and real commitment to excellence in energy efficiency and environmental performance.” – Kenneth W. Hubbard, Executive Vice President, Hines “ The leadership that the U.S. Green Building Council has shown to promote green building is extraordinary, and so important to our future. As the agency that manages space in 8,300 buildings, we understand how big a difference we can make for the environment. GSA supports what the Council is doing, and we are committed to using the LEED rating system in our buildings.” – Dave Barram, former Administrator, U.S. GSA “ At Anderson, we believe we’re responsible for a lot more than high quality windows and patio doors. Our corporate vision includes the notion of going beyond the bottom line to support the environment, our community and customer needs. Membership in the Council gives us satisfaction knowing we’re part of a high-impact coalition that is transforming the building industry in ways that support our own corporate priorities. In short, membership is an excellent way to challenge our company to respond to the needs of the market.” – John Gardner, Commercial Markets Business Manager, Anderson Windows “ The USGBC is providing a significant and important service to real estate developers by creating standards and guidelines which help companies like ours develop more sustainable environments for our customers, tenants and families.” – James F. Jacoby, Chairman, Jacoby Development, Inc. “ LEED is good architecture. It makes sense.” – Robert Kobet, AIA, Hanson Design Group “ Our involvement in the U.S. Green Building Council has expanded our knowledge of sustainable design, strengthened our relationships with industry leaders and practitioners, and given us unparalleled access to new products and emerging trends. We appreciate the USGBC’s unique, inclusive approach within the industry and its creation of LEED, a tool that we rely on to educate our clients, design better buildings, and promote sustainable practices within HNTB.” – Steven Reiss, AIA, Chairman, Architecture Services Group, HNTB
The Council is a national nonprofit organization that was formed in 1993. Its quickly growing membership includes representation from organizations across the building industry: Architecture firms, engineering firms, builders, manufacturers, service contractors, government entities (federal, state, and local), real estate developers and owners, financial institutions, universities, retail companies, nonprofit associations, utilities, and others. USGBC serves its members and the community through the development of industry standards, design practices and tools, policy advocacy, information exchange, and education.
The goal of green design is to create high-performance buildings. Often called “sustainable design,” it evolved from a variety of concerns, experiences, and needs….. Energy efficiency gained importance during the 1970s oil crisis. Recycling efforts in the U.S. in the 1970s onward became commonplace and came to the attention of the building industry. In the 1980s, the “sick building syndrome” concept emerged and concern for worker health and productivity became an issue. The concern for toxic material emissions also became an issue that needed to be addressed. Projects in water-scarce areas began to focus on water conservation. Early green designs usually focused on one issue at a time, mainly energy efficiency or use of recycled materials. Green building architects in the 1980s and 1990s began to realize that the integration of all the factors mentioned here would produce the best results and, in essence, a “high performance” building.
State # of Projects Gross SF State # of Projects Gross SF State # of Projects Gross SF AK 5 66,289 LA 5 859,202 OK 4 233,746 AL 10 981,586 MA 73 9,836,222 OR 90 8,197,815 AR 12 609,417 MD 45 6,104,591 PA 107 10,932,136 AZ 58 6,785,894 ME 17 668,751 PR 1 9,200 CA 306 33,137,289 MI 68 10,113,661 RI 6 359,139 CO 39 5,599,330 MN 13 1,734,665 SC 24 1,761,949 CT 19 2,081,355 MO 33 3,049,818 SD 4 221,818 DC 18 6,392,300 MS 5 513,020 TN 12 1,169,582 DE 5 263,914 MT 6 160,157 TX 76 8,893,708 FL 37 2,519,058 NC 40 4,177,153 UT 21 1,739,379 GA 54 5,891,518 ND 3 321,113 VA 62 6,535,752 HI 12 748,265 NE 7 558,181 VT 20 1,813,542 IA 14 1,102,245 NH 20 1,611,896 WA 102 11,066,719 ID 7 907,541 NJ 41 5,928,904 WI 22 2,084,515 IL 68 10,216,265 NM 15 776,551 WV 5 689,013 IN 11 1,347,133 NV 15 1,471,521 WY 5 341,930 KS 7 673,742 NY 100 16,060,883 KY 5 220,661 OH 49 5,994,808
The five environmental categories are further divided into “credits.” For each credit, the rating system identifies the intent, requirements, and technologies or strategies to achieve the credit. One or more points are available within each credit, and points are achieved by meeting specified requirements. Most categories contain prerequisites. ALL seven prerequisites MUST be met in order to qualify for ANY certification level. In addition to the five environmental categories, there is also an “Innovation and Design Process” category. 69 points total: Sustainable Sites: 8 credits, 14 points Water Efficiency: 3 credits, 5 points Energy and Atmosphere: 6 credits, 17 points Materials and Resources: 7 credits, 13 points Indoor Environmental Quality: 8 credits, 15 points Innovation: 4 points LEED Accredited Professional: 1 point
Introduction to Green Buildings
