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  1. 1. WELCOM E 1
  2. 2. Ensuring Quality in civil Construction Presented by : AKASH MANDAL 10/FET/C(S)/2006 99999-2-4321. Under the guidance of ER. AKASH CIVIL ENGINEER 2
  3. 3. Definition of Quality Quality means excellence. It is thus a philosophy rather than a mere attribute. The difference between two objects is judged by their qualities. We set some standards which determine the level of acceptability. 3
  4. 4. Quality control:- Quality control means rational use of resources.  Quality control procedures implement:-  appropriate mixing,  proper compaction,  correct placement and  adequate curing. Quality control prevents temptation of over design. 4
  5. 5. Quality Controls----- Quality control ensures:- strict monitoring of every stage of concrete production and rectification of faults. Quality control reduces maintenance costs. 5
  6. 6. Plan, Do, Check and Act cycle for assuring quality Plan :-quality Do :- Working systematically Check:- checking with non conformance Act :-Upon the result 6
  7. 7. Knowing the 20 No mistakes occurr during construction phase ( for planning purpose )The cement sand mix in the mortar and brickmasonry is made quite early, prior to its use and in larger quantities than required. The construction materials like sand, bricks, Aggregate etc are not washed and are full of deleterious material and dust. 7
  8. 8. construction mistakesCompaction of bottom strata in foundation work is not carried out.During concreting of footing, the concrete is poured at a height greater than 1m.Generally, trapezoidal footings are resorted to where concrete is never vibrated. 8
  9. 9. construction mistakes Reinforced concrete column, being an important part of the structure are neither mechanically vibrated nor machine mixed. They are cast in short lifts with increased number of joints. Cover to reinforcement in column, beams and slabs is insufficient. 9
  10. 10. construction mistakes No cover to reinforcement in contact of the ground Misalignment of column at foundation level and rectification at higher level, leading to eccentric loading. Reinforced coping at plinth level being an important barrier to dampness is never densely cast. 10
  11. 11. construction mistakes The plinth filling is never carried out in layers nor compacted. At the joints of Reinforced concrete and brick masonry, either :- the RC surface is not roughned or filling of mortar at the joint is not evident. 11
  12. 12. construction mistakes The joint of brick masonry at larger height are improperly racked. Mixing ratio in plaster and brick masonry is not maintained. 12
  13. 13. construction mistakes In the case where beams are cast prior to slabs : In large slabs, the concrete in beams starts setting before casting of RC slab. The concrete spilled on the sides of beams while casting is never removed which gets set subsequently 13
  14. 14. construction mistakes Reinforcement of RC column is kept exposed above RC slab. Hacking to concrete surface is poorly done prior to Plastering. Bearing to lintels on both the ends is not sufficient. 14
  15. 15. construction mistakesIn load bearing structure ,secondary beams are resting directly on the walls giving point loading.Proper care for uplift pressure in black cotton soil is not taken in by proving with ground beam Combined footing 15
  16. 16. Result of mistakes.The above 20 no construction mistakes may resultinCracks in concrete.Improper bonding between concrete andbrick masonry.Spillage of plaster.Dampness of walls.Leakage of slabs.Cracks in brick masonry.Settlement of foundation and walls. 16
  17. 17. Causes of mistakesCauses for poor quality can be summarized as ignorance, poor materials, poor design, poor detailing, poor workmanship, improper quantity of cement, improper concrete mix, excess water, inadequatecompaction, substandard forms, inadequatecuring, inadequate cover, poor construction practices, poor supervision and above all lack of technical knowledge. 17
  18. 18. Description of Frquency of Applicable % frequencydeficiency occurrence application occurrenceInadequatesuspended 6 13 46%reinf conc beamdepthmissing columnreinf 1 17 6%retaining wallreinf on wrongside of wall 11 1 100%inadequatecantilever reinfanchorage 1 1 100% 19
  19. 19. Effectiveness of the Existing system in quality vulnerability reduction Entity CommentsBlock Development Officer Check only the progress Assistant Engineer Monitor progress,Check quality,encourage public participation JE Estimate,Execute,Check only during his presence Executive Officer Does not Check quality Executant only interested in profit as 10%, profit is not in estimate Sanjojaka Cant be believed,not accountable 20
  20. 20. Relation between Quality and CostWith theincrease ofquality ofdesign, costincrease isexponential butvalue additioninitiallyincreases, butstarts saturatingat of some point.Hence theoptimum cost isarrived whenslope of both thecurves is same . 21
  21. 21. Economics of Quality of Conformance One can notethat with theincrease ofquality ofconstruction,cost of qualitycontrol getssaturated.Thus we canarrive atoptimumquality forminimum costfrom total costof theconstruction. 22
  22. 22. CONCLUSIONS:100% quality in PR Deptt. can not becontrolled it can only be managed by :-Immediate Execution of the workUse of machinery and technologyExperienced quality engineerDistributing quality manuals to thepeopleMore no. of supervision to the site 23