Defining Sustainability UnitedNations World Commission on Environment and Development – “Development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Defining Green Buildings Design and construction practices that significantly reduce, or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and its occupants with regard to site planning; safeguarding water use and water use efficiency; promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy; conserving materials and resources; and promoting indoor environmental quality.” (US Green Building Council)
Construction Impacts 76 million residential buildings in US 5 million commercial buildings in US consume 40 % or raw materials 32% total energy produced 17% fresh water 25% global wood harvest 5 billion gals water/day just for toilets generates – 25-40% of municipal solid waste from C&D – 50% of US CFC production – 30% of US CO2 production
Building Operations Impacts 49% of Sulfur Dioxide emissions 25% nitrous oxide emissions 10% of all particulate matter 1/3 of all energy consumption in US 2/3 of all electricity consumption in US disturbs natural habitats contaminates air, soil, and water depletes non-renewable resources ½ of greenhouse gases 35% of carbon dioxide emissions community issues occupant issues – sources: “The Architecture of Sustainability, 2002”, World Watch Institute, USGBC
Key Issues and Benefits Institution Green ethics / commitment Building Commissioning Research and Grant Air Quality opportunities Occupants productivity Being a leader (as it and well being should) Energy Conservation Responsibility to show importance Water Conservation Competitive advantage Storm Water (ie – recruiting) Management Institutional community Waste Management demand Local & State Standards Great public relations & Programs
Overall Financial Benefits Financial Benefits of a Green Building equate to $50-$70 SF over lifetime Over 10X return on any premium cost associated with building it over lifetime Source: USGBC
Air Quality Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) – effect the contents of the inside air has on a structure and its occupants People spend 90% of their time indoors Indoor air has 10-100X higher pollutants than outdoor air USEPA “Indoor Air Quality” Jan, 6 2003
Energy Conservation US uses 25% of world energy but only has 5% of population & 95% of our energy is from fossil fuels (US Energy Information Administration) Higher Education - $2 Billion/year on energy (American School & University) Most can reduce by up to 30% - savings can be used on: – New faculty – Upgrades/renovations for more savings – New programs
Water Conservation USA uses 340 billion gallons of fresh water per day Nearly 65% is discharged into waterways Energy Policy Act of 1992 Facilities can easily reduce use by 20-30% with little cost and effort Water & Sewer Bills Connection Fees & Tax Base
Occupants Well Being and Productivity Relationship exists between worker comfort/productivity and building design/operation Hidden sick days – higher absenteeism, respiratory ailments, allergies, asthma = lower productivity, higher insurance and medical costs A 1% increase in productivity (about 5 minutes per day) equals $600-700 per employee per year - a ^1.5% equals about $1,000/yr (Katz 2003 study)
Mythology About First Costs Common Perception when we started was +20-30% Past & Current Trend Recent Studies – Average Premium <2% or $3-$5 SF – Most of cost associated with increased architectural and engineering design, time, modeling and integration time – Earlier you integrate the lower the cost
Mythology About First Costs Average Green Cost Premium vs. Level of Green Certification 8 Percent Cost 6 4 Increase 2 0 Average Green Cost Basic Gold Premium (in percent) Level of LEED Certification Source: USGBC, Capital E Analysis
Mythology About First Costs Another recent study has shown the following average increase in project construction costs, on a percentage basis for LEED certification. – Certified 0 – 2.5% – Silver 0 – 3.3% – Gold 0.3 – 5.0% – Platinum 4.5 – 8.5% Start Early – Save Costs Source: Sasaki Associates 2004
Mythology About First Costs Building green can be done for no additional cost Initial premium costs are entirely up to you and project specific LEED buildings average only a 2-3% increase in costs, but can be done for the same budget as traditional buildings with planning Savings from green building’s more than return any premium you may choose to put into it Design Fees will be higher but construction costs may be reduced Set Budget first then work fees within framework
General Mythologies Appearance of Green Buildings – You design it to look how you want. It can easily match traditional campus design or not. – Carpet, furniture and windows do not have to look different. They can look like traditional ones only they perform better and are healthier. – Does not need to be high tech to be green. Time – Green Buildings take the same amount of time to construct as regular buildings. More time may be required in the Design phase though. Costs – Green Buildings do not have to cost more. With planning they can be built at the same price or less. – Design fees may be higher in the beginning of the project but the extra design work will lower the actual construction costs. In the end the building costs the same and fits in the traditional budget. Normal: 2 + 2 = 4 Green: 3 + 1 = 4 – Long term maintenance and operations costs can be reduced by 20 – 50% with good planning.
Green Buildings at USC West Quad Residence Baseball Stadium Hall & Learning Center Horizon Buildings School of Public Health Biomedical Buildings Library Rare Books Arnold II Collection & Modern Political Wings Band/Dance Building Law School Innovista New Honors College Gamma Phi Beta Sorority New Student Health Center
West Quad $30.9M project cost Reduced - $25M const. cost Construction & 177,000 SF - Change Order Costs $141.24/sf 45%-55% More SAME COST & Time Energy Efficient = 502 bed spaces – 4 over $50,000 buildings savings annually 20% more Water Residential, office, Efficient = $ 3900+ academic & retail savings annually spaces Residents comment Goal of LEED Silver on improved health – Achieved and productivity
West Quad at USC Selected “Green” Project Particulars – Designed to be 40% more energy efficient and to use 20% less water – “Green” roof on Learning Center – Fuel Cell for supplemental electricity & hot water – Solar pre-heating for domestic hot water – Low VOC paints and carpets & 100% Fresh Air – Daylighting in all buildings Building orientation Light shelves for shading and natural lighting on southern exposures Light wells on Learning Center – “Green” board in case good furnishings – Total storm water management integration
US Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy& Environmental Design (LEED)
USGBC’s MISSION:to promote the design andconstruction of buildings that areenvironmentally responsible,profitable, and healthy places to liveand work.The organization’s activities… Integrate building industry sectors Lead market transformation Educate owners and practitioners
USGBC is... A national nonprofit organization A diverse membership of organizations Consensus-driven Committee-based product development Developer and administrator of the LEED® Green Building Rating System
What is “Green” Design?Design and construction practices thatsignificantly reduce or eliminate the negativeimpact of buildings on the environment andoccupants in five broad areas: Sustainable site planning Safeguarding water and water efficiency Energy efficiency and renewable energy Conservation of materials and resources Indoor environmental quality
®Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design A leading-edge system for designing, constructing, operating and certifying the world’s greenest buildings.
®Why Was LEED Created? Use as a design guideline Recognize leaders Stimulate green competition Establish market value with recognizable national “brand” Raise consumer awareness Transform the marketplace!
® Why Was LEED Created? Facilitate positive results for the environment, occupant health and financial return Define “green” by providing a standard for measurement Prevent “greenwashing” (false or exaggerated claims) Promote whole-building, integrated design processes
LEED-NC® Market Transformation Registered Projects by State - Top 10 35000000 30000000 Gross Square Feet-GSF) 25000000 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 306 107 102 100 90 76 73 68 68 62 CA PA WA NY OR TX MA IL MI VA State and Number of ProjectsAs of 05.02.05 All statistics exclude pilot projects
LEED-NC® Market Transformation Registered Projects by State - Top 10 Where does the Southeast stand? Georgia – 62 South Carolina - 56 North Carolina – 42
LEED-NC® Point Distribution Five LEED credit categories Indoor Environmental Quality Sustainable 23% Sites 22% Materials & Resources Water 20% Efficiency Energy & 8% Atmosphere 27%
Resources www.usgbc.org – US Green Building Council www.usgbc.org/Resources/links.asp - Extensive Resource List www.greenerbuildings.com The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design WWW.Oikos.com - bookstore www.iso.org – ISO 14001 EMS www.epa.gov/ems/index.htm - EPA’s EMS site www.doe.gov – US DOE www.epa.gov – US EPA www.housing.sc.edu/westquadhandbook.asp - West Quad Handbook www.sc.edu/sustainableu - Sustainable Universities Initiative (SUI) www.buildinggreen.com – Environmental Building News www.edcmag.com – Environmental Design & Construction www.gbapgh.org – Green Building Alliance www.southface.org/web/earthcraft_house/ech_main/ech_index.htm - Earth Craft Homes www.greenglobes.com – Green Globes
